Beirut

What is Beirut known for?


growing opposition

, but Lebanese resentment of Israeli occupation grew over time and the Shia (Shiite) became gradually radicalized (Musa al-Sadr) under Iranian guidance. Do Good Fences Make Good Neighbors?: Israel and Lebanon after the Withdrawal – Laura Zittrain Eisenberg – ''Middle East Review of International Affairs'' September 2000 http: meria.idc.ac.il journal 2000 issue3 jv4n3a2.html Constant casualties among Israeli soldiers and Lebanese civilians led to growing opposition to the war in Israel.


association news

-afc.com en member-association-news central-a-south-asia-news 6639 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign Lebanon were seeded into the first round (2010 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC First Round) of qualifiers were they faced India (India national football team) in a bid to qualify directly for the third round (2010 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Third Round) of qualifiers. On 8 October 2007 Lebanon hosted India in Saida (Saida, Lebanon). After a 30 minute goal from India's Sunil Chhetri, goals from Roda Antar, Mahmoud El Ali and two from Mohammed Ghaddar helped Lebanon to a 4–1 win. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250425 match 300033467 report.html Ghaddar would score another two goals in the return-leg as both sides drew 2–2 in Goa on 30 October. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250425 match 300033484 report.html Lebanon won 6–3 on aggregate and advanced to the third round. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminarydraw news newsid 626051 index.html The campaign saw the absence of defender Youssef Mohamad who reportedly had a disagreement with Lebanon's assistant coach Adnan Meckdache where he had intensely criticized the Lebanese Football Federation (Federation Libanaise de Football) and the national team coach. He was suspended by the Football Federation and would be allowed to return on the condition that he would apologize to the Lebanese F.A and its national team coach for the critical stance. Lebanon were then grouped with Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia national football team), Singapore (Singapore national football team) and Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan national football team). On 6 February 2008 Lebanon were defeated 1–0 by Uzbekistan in Beirut as Uzbek striker Odil Ahmedov had put the visitors in front on 44 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036561 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 news newsid 680811 index.html Lebanon then went on to lose 2–0 to Singapore on 26 March and 4–1 to Saudi Arabia in Riyadh on 2 June, having been 1–0 in front after Mahmoud El Ali scored on 43 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036560 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036557 report.html Lebanon's following fixture with Saudi Arabia was moved from Beirut to Riyadh where on 7 June Saudi Arabia would narrowly win 2–1 with two goals in each half from Saudi striker Redha Tukar before Mohammed Ghaddar grabbed a consolation goal on 93 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036555 report.html Having been already eliminated from the third-round, Lebanon were defeated 3–0 by Uzbekistan in Tashkent on 14 June. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036553 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 news newsid 802499 index.html On 22 June at Beirut's Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium Lebanon took a 1–0 lead when Singapore defender (Defender (association football)) Baihakki Khaizan netted an Own goal. Lebanon's Ramez Dayoub scored an own goal at the other end on 72 minutes before John Wilkinson (John Wilkinson (Singaporean footballer)) gave the visitors a 2–1 victory. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036551 report.html 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign Lebanon were seeded into the first round (2010 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC First Round) of qualifiers were they faced India (India national football team) in a bid to qualify directly for the third round (2010 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Third Round) of qualifiers. On 8 October 2007 Lebanon hosted India in Saida (Saida, Lebanon). After a 30 minute goal from India's Sunil Chhetri, goals from Roda Antar, Mahmoud El Ali and two from Mohammed Ghaddar helped Lebanon to a 4–1 win. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250425 match 300033467 report.html Ghaddar would score another two goals in the return-leg as both sides drew 2–2 in Goa on 30 October. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250425 match 300033484 report.html Lebanon won 6–3 on aggregate and advanced to the third round. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminarydraw news newsid 626051 index.html The campaign saw the absence of defender Youssef Mohamad who reportedly had a disagreement with Lebanon's assistant coach Adnan Meckdache where he had intensely criticized the Lebanese Football Federation (Federation Libanaise de Football) and the national team coach. He was suspended by the Football Federation and would be allowed to return on the condition that he would apologize to the Lebanese F.A and its national team coach for the critical stance. Lebanon were then grouped with Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia national football team), Singapore (Singapore national football team) and Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan national football team). On 6 February 2008 Lebanon were defeated 1–0 by Uzbekistan in Beirut as Uzbek striker Odil Ahmedov had put the visitors in front on 44 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036561 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 news newsid 680811 index.html Lebanon then went on to lose 2–0 to Singapore on 26 March and 4–1 to Saudi Arabia in Riyadh on 2 June, having been 1–0 in front after Mahmoud El Ali scored on 43 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036560 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036557 report.html Lebanon's following fixture with Saudi Arabia was moved from Beirut to Riyadh where on 7 June Saudi Arabia would narrowly win 2–1 with two goals in each half from Saudi striker Redha Tukar before Mohammed Ghaddar grabbed a consolation goal on 93 minutes. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036555 report.html Having been already eliminated from the third-round, Lebanon were defeated 3–0 by Uzbekistan in Tashkent on 14 June. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036553 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 news newsid 802499 index.html On 22 June at Beirut's Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium Lebanon took a 1–0 lead when Singapore defender (Defender (association football)) Baihakki Khaizan netted an Own goal. Lebanon's Ramez Dayoub scored an own goal at the other end on 72 minutes before John Wilkinson (John Wilkinson (Singaporean footballer)) gave the visitors a 2–1 victory. http: www.fifa.com worldcup archive southafrica2010 preliminaries asia matches round 250436 match 300036551 report.html Second Round Under coach Emile Rustom, who was re-appointed as head coach of the national team on 5 May 2011, Lebanon were drawn into the second round (2014 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Second Round) of qualifiers where they faced Bangladesh (Bangladesh national football team). Lebanon defeated Bangladesh 4–0 in Beirut on 23 July before losing 2–0 in Dhaka five days later. http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257787 match 300159162 report.html http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257787 match 300165147 report.html Lebanon advanced to the third round (2014 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Third Round) of qualifiers where they were grouped with South Korea (South Korea national football team), Kuwait (Kuwait national football team) and United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates national football team), just under one week later Emile Rustom resigned as head coach, citing obstacles such as internal administrative problems as the reason for his departure. http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Aug-03 Lebanons-national-football-team-coach-Rustom-resigns.ashx http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries news newsid 1484645 index.html http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Aug-06 A-new-coach-and-a-new-philosophy.ashx#axzz1VTbPSFoq http: sport360.com component content article 102-breaking-news 170421-football-rustom-resigns-as-lebanon-boss Third Round On 8 August 2011 it was reported that Theo Bücker was announced as Lebanon's new head coach. The former national team manager took over the reigns nine years after leaving the position, bringing with him the intention of looking to "showcase Lebanese talent and give a good account of the game in the country." http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries news newsid 1493482 index.html http: sport360.com component content article 94-all-news 173421-buecker-named-new-lebanon-coach Prior to Lebanon's opening fixture against South Korea (South Korea national football team), it was reported by Lebanese website ''sports-leb.com'' that Youssef Mohamad had traveled to Goyang to join the squad for the match and that Roda Antar was to miss the first game of the qualifiers but would be included in the match against the UAE in Beirut on September 6 http: sports.lebanese-forces.com sports MoreNews.aspx?newsid 163459 On match-day-1, three goals from Park Chu-Young saw South Korea defeat Lebanon 6–0 at the Goyang Stadium. http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172532 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 09 02 world wc-qualifying-asia korea-republic lebanon 1177903 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en suedkorea_lebanon index spielbericht_1135451.html Lebanon had rarely threatened and were reduced mainly to speculative attempts from long-distance. Theo Bucker stated that "More than coming here to win, we came to prepare for the next game," indicating that he was more concerned about getting a result against United Arab Emirates and Kuwait in order to progress to the next round. http: www.ctpost.com sports article Park-hat-trick-as-Sth-Korea-thrashes-Lebanon-2152515.php http: www.goal.com en-gb match 64295 south-korea-vs-lebanon report http: msn.foxsports.com foxsoccer worldcup story south-korea-3-0-lebanon-wcq-park-chu-young-hat-trick-ji-dong-won-double-090211 Four days later, Lebanon came back from a goal down to beat the United Arab Emirates 3-1 on September 6. After UAE striker Mahmoud Khamees put the visitors in front after 15 minutes, Lebanon replied with goals from Mohammed Ghaddar, Akram Moghrabi and Roda Antar, who was awarded the man of the match. http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries news newsid 1506328 http: www.khaleejtimes.com sport inside_sport.asp?xfile data football 2011 September football_September37.xml&section cricket http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172545 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 09 06 world wc-qualifying-asia lebanon united-arab-emirates 1177906 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en lebanon_united-arab-emirates index spielbericht_1135462.html Lebanon then hosted Kuwait (Kuwait national football team) in Beirut on 11 October, Hassan Maatouk scored after 15 minutes, giving Lebanon a 1-0 lead until the 50th minute, where Kuwait's Musaed Neda equalized with a header. With six minutes left to go, Kuwait's Hussain Fadel brought down Akram Moghrabi in the penalty area, Maatouk (Hassan Maatouk) scored his second goal after converting the penalty to give Lebanon a 2-1 lead. However, Lebanon's Mahmoud Younes allowed the Kuwaitis to come away with a point after scoring into his own net only two minutes later. After the 2-2 draw, Bucker (Theo Bucker) stated "If we had equalized in the last minute we would be happy". http: latino.foxnews.com latino sports 2011 10 11 lebanon-concedes-late-in-2-2-draw-with-kuwait http: www.the-afc.com en tournaments men-a-youth fifa-world-cup 36743-lebanon-v-kuwait http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172550 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 10 11 world wc-qualifying-asia lebanon kuwait 1177908 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en lebanon_kuwait index spielbericht_1135484.html Approximately 32,000 spectators were present at the Camille Chamoun SC Arena (Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium), for the first time since 2005 when the Lebanese FA had barred fans from entering the stadiums due to bad behaviour. Bad behaviour from the fans, mostly related to playing with fireworks, was again the case against Kuwait as it forced Japanese (Japan) referee Masaaki Toma into stopping the game on numerous occasions. http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Oct-11 151031-lebanon-draws-2-2-with-kuwait.ashx#axzz1aZ4nEXLr Masaaki (Masaaki Toma) was forced to stop the game twice after a supporter shined a laser pen at the Kuwaiti goalkeeper. The halt in play that accumulated to around 10 minutes broke up Lebanon's rhythm where the Lebanese players looked tired after their break and momentum was lost. Masaaki (Masaaki Toma) called in his assistants to suspend play as the stadium's announcer and Lebanon's captain Roda Antar remonstrated with the fans. The game recommenced six minutes later before coming to a halt again, if only for two minutes as officials lambasted one another on the touchline, with nearly 70 minutes on the clock. http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Oct-12 151078-late-own-goal-deprives--lebanon-of-crucial-win.ashx#axzz1aZ4nEXLr Approximately 32,000 spectators were present for the first time since 2005, when the Lebanese F.A. had barred fans from entering the stadiums due to bad behaviour. On 11 November, Lebanon beat Kuwait 1-0 with a goal scored by Mahmoud El Ali at the 57 minutes mark at the Peace and Friendship Stadium in Kuwait. In November 15th, 2011 Lebanon hosted South Korea at the Camille Chamoun SC Arena (Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium) in Beirut. Over 40,000 spectators were present to cheer for the Lebanese national team. After 4 minutes Lebanon took the lead by Ali Al Saadi, 11 minutes later Korea equalized the scoreline by a penalty kick. At the 30 minute of the match Lebanon was given a penalty kick after Mahmoud El Ali was tackled inside the penalty area. Lebanon then took the lead after Abbas Ahmed Atwi perfectly delivered the ball into the net from the penalty spot and giving Lebanon a 2-1 victory for the first time in history against South Korea. On February 29th of 2012, Lebanon suffered a 4-2 loss to the United Arab Emirates in which Mahmoud El Ali and Hassan Maatouk netted for the visitors. Despite the defeat, they made it for the first time in their history to the fourth and final qualifying round. Third Round On 8 August 2011 it was reported that Theo Bücker was announced as Lebanon's new head coach. The former national team manager took over the reigns nine years after leaving the position, bringing with him the intention of looking to "showcase Lebanese talent and give a good account of the game in the country." http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries news newsid 1493482 index.html http: sport360.com component content article 94-all-news 173421-buecker-named-new-lebanon-coach Prior to Lebanon's opening fixture against South Korea (South Korea national football team), it was reported by Lebanese website ''sports-leb.com'' that Youssef Mohamad had traveled to Goyang to join the squad for the match and that Roda Antar was to miss the first game of the qualifiers but would be included in the match against the UAE in Beirut on September 6 http: sports.lebanese-forces.com sports MoreNews.aspx?newsid 163459 On match-day-1, three goals from Park Chu-Young saw South Korea defeat Lebanon 6–0 at the Goyang Stadium. http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172532 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 09 02 world wc-qualifying-asia korea-republic lebanon 1177903 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en suedkorea_lebanon index spielbericht_1135451.html Lebanon had rarely threatened and were reduced mainly to speculative attempts from long-distance. Theo Bucker stated that "More than coming here to win, we came to prepare for the next game," indicating that he was more concerned about getting a result against United Arab Emirates and Kuwait in order to progress to the next round. http: www.ctpost.com sports article Park-hat-trick-as-Sth-Korea-thrashes-Lebanon-2152515.php http: www.goal.com en-gb match 64295 south-korea-vs-lebanon report http: msn.foxsports.com foxsoccer worldcup story south-korea-3-0-lebanon-wcq-park-chu-young-hat-trick-ji-dong-won-double-090211 Four days later, Lebanon came back from a goal down to beat the United Arab Emirates 3-1 on September 6. After UAE striker Mahmoud Khamees put the visitors in front after 15 minutes, Lebanon replied with goals from Mohammed Ghaddar, Akram Moghrabi and Roda Antar, who was awarded the man of the match. http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries news newsid 1506328 http: www.khaleejtimes.com sport inside_sport.asp?xfile data football 2011 September football_September37.xml&section cricket http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172545 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 09 06 world wc-qualifying-asia lebanon united-arab-emirates 1177906 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en lebanon_united-arab-emirates index spielbericht_1135462.html Lebanon then hosted Kuwait (Kuwait national football team) in Beirut on 11 October, Hassan Maatouk scored after 15 minutes, giving Lebanon a 1-0 lead until the 50th minute, where Kuwait's Musaed Neda equalized with a header. With six minutes left to go, Kuwait's Hussain Fadel brought down Akram Moghrabi in the penalty area, Maatouk (Hassan Maatouk) scored his second goal after converting the penalty to give Lebanon a 2-1 lead. However, Lebanon's Mahmoud Younes allowed the Kuwaitis to come away with a point after scoring into his own net only two minutes later. After the 2-2 draw, Bucker (Theo Bucker) stated "If we had equalized in the last minute we would be happy". http: latino.foxnews.com latino sports 2011 10 11 lebanon-concedes-late-in-2-2-draw-with-kuwait http: www.the-afc.com en tournaments men-a-youth fifa-world-cup 36743-lebanon-v-kuwait http: www.fifa.com worldcup preliminaries asia matches round 257791 match 300172550 index.html http: www.soccerway.com matches 2011 10 11 world wc-qualifying-asia lebanon kuwait 1177908 http: www.transfermarkt.co.uk en lebanon_kuwait index spielbericht_1135484.html Approximately 32,000 spectators were present at the Camille Chamoun SC Arena (Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium), for the first time since 2005 when the Lebanese FA had barred fans from entering the stadiums due to bad behaviour. Bad behaviour from the fans, mostly related to playing with fireworks, was again the case against Kuwait as it forced Japanese (Japan) referee Masaaki Toma into stopping the game on numerous occasions. http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Oct-11 151031-lebanon-draws-2-2-with-kuwait.ashx#axzz1aZ4nEXLr Masaaki (Masaaki Toma) was forced to stop the game twice after a supporter shined a laser pen at the Kuwaiti goalkeeper. The halt in play that accumulated to around 10 minutes broke up Lebanon's rhythm where the Lebanese players looked tired after their break and momentum was lost. Masaaki (Masaaki Toma) called in his assistants to suspend play as the stadium's announcer and Lebanon's captain Roda Antar remonstrated with the fans. The game recommenced six minutes later before coming to a halt again, if only for two minutes as officials lambasted one another on the touchline, with nearly 70 minutes on the clock. http: www.dailystar.com.lb Sports Football 2011 Oct-12 151078-late-own-goal-deprives--lebanon-of-crucial-win.ashx#axzz1aZ4nEXLr Approximately 32,000 spectators were present for the first time since 2005, when the Lebanese F.A. had barred fans from entering the stadiums due to bad behaviour. On 11 November, Lebanon beat Kuwait 1-0 with a goal scored by Mahmoud El Ali at the 57 minutes mark at the Peace and Friendship Stadium in Kuwait. In November 15th, 2011 Lebanon hosted South Korea at the Camille Chamoun SC Arena (Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium) in Beirut. Over 40,000 spectators were present to cheer for the Lebanese national team. After 4 minutes Lebanon took the lead by Ali Al Saadi, 11 minutes later Korea equalized the scoreline by a penalty kick. At the 30 minute of the match Lebanon was given a penalty kick after Mahmoud El Ali was tackled inside the penalty area. Lebanon then took the lead after Abbas Ahmed Atwi perfectly delivered the ball into the net from the penalty spot and giving Lebanon a 2-1 victory for the first time in history against South Korea. On February 29th of 2012, Lebanon suffered a 4-2 loss to the United Arab Emirates in which Mahmoud El Ali and Hassan Maatouk netted for the visitors. Despite the defeat, they made it for the first time in their history to the fourth and final qualifying round. stadium Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium location


making films

was raised in Beirut, where she has lived most of her life. She graduated from San Francisco State University in 1981. Soon after that she returned to Beirut and began making films. Mount Clemenceau , a mountain in the Canadian Rockies * Rue Clémenceau, a commercial and residential street in Beirut, Lebanon * Clemenceau, Arizona, a former smelter


years ancient

into another civil war. At least 62 people died in the resulting clashes between pro-government and opposition militias. thumb 250px Map of Phoenicia. (Image:Phoenicia map-en.svg) The coastal plain of Lebanon is the historic home of a string of coastal trading cities of Semitic culture, which the Greeks termed Phoenicia, whose maritime culture flourished there for more than 5000 years. Ancient ruins in Byblos, Berytus (Beirut), Sidon, Sarepta (Sarafand), and Tyre (Tyre (Lebanon)) show a civilized nation, with urban centres and sophisticated arts. Present-day Lebanon was a cosmopolitan centre for many nations and cultures. Its people roamed the Mediterranean seas, skilled in trade and in art, and founded trading colonies. They were also the creators of the oldest known 24-letter alphabet, a shortening of earlier 30-letter alphabets such as Proto-Sinaitic and Ugaritic. 19th century During the nineteenth century the town of Beirut became the most important port of the region, supplanting Acre (Acre (city)) further to the south. This was mostly because Mount Lebanon became a centre of silk production for export to Europe. This industry made the region wealthy, but also dependent on links to Europe. Since most of the silk went to Marseille, the French (France) began to have a great impact in the region. Lebanon's history from independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a freely trading regional center for finance and trade. Beirut became a prime location for institutions of international commerce and finance, as well as wealthy tourists, and enjoyed a reputation as the "Paris of the Middle East" until the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War. In 1958, during the last months of President Camille Chamoun's term, an insurrection (Lebanon crisis of 1958) broke out, and 5,000 United States Marines were briefly dispatched (Operation Blue Bat) to Beirut on July 15 in response to an appeal by the government. After the crisis, a new government was formed, led by the popular former general Fuad Chehab. On October 1, 2004, one of the main dissenting voices to Émile Lahoud's term extension, the newly resigned Druze ex-minister Marwan Hamadeh was the target of a car bomb attack as his vehicle slowed to enter his Beirut home. Mr. Hamadeh and his bodyguard were wounded and his driver killed in the attack. Druze leader Walid Jumblatt appealed for calm, but said the car bomb was a clear message for the opposition. The quote is: "The police state ... has proven its efficiency in targeting one of the symbols of the nation... ", see http: weekly.ahram.org.eg 2004 711 re4.htm Lebanon at the crossroads, Al-Aharam Weekly, retrieved at April 2, 2007 UN Secretary General Kofi Annan expressed his serious concern over the attack. http: www.un.org News Press docs 2004 sgsm9515.doc.htm The country's role in the region, as indeed in the world at large, was shaped by trade. The area, formerly part of the region known as Greater Syria, served as a link between the Mediterranean world and India and East Asia. The merchants of the region exported oil (petroleum), grain, textiles, metal work (metalworking), and pottery through the port cities to Western (Western world) markets. The linkage role of Lebanon was further enhanced by the nomads of the Syrian (Syrian Desert) and Arabian (Arabian desert) deserts who visited the cities of Syria to trade. The caravans developed limited routes that often led to the coastal cities of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon), Beirut, Sidon, or Tyre (Tyre (Lebanon)). This created a merchant class and brought wealth to the inhabitants of the region. The trade between East and West led to the development of a cosmopolitan (Multiculturalism) culture in Lebanon's port cities, whose inhabitants became known for their multilingualism, flexibility, moderation, and commercial acumen. * Shi'a Muslims are around 30%


show weekly

initially received support to return to Lebanon from Baptists in St. Louis, and later by the Baptist General Association (forerunner of the American Baptist Association). Above & Beyond are also involved in radio broadcasting. Their "Trance Around The World" show is known to 30 million listeners in 35 countries who tune into the show weekly, making it one of the most listened to radio shows in the world.


quality music

as musicians from around Lebanon play some quality music near the Beirut marina. *


political story

in Parliament is 4 years. Yacoub Riad Sarraf (Yacoub Sarraf) served as the Governor of Beirut and Mount-Lebanon for several years. He was appointed as the Minister of Environment from July 2005 to July 2008, and as the acting Minister of Defense during the absence of Elias Murr. Refer to Yacoub Riad Sarraf (Yacoub Sarraf)'s wiki page for ''his'' political story and affiliation. In the midst of increasing sectarian strife in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which led to the Lebanese


early activities

to the war in Israel. Ending Israel's occupation of Southern Lebanon, which lasted for 18 years, was the primary focus of Hezbollah's early activities. Israel had become militarily involved in Lebanon in combat with (Operation Litani) the Palestine Liberation Organization, which had been invited into Lebanon after Black September in Jordan. Israel had been attacking the PLO in Southern Lebanon


running member

leader and head of one of the two traditional feudal Druze ruling families, the Arslans against the rival family, the Jumblatts. Emir Majid Arslan was the leader of the Yazbaki (Arslan affiliations) faction. Majid Arslan was a national political figure with a role in Lebanon's independence, a long-running Member of the Lebanese Parliament and a government minister for many times with a number of important ministerial portfolios, most notably Defense, Health, Telecommunications, Agriculture and Justice. Double jeopardy The first case was that of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa. This famous champion of the Antiochian party had been accused of crimes before Domnus, Bishop of Antioch, and had been acquitted, soon after Easter, 448 AD. His accusers had gone to Constantinople and obtained a new trial from the emperor. The bishops Photius of Tyre, Eustathius of Berytus, and Uranius of Imeria were to examine the matter. These bishops met at Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), removed to Berytus (Beirut), and returned to Tyre, and eventually acquitted Ibas once more, together with his fellow-accused, Daniel (Daniel of Harran), Bishop of Harran, and John of Theodosianopolis. This was in February, 449 AD. '''Jieh''' (or Jiyé, Jiyeh, الجية) is a seaside town in Lebanon with an estimated population of 5000


run national

into the UK. Lebanon's state-run National News Agency said on November 12, 2010 that Bakri was among 54 people sentenced by a military court to life in prison with hard labor after being accused of acts of terrorism. ref name Bloomberg>

Beirut

'''Beirut''' ( Պէյրութ ''Peyrut'' is in Western Armenian, spoken by Lebanese Armenians. In Eastern Armenian, the variation used in Armenia the city's name is Բեյրութ ''Beyrut''. ) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. As there has been no recent population census, the exact population is unknown; but, in 2007, estimates ranged from slightly more than 1 million to slightly less than 2 million as part of Greater Beirut. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast, Beirut is the country's largest and main seaport. The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna (Amarna) letters (Amarna letters) dating from the 15th century BC (Before Christ). The city has been inhabited continuously since then. The Beirut River runs south to north on the eastern edge of the city.

Beirut is Lebanon's seat of government and plays a central role in the Lebanese economy, with many banks and corporations based in its Central District (Beirut Central District), Hamra Street, Rue Verdun and Ashrafieh. Following the destructive Lebanese Civil War, Beirut's cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction. Reconstruction of Beirut, Macalester College Lebanon's Reconstruction: A Work in Progress, VOA News Beirut: Between Memory And Desire, Worldview Identified and graded for accountancy, advertising, banking finance and law, Beirut is ranked as a Beta World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

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