with even greater solemnity than in early times, and were often accompanied by luxurious secular feasting after the church services (drinking, singing and eating) which was frequently condemned in some sermons of the time, on account of abuses. When such a large number of feasts was annually observed, it was to be expected that a list or calendar would be drawn up, and, in truth, a calendar was drawn up for the use of the Church of Carthage in the beginning of the 6th century, from which
at the forefront, enhancing their presence in the territories. Local leadership came from groups and organizations affiliated with the PLO that operated within the Occupied Territories; Fatah, the Popular Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), the Democratic Front (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine) and the Palestine Communist Party. Lockman; Beinin (1989) (#LockmanBeinin1989), p. http
: books.google.com books?id KYPVNdzXUJkC&pg PA39 39. The PLO's rivals in this activity were the Islamic organizations, Hamas and Islamic Jihad (Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine) as well as local leadership in cities such as Beit Sahour and Bethlehem. However, the uprising was predominantly led by community councils led by Hanan Ashrawi, Faisal Husseini and Haidar Abdel-Shafi, that promoted independent networks for education (underground schools as the regular
in a Letter dated 30 November 1992. See also Tolan, p.258. On the Franciscan presence, including an historical overview, see, generally the official website at ''Custodia'' and Custodian of the Holy Land For the first time since the end of the British Mandate, Jews could visit the Old City (Jerusalem) Old City
of Judea (PrJ 8.3; 17:1) and all events take place in and around the southern town. PrJ does not once mention Galilee, nor "Nazareth." (b) The earliest reference to Nazareth outside the Christian gospels, by Sextus Julius Africanus (c. 200 AD), speaks of “Nazara” as a village in "Judea" and locates it near an as-yet unidentified “Cochaba.” (c) A fourth century work known as the ''History of Joseph the Carpenter'' knows a southern location for Nazareth. It locates "Nazareth," the home of Joseph, ''within walking distance'' of the Jerusalem Temple. In total, an estimated 600,000 Palestinians are thought to reside in the Americas. Palestinian emigration to South America began for economic reasons that pre-dated the Arab-Israeli conflict, but continued to grow thereafter. Farsoun, 2004, p. 84. Many emigrants were from the Bethlehem area. Those emigrating to Latin America were mainly Christian. Half of those of Palestinian origin in Latin America live in Chile (Palestinians in Chile). WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
of Bethlehem's major tourist attractions and a magnet for Christian pilgrims. It stands in the center of the city — a part of the Manger Square — over a grotto or cave called the Holy Crypt, where Jesus supposedly was born. Nearby is the Milk Grotto where the Holy Family took refuge on their Flight to Egypt and next door is the cave where St. Jerome (St Jerome) spent thirty years creating the Vulgate, the dominant Latin version of the Bible until the Reformation. ref name "BMH
is administered by the Israel Nature & National Parks Protection Authority bus station''' is also a great starting point to '''get to other cities in the Palestinian territories'''. Located at the bottom floor of the bus station are numerous "Serveeces" (Palestinian Sheruts) that drive to cities such as Hebron , Ramallah and Jericho. '''Battir''' — a settlement
tollfree fax hours price $40 night checkin checkout content The Star Hotel enjoys a unique Location in Bethlehem apart from being the highest point in Bethlehem, yet it is in the centre near to the shopping Area offering an ideal choice for pilgrims and Tourists alike. The Church of Nativity is six minutes walk through the old bazaars. *
Authority * WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
PA31&lpg PA31&dq Epiphany+Latvia#v onepage&q Epiphany%20Latvia&f false title Latvia isbn 9781841622019 author1 Baister first1 Stephen last2 Patrick first2 Chris date 2007-11-01 postscript . In the past bright stars of fabric were sewn onto the background of dark colored quilts, representing the night sky. Epiphany was a day of enjoyment, spent in horse-drawn open sleighs, and these quilts would then be taken along to cover the laps of the merry riders. WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
) The '''Israeli West Bank barrier''' is a separation barrier (''see "Names of the barrier (Israeli West Bank barrier#Names_of_the_barrier)"'') being constructed by the State of Israel along and within the West Bank. Upon completion, the barrier’s total length will be approximately . The barrier is a ''fence'' with vehicle-barrier trenches
'''Bethlehem''' ( ) is a Palestinian (State of Palestine) city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people. Amara, 1999, p. 18. Brynen, 2000, p. 202. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven (Tourism in the Palestinian territories). url http: www.nytimes.com 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html title In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably - New York Times accessdate 2008-01-22 work The New York Times first1 David last1 Kaufman first2 Marisa S. last2 Katz date 2006-04-16 archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20130615222743 http: www.nytimes.com 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html archivedate 2013-06-15
It is thought the original name was Beit Lachama, from the Canaanite god Lachama. The earliest mention of the city is in the Amarna correspondence (Amarna tablets) c.1350-1330 BCE as "Bit-Lahmi". The Hebrew Bible identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)). The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. The city is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world , although the size of the community has shrunk due to emigration. Bethlehem was destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian during the second-century Bar Kokhba revolt; its rebuilding was promoted by the Empress Helena (Helena (Empress)), mother of Constantine the Great, who commissioned the building of its great Church of the Nativity in 327 CE. The Church (Church of the Nativity) was badly damaged by the Samaritans, who sacked it during the Samaritan Revolt in 529, but was rebuilt a century later by the emperor Justinian I, in very much its present form.
Bethlehem was seized by the Arab Caliphate (Rashidun) of 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb (Umar) during the Arab conquest in 637, seized again by Egypt and then the Seljuks, and, in 1099, by Crusaders, who replaced its Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church) clergy with a Latin (Catholic Church) one. In the mid-13th century, invading Mamluks (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) demolished the city's walls, which were subsequently rebuilt in the early 16th century, after Bethlehem became part of the Ottoman Empire. url http: www.bethlehem-city.org English City index.php archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20080113150138 http: www.bethlehem-city.org English City index.php archivedate 2008-01-13 title History and Mithology of Bethlehem publisher Bethlehem Municipality accessdate 2008-01-22
Control of Bethlehem passed from the Ottoman Empire to the British Empire at the end of World War I. Pursuant to the proposed United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine of November 1947, Bethlehem was to be included in an international zone (Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)), controlled by Britain. The Arab League states rejected the Partition Plan, and launched the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to prevent the creation of a Jewish state. During the war Jordan forcibly seized Bethlehem and occupied (Jordanian occupation of the West Bank) it - Jordan claimed to annex the west bank territories in 1950, though this was only ever formally recognized by Britain. Bethlehem was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and since 1995 - per the Oslo Accords (West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord) - Bethlehem has been governed by the Palestinian National Authority.
Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is also home to one of the largest Palestinian Christian (Palestinian Christians) communities. Originally, Bethlehem was a lodging point for Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem during the three holiest days of the Jewish year. Bethlehem's chief economic sector (economy) is tourism which peaks during the Christmas season when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity, as they have done for almost two millennia. Bethlehem has over thirty hotels and three hundred handicraft workshops. url http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm first Martin last Patience work BBC News title Better times return to Bethlehem publisher BBC date 2007-12-22 accessdate 2008-01-22 archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20140106191329 http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm archivedate 2014-01-06 Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem.