Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi

What is Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi known for?


heavy fighting

''Văcăroiu, un funcţionar de la Comitetul Planificării comuniste, schimbă destinul României'' (Văcăroiu, A Clerk of the Communist Committee of State Planning, Changes the Destiny of Romania, in Evenimentul Zilei, 20 April 2007 DATE OF BIRTH 5 December 1943 PLACE OF BIRTH Cetatea Albă (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Soviet Union (now Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH '''Kosivka''' (Ukrainian: '''Косівка''', Russian: '''Косовка''') — a village in Ukraine of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion (sub-region) of Odessa Oblast (region). Population of the village is 258 people. Kosivka is connected to Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Shabo (Shabo (Odessa Oblast)), Serhiivka and other towns and villages by the bus


324

was returned ownership of Brăila, Giurgiu (both of which soon developed into major trading cities on the Danube), and Turnu Măgurele. Giurescu, p.122, 127 The treaty also allowed Moldavia and Wallachia to freely trade with countries other than the Ottoman Empire, which signalled substantial economic and urban growth, as well as improving the peasant situation. Djuvara, p.262, 324; Giurescu, p.127, 266 Many of the provisions had been

), as well as major urban works in Bucharest and other cities. Djuvara, p.323–324; Giurescu, p.122–127 In 1834, Wallachia's throne was occupied by Alexandru II Ghica—a move in contradiction with the Adrianople treaty, as he had not been elected by the new Legislative Assembly (Sfatul boieresc); removed by the suzerains in 1842, he was replaced with an elected prince, Gheorghe Bibescu. Djuvara, p.325 In Ukraine *Dniester Dnister


quot small

Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in 1485 on the left bank of the river Maritsa, near the market of the region, an important crossroad at the middle of this productive region, and named '''Tatar Pazardzhik''' (Tatar (Tatar language): ''Tatar Pazardjik'', "small Tatar market"). Thanks to this favourable location, the settlement quickly developed. While it was very small at the beginning of the 19th century, it became the administrative centre for the region at the end of the century and remained


biography quot

at the Committee for State Planning, together with Theodor Stolojan. ''Văcăroiu, un funcţionar de la Comitetul Planificării comuniste, schimbă destinul României'' (Văcăroiu, A Clerk of the Communist Committee of State Planning, Changes the Destiny of Romania, in Evenimentul Zilei, 20 April 2007 DATE OF BIRTH 5 December 1943 PLACE OF BIRTH Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi


Rostislav

'' without effect before Souchon ordered the Turkish ships to disengage shortly afterward. McLaughlin, pp. 123–133 The cruiser spent the rest of the month escorting shipping to Trebizond. On 5 December, she escorted a small raiding party to Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Bessarabia, that was intended to attack railroad


rock quot

; or "white rock" in a number of languages including Белгород Днестровски (''Belgorod-Dnestrovski'') in Bulgarian (Bulgarian language), ''Akerman'' (Акерман) in Gagauz (Gagauz language), ''Białogród nad Dniestrem'' in Polish (Polish language), and ''Dnyeszterfehérvár'' in Hungarian (Hungarian language). In Western European languages, including English, the city has typically been known by the official name of the time or a transliteration derived from it. History thumb 300x300px Ancient Greek colonies on the northern coast of the Black Sea (File:Greek colonies of the Northern Euxine Sea (Black Sea).svg), 8th to 3rd century BCE In the 6th century BC, Milesian (Milesians (Greek)) colonists founded a settlement named Tyras on the future location of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, which later came under Roman (Roman Empire) and Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) rule. In Late Antiquity, the Byzantines built a fortress and named it ''Asprokastron'' ("White Castle" - a meaning kept in several languages), but it passed out of their control in the 7th 9th centuries. The ''Voskresensk Chronicle'' lists Bilhorod "at the mouth of the Dniester, above the sea" among the towns controlled by Kievan Rus. In the 13th century the site was controlled by the Cumans, and became a center of Genoese (Republic of Genoa) commercial activity from ca. 1290 on. Briefly held by the Second Bulgarian Empire in the early 14th century, by the middle of the century it was a Genoese colony. Sfântul Ioan cel Nou (''Saint John the New''), the patron saint of Moldavia, was martyred in the city in 1330 during a Tatar (Nogais) incursion. In 1391, Cetatea Albă was the last city on the right bank of the Dnister to be incorporated into the newly established Principality of Moldavia (Moldavia), and for the next century was its second major city, the major port and an important fortress. In 1420, the citadel was attacked for the first time by the Ottomans (Ottoman Empire), but defended successfully by Moldavian Prince (List of rulers of Moldavia) Alexander the Kind (Alexandru cel Bun). In the 15th century, the port saw much commercial traffic as well as being frequently used for passenger traffic between central Europe and Constantinople. Among the travellers who passed through the town was John VIII Palaiologos. Following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II brought in colonists from Asprokastron to repopulate the city. In 1485, along with Kilia (Kilia, Ukraine), it was the last of the Black Sea ports to be conquered by the Ottomans. The Moldavian prince Stephen the Great (Stephen III of Moldavia) was unable to aid in its defence, being under threat of a Polish (Poland) invasion. The citadel surrendered when the Ottomans claimed to have reached an agreement with Prince Stephen, and promised safe passage to the inhabitants and their belongings; however, most of the city-dwellers were slaughtered. Later, attempts by Stephen the Great to restore his rule over the area were unsuccessful. Cetatea Albă was subsequently a base from which the Ottomans were able to attack Moldavia proper. In 1485, Tatars setting out from this city founded Pazardzhik in Bulgaria. It was established as the fortress of ''Akkerman'', part of the Ottoman defensive system against Poland-Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and, later, the Russian Empire. Major battles between the Ottomans and the Russians were fought near Akkerman in 1770 and 1789. Russia conquered the town in 1770, 1774, and 1806, but returned it after the conclusion of hostilities. It was not incorporated into Russia until 1812, along with the rest of Bessarabia. On 25 September 1826, Russia and the Ottomans signed here the ''Akkerman Convention (Convention of Akkerman)'' which imposed that the hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia be elected by their respective Divans (Sfatul boieresc) for seven-year terms, with the approval of both Powers. During the Russian Revolution, Akkerman was alternatively under the control of the Ukrainian People's Republic and troops loyal to the government of Soviet Russia. Furthermore, the city and the surrounding district were also claimed by the Moldovan Democratic Republic, which however had no means to enforce such claims on the ground. The city was occupied by the Romanian Army on 9 March 1918, after heavy fighting with local troops led by the Bolsheviks. Formal integration followed later that month, when an assembly of the Moldovan Democratic Republic proclaimed the whole of Bessarabia united with Romania (Union of Bessarabia with Romania). In the interwar period, projects aimed to expand the city and the port were reviewed. Romania ceded the city to the Soviet Union on 28 June 1940 following the 1940 Soviet Ultimatum (Soviet occupation of Bessarabia), but regained it on 28 July 1941 during the invasion of the USSR (Operation Barbarossa) by the Axis forces in the course of the Second World War and had it within its boundaries until 22 August 1944 when the Red Army occupied the city once again. The Soviets partitioned Bessarabia, and its southern flanks (including Bilhorod) became part of the Ukrainian SSR, and after 1991, modern Ukraine. According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, the majority of the city's population are Ukrainians (63%). Other important communities include Russians (28%), Bulgarians (3.7%) and Moldovans (1.9%). The language situation is notably different, with Russian (Russian language)-speakers representing a majority (54%), followed by speakers of Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) (42%), Bulgarian (Bulgarian language) (1.6%) and Moldovan (Moldovan language) (1.3%). Jewish history In Jewish sources, the city is referred as Weissenburg and Ir Lavan (both meaning "white city"). Karaite (Karaite Judaism) Jews lived there since the 16th century, some even claim the existence of khazars Jews in town as early as the 10th century. In 1897, 5,613 Jews lived in the city (19.9% of the total population). The town Jewish community was influenced mainly from the Jewish community of nearby Odessa. During a pogrom in 1905, eight Jews living in the city were killed. During World War 2, most of the Jews living in the city fled to nearby Odessa, where they were later killed. The 800 Jews who were left in the city were shot to death in the nearby Leman river. http: go.galegroup.com ps retrieve.do?sgHitCountType None&sort RELEVANCE&inPS true&prodId GVRL&userGroupName imcpl1111&tabID T003&searchId R11&resultListType RESULT_LIST&contentSegment &searchType BasicSearchForm&currentPosition 1&contentSet GALE%7CCX2587502349&&docId GALE CX2587502349&docType GALE Around 500 of the prewar town Jews survived the war, and around half of them returned to the city. Demographics As of 1920, the population was estimated at 35,000. 8,000 were Romanian (Romanian people), 8,000 were Jewish (Jewish people), and 5,000 were German (German people). Additional populations included Turks, Greeks (Greek people), Bulgarians (Bulgarian people) and Russians (Russian people). Government Serving as the administrative center of the Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion (district (Raion)), Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi itself is a city of oblast subordinance (Administrative divisions of Ukraine), thus being subject directly to the ''oblast'' authorities rather to the ''raion'' administration housed in the city itself. The city also administers two towns Serhiyivka and Zatoka (Zatoka, Odessa Oblast). Climate Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi has an oceanic climate (Köppen (Köppen climate classification): ''Cfb''). Radu managed to convince the Wallachians that paying the Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and having him as their leader would be in their best interest. Vlad Ţepeş was abandoned and fled to Transylvania, where he was imprisoned by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).


quot white

. ;Previous names * '''Ophiusa''' (Οφιούσα), Phoenician colony * '''Tyras''' (Τύρας), Ancient Greek (Ancient Greece) (Classical Greece) colony (also the Greek (Ancient Greece) name for the River Dniester) * '''Album Castrum''' ("White Castle"), Latin (Roman Empire) name * '''Cetatea Albă''' ("White Citadel"), Romanian (Romanian people) name * '''Asprokastron''' ( , "White Castle"), Greek (Greek language) name

under Stephen the Great (Stephen III of Moldavia). From 1503 to 1918 and 1940 to 1941, the city was known as '''Akkerman''' ( From 1918 to 1944

(with a short brief in 1940–1941), the city was known by its Romanian (Romanian language) name of '''Cetatea Albă''', literally "white citadel". Since 1944 the city is known as '''Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi''' (Білгород-Дністровський), while on the Soviet geography maps often translated into its Russian (Russian language) equivalent of '''Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy''' (Бе́лгород-Днестро́вский), literally "white city on the Dniester". The city is known by translations of "white city" or "white rock" in a number of languages including Белгород Днестровски (''Belgorod-Dnestrovski'') in Bulgarian (Bulgarian language), ''Akerman'' (Акерман) in Gagauz (Gagauz language), ''Białogród nad Dniestrem'' in Polish (Polish language), and ''Dnyeszterfehérvár'' in Hungarian (Hungarian language). In Western European languages, including English, the city has typically been known by the official name of the time or a transliteration derived from it. History thumb 300x300px Ancient Greek colonies on the northern coast of the Black Sea (File:Greek colonies of the Northern Euxine Sea (Black Sea).svg), 8th to 3rd century BCE In the 6th century BC, Milesian (Milesians (Greek)) colonists founded a settlement named Tyras on the future location of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, which later came under Roman (Roman Empire) and Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) rule. In Late Antiquity, the Byzantines built a fortress and named it ''Asprokastron'' ("White Castle" - a meaning kept in several languages), but it passed out of their control in the 7th 9th centuries. The ''Voskresensk Chronicle'' lists Bilhorod "at the mouth of the Dniester, above the sea" among the towns controlled by Kievan Rus. In the 13th century the site was controlled by the Cumans, and became a center of Genoese (Republic of Genoa) commercial activity from ca. 1290 on. Briefly held by the Second Bulgarian Empire in the early 14th century, by the middle of the century it was a Genoese colony. Sfântul Ioan cel Nou (''Saint John the New''), the patron saint of Moldavia, was martyred in the city in 1330 during a Tatar (Nogais) incursion. In 1391, Cetatea Albă was the last city on the right bank of the Dnister to be incorporated into the newly established Principality of Moldavia (Moldavia), and for the next century was its second major city, the major port and an important fortress. In 1420, the citadel was attacked for the first time by the Ottomans (Ottoman Empire), but defended successfully by Moldavian Prince (List of rulers of Moldavia) Alexander the Kind (Alexandru cel Bun). In the 15th century, the port saw much commercial traffic as well as being frequently used for passenger traffic between central Europe and Constantinople. Among the travellers who passed through the town was John VIII Palaiologos. Following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II brought in colonists from Asprokastron to repopulate the city. In 1485, along with Kilia (Kilia, Ukraine), it was the last of the Black Sea ports to be conquered by the Ottomans. The Moldavian prince Stephen the Great (Stephen III of Moldavia) was unable to aid in its defence, being under threat of a Polish (Poland) invasion. The citadel surrendered when the Ottomans claimed to have reached an agreement with Prince Stephen, and promised safe passage to the inhabitants and their belongings; however, most of the city-dwellers were slaughtered. Later, attempts by Stephen the Great to restore his rule over the area were unsuccessful. Cetatea Albă was subsequently a base from which the Ottomans were able to attack Moldavia proper. In 1485, Tatars setting out from this city founded Pazardzhik in Bulgaria. It was established as the fortress of ''Akkerman'', part of the Ottoman defensive system against Poland-Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and, later, the Russian Empire. Major battles between the Ottomans and the Russians were fought near Akkerman in 1770 and 1789. Russia conquered the town in 1770, 1774, and 1806, but returned it after the conclusion of hostilities. It was not incorporated into Russia until 1812, along with the rest of Bessarabia. On 25 September 1826, Russia and the Ottomans signed here the ''Akkerman Convention (Convention of Akkerman)'' which imposed that the hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia be elected by their respective Divans (Sfatul boieresc) for seven-year terms, with the approval of both Powers. During the Russian Revolution, Akkerman was alternatively under the control of the Ukrainian People's Republic and troops loyal to the government of Soviet Russia. Furthermore, the city and the surrounding district were also claimed by the Moldovan Democratic Republic, which however had no means to enforce such claims on the ground. The city was occupied by the Romanian Army on 9 March 1918, after heavy fighting with local troops led by the Bolsheviks. Formal integration followed later that month, when an assembly of the Moldovan Democratic Republic proclaimed the whole of Bessarabia united with Romania (Union of Bessarabia with Romania). In the interwar period, projects aimed to expand the city and the port were reviewed. Romania ceded the city to the Soviet Union on 28 June 1940 following the 1940 Soviet Ultimatum (Soviet occupation of Bessarabia), but regained it on 28 July 1941 during the invasion of the USSR (Operation Barbarossa) by the Axis forces in the course of the Second World War and had it within its boundaries until 22 August 1944 when the Red Army occupied the city once again. The Soviets partitioned Bessarabia, and its southern flanks (including Bilhorod) became part of the Ukrainian SSR, and after 1991, modern Ukraine. According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, the majority of the city's population are Ukrainians (63%). Other important communities include Russians (28%), Bulgarians (3.7%) and Moldovans (1.9%). The language situation is notably different, with Russian (Russian language)-speakers representing a majority (54%), followed by speakers of Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) (42%), Bulgarian (Bulgarian language) (1.6%) and Moldovan (Moldovan language) (1.3%). Jewish history In Jewish sources, the city is referred as Weissenburg and Ir Lavan (both meaning "white city"). Karaite (Karaite Judaism) Jews lived there since the 16th century, some even claim the existence of khazars Jews in town as early as the 10th century. In 1897, 5,613 Jews lived in the city (19.9% of the total population). The town Jewish community was influenced mainly from the Jewish community of nearby Odessa. During a pogrom in 1905, eight Jews living in the city were killed. During World War 2, most of the Jews living in the city fled to nearby Odessa, where they were later killed. The 800 Jews who were left in the city were shot to death in the nearby Leman river. http: go.galegroup.com ps retrieve.do?sgHitCountType None&sort RELEVANCE&inPS true&prodId GVRL&userGroupName imcpl1111&tabID T003&searchId R11&resultListType RESULT_LIST&contentSegment &searchType BasicSearchForm&currentPosition 1&contentSet GALE%7CCX2587502349&&docId GALE CX2587502349&docType GALE Around 500 of the prewar town Jews survived the war, and around half of them returned to the city. Demographics As of 1920, the population was estimated at 35,000. 8,000 were Romanian (Romanian people), 8,000 were Jewish (Jewish people), and 5,000 were German (German people). Additional populations included Turks, Greeks (Greek people), Bulgarians (Bulgarian people) and Russians (Russian people). Government Serving as the administrative center of the Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion (district (Raion)), Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi itself is a city of oblast subordinance (Administrative divisions of Ukraine), thus being subject directly to the ''oblast'' authorities rather to the ''raion'' administration housed in the city itself. The city also administers two towns Serhiyivka and Zatoka (Zatoka, Odessa Oblast). Climate Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi has an oceanic climate (Köppen (Köppen climate classification): ''Cfb''). Radu managed to convince the Wallachians that paying the Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and having him as their leader would be in their best interest. Vlad Ţepeş was abandoned and fled to Transylvania, where he was imprisoned by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).


years based

by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).


short range

on Turkish shipping. Halpern, p. 224 On 17 November, she sortied with ''Yavuz Sultan Selim'', under the command of Souchon, in an attempt to intercept the Black Sea Fleet as it returned from bombarding Trebizond (Trabzon). ''Midilli'' discovered the Russian ships off Cape Sarych, the southern tip of the Crimea in poor visibility at short range. In the resulting engagement (Battle of Cape Sarych), Souchon ordered ''Midilli'' to assume a safer position to ''Yavuz'' Radu managed to convince the Wallachians that paying the Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and having him as their leader would be in their best interest. Vlad Ţepeş was abandoned and fled to Transylvania, where he was imprisoned by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).


defensive+stone

- right thumb Limestone wall at Royal Military College of Canada (Image:Royal Military College of Canada fence.jpg) right thumb Defensive stone wall and moat in Fortress of Akkerman in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Image:Belgorod ua.jpg), Ukraine '''Stone walls''' are a kind of masonry construction which have been made for thousands of years. First they were constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling loose field stones in what is called a dry stone wall, then later with the use of mortar (Mortar (masonry)) and plaster especially in the construction of city walls, castles, and other fortifications prior to and during the Middle Ages. The comparatively small Russian army assaulted the Ottomans and put them to flight. The Russian casualties were 1,000, while casualties on the Ottoman side amounted to over 20,000 soldiers killed and wounded. In the wake of this victory, the Russians captured 130 Ottoman cannons and overran all major fortresses in the region - İşmasıl (Izmail) (now Izmail), Kilya (Kilia, Ukraine) (now Kilia), Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Ibrail (Brăila) (now Brăila), Isaccea, and Bender (Bendery). Radu managed to convince the Wallachians that paying the Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and having him as their leader would be in their best interest. Vlad Ţepeş was abandoned and fled to Transylvania, where he was imprisoned by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).

Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi

'''Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi''' ( ), formerly known as '''Akkerman''' (see naming section below), is a regional city and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea ) in the Odessa Oblast (province (Oblast)) of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Bessarabia. The city serves as an administrative center of the Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Raion and a big freight seaport (Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Seaport).

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