belief however, Liu Xiang's Olympic track and field gold medal is not the first won by an Asian male athlete, as Olympic gold medalist Mikio Oda, Naoto Tajima, Son Kitei and others were the forerunners of Asian male track and field athletes achieving gold in the Olympic Games. Liu, a 21-year-old student at East China Normal University at the time of his Athens victory, became the object of a bidding war between commercial sponsors. The Chinese Track and Field Association restricted
establishment in 1888. The purchase of ammunition stopped in 1891, with the funding being embezzled to build the Summer Palace in Beijing. Logistics were a huge problem, as construction of railroads in Manchuria had been discouraged. The morale of the Chinese armies was generally very low due to lack of pay and prestige, use of opium and poor leadership which contributed to some rather ignominious withdrawals, such as the abandonment of the very well-fortified and defensible Weihai
) is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Hutchinson's Encyclopedia, Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, although the various sections were finally combined during the Sui Dynasty (581–618 CE). By the year 600, there were major build ups of silt on the bottom of the Hong Gou canal, obstructing river barges whose drafts were too deep for its waters. The chief engineer of the Sui Dynasty, Yuwen Kai, advised the dredging of a new canal that would run parallel to the existing canal, diverging from it at Chenliu (Yanzhou). Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 307. The new canal was to pass not Xuzhou but Suzhou, to avoid connecting with the Si River, and instead make a direct connection with the Huai River just west of Lake Hongze. With the recorded labor of five million men and women under the supervision of Ma Shumou, the first major section of the Grand Canal was completed in the year 605—called the Bian Qu. Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 308. The Grand Canal was fully completed under the second Sui emperor, from the years 604 to 609, Ebrey, ''Cambridge Illustrated History of China'', 114: « … the Grand Canal, dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labour. » first by linking Luoyang to the Yangzhou (and the Yangzi valley), then expanding it to Hangzhou (south), and to Beijing (north). Ebrey, ''Cambridge Illustrated History of China'', p115 This allowed the southern area to provide grain to the northern province, particularly to troops stationed there. Running alongside and parallel to the canal was an imperial roadway
rich cultural and Olympic heritage were emphasized as well as the city's experience in hosting successful international sporting events, such as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2003 World Championships in Athletics. All of these items placed Paris in a very strong position. thumb right American Sarsaparilla (Image:Smilax_aristolochiifolia_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-130.jpg) (''S. aristolochiifolia (Smilax aristolochiifolia)'') from
; As the first-seeded player in 2008, Boll defended his three European Champion titles from the year before. '''Gamania Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd.''' (Gamania) is a PC online game and digital entertainment corporation with its headquarters located in New Taipei, Taiwan. It was the first Taiwanese online game brand to expand globally, with overseas branch offices publishing and developing digital entertainment contents in Tokyo, Seoul, Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong. It is also looking to set up branch offices in North America and Europe in 2010. In November 2005, AFL club Melbourne (Melbourne Football Club) made an announcement that it was investigating playing an exhibition match in 2006 or 2007 in the Chinese (China) metropolis Tianjin, with Beijing or Shanghai possible alternative hosts. Wikipedia:Beijing Dmoz:Regional Asia China Beijing commons:北京
. The Yellow River and the Grand Canal (China) run through it. thumb left 145px An exotic giraffe (Image:ShenDuGiraffePainting.jpg) brought from Bengal in the twelfth year of Yongle (AD 1414) (1414). The Hongwu Emperor allowed foreign envoys to visit the capitals at Nanjing and Beijing, but enacted strict legal prohibitions of private maritime trade by Chinese merchants wishing to travel abroad. After the death of Timur, who intended to invade China, the relations between the Yongle Emperor's China and Shakhrukh (Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty))'s state in Persia and Transoxania state considerably improved. Both the Chinese envoy to Samarkand and Herat, Chen Cheng (Chen Cheng (Ming Dynasty)), and his opposite party, Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh left detailed accounts of their visits to each other's country. The first Jesuit missionaries to visit China (Jesuit China missions) did so during the Ming Dynasty. The most prominent one was the Italian (Macerata) Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610). Matteo is famous in China and the West for many reasons. He was the first to translate the Chinese classic texts into a Western language (Latin), and the first to translate the name of the most prominent Chinese philosopher (Chinese philosophy) Kong Fuzi as Confucius. Along with another Jesuit father, he was the first European to enter the Forbidden City of Beijing, during the reign of the Wanli Emperor. Matteo Ricci and his baptized Chinese colleague, the mathematician (Chinese mathematics), astronomer (Chinese astronomy), and agronomist (agronomy) Xu Guangqi (1562–1633), were the first to translate the ancient Greek mathematical (Greek mathematics) treatise of ''Euclid's Elements'' into Chinese. thumb upright The former residence of Envoy (title) Envoy (File:Schneider mansion.jpg) Wu Tingfang and the Office of the Qing (Qing Dynasty) Legation to the United States, in the Dupont Circle (Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C.) neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Representing Dutch and Dutch East India Company interests, Isaac Titsingh traveled to Beijing in 1794-96 for celebrations of the sixtieth anniversary of the Qianlong Emperor's reign. Duyvendak, J.J.L. (1937). 'The Last Dutch Embassy to the Chinese Court (1794-1795).' ''T'oung Pao'' 33:1-137. The Titsingh delegation also included the Dutch-American Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, van Braam Houckgeest, A.E. (1797). ''Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1795'' Philadelphia; _____. (1798). ''An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India Company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1794 and 1795.'' London. whose detailed description of this embassy to the Chinese court was soon after published in the U.S. and Europe. Titsingh's French translator, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes published his own account of the Titsingh mission in 1808. ''Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France'' provided an alternate perspective and a useful counterpoint to other reports which were then circulating. Titsingh himself died before he could publish his version of events. 1990s As the mid-1990s approached, slow but steady improvement in relations with China was visible. Top-level dialogue continued with the December 1991 visit of PRC premier Li Peng to India and the May 1992 visit to China of Indian president (president of India) R. Venkataraman. Six rounds of talks of the Indian-Chinese Joint Working Group on the Border Issue were held between December 1988 and June 1993. Progress was also made in reducing tensions on the border via confidence-building measures, including mutual troop reductions, regular meetings of local military commanders, and advance notification of military exercises. Border trade resumed in July 1992 after a hiatus of more than thirty years, consulates reopened in Bombay (Mumbai) and Shanghai in December 1992, and, in June 1993, the two sides agreed to open an additional border trading post. During Sharad Pawar's July 1992 visit to Beijing, the first ever by an Indian minister of defence, the two defense establishments agreed to develop academic, military, scientific, and technological exchanges and to schedule an Indian port call by a Chinese naval (People's Liberation Army Navy) vessel. Wikipedia:Beijing Dmoz:Regional Asia China Beijing commons:北京
availability, causing floods and droughts, are a major problem. Industrial pollution affects numerous rivers. Furthermore, natural contamination of groundwater with arsenic and fluoride affects the drinking water supply of about 4% of the population. Water resources management is fragmented among various agencies and levels of government. * The Liaohe River, Huaihe River, Yellow River were "moderately polluted" (other translation speak of "had poor water quality"
http: www.tsn.ca olympics story ?id 260898&lid headline&lpos secStory_main title Petitclerc voted CP's female athlete of the year publisher The Sports Network date 2008-12-26 accessdate 2008-12-26 With her 5 golds in the 2004 Paralympics (Canada at the 2004 Summer Paralympics), she tied the existing Canadian gold medal record at a single Games, Winter or Summer, set by Stephanie Dixon at the 2000 Summer Paralympics. With her 5 golds in the 2008 Paralympics (Canada at the 2008 Summer Paralympics), she tied that record. As of 2010, the record still stood. Vancouver Sun, "Woolstencroft wins fifth gold medal", '''CanWest News Service''', ''21 March 2010'' (accessed 21 March 2010) In 2005, Frandsen was again in the Canadian Men's Eight. This time, his boat finished seventh at the World Championships held in Gifu-Nagaragawa, Japan. After a frustrating couple of years in the Canadian National Team system, at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China Scott won a silver medal in the Men's coxless pair with Dave Calder (David Calder (rower)). It was Canada's first medal (Canada at the 2008 Summer Olympics) of the Games. Wikipedia:Beijing Dmoz:Regional Asia China Beijing commons:北京
showbiz. Zhou's father later explained to media that frequent performances and commercial events had taken a toll on the 20-year-old. "She wants to have time for study and her family," he said. Zhou also admitted that during that time she was immensely unhappy. The two songs above were released in a not-for-sale limited-edition CD. She also joined many other singers and entertainers in singing two official BeijingOlympics songs, "We Are Ready", the official one-year
to support Sukarno's growing aggressive anti-Western foreign policies, he increasingly began to abandon his non-alignment rhetoric, in exchange for a new alliance with China, North Korea, North Vietnam, and Cambodia, an alliance he called the "Beijing-Pyongyang-Hanoi-Phnom Penh-Jakarta Axis". After withdrawing Indonesia from the "imperialist-dominated" United Nations on January 1965, Sukarno sought to establish a competitor organisation to the UN
to Puyi after their marriage. Coaching career Known for his vocal antics on the touchline, Nick Dasovic led Canada (Canada men's national youth soccer teams)'s under-23 side through Olympic qualification (2008 CONCACAF Men's Pre-Olympic Tournament) in 2008, drawing Mexico (Mexico national football team) 1-1 in the group stage and helping to eliminate the heavily-favored Mexican team in the process. After a highly promising 5-0 win over Guatemala (Guatemala national football team), on a night when Mexico (Mexico national football team) had to better that result against Haiti but could only win 5-1, Canada fell to the United States (United States men's national soccer team) 3-0 in the semifinal, losing out on a spot in Beijing at the summer Olympics. Canada recovered to defeat Guatemala in the third-place playoff, a rematch of their first round game, winning on penalties (5-3) after a scoreless draw through 120 minutes. First offices The first offices were in Beijing, Kalgan, Tientsin, and Urga (in Mongolia), all in areas near to Russian-controlled territory. In November 1886 additional offices opened in Shanghai, Chefoo, Hankow (Hankou District) with offices in Port Arthur (Lüshunkou), and Dairen (Dalnyi) following soon afterwards. In addition, many Russian Field Post Offices operated throughout Manchuria and civilian mail was frequently accepted there as well. Finally, the Chinese Eastern Railway had Russian post offices operating at most of the major stations, and important cities along the railway such as Harbin had several Russian post offices in the town itself. In addition, Travelling Post Offices operated in trains along the Chinese Eastern Railway. She has traveled extensively throughout the United States meeting with national and local groups and businesses; speaking at conferences, conventions and other public forums; and conducting a variety of training and development seminars. Through her international work, Commissioner Hillman traveled in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Europe. She conducted nonpartisan political training in Haiti and Kenya, and participated in UN sponsored conferences in Vienna, Beijing and at the United Nations in New York. birth_date Wikipedia:Beijing Dmoz:Regional Asia China Beijing commons:北京
'''Beijing''', sometimes romanized (Romanization of Chinese) as '''Peking''', Loaned earlier via French '''Pékin'''. is the capital of the People's Republic of China (China) and one of the most populous cities in the world (List of metropolitan areas by population). The population as of 2013 was 21,150,000. The city proper is the 3rd largest in the world. . Retrieved 21 April 2009. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province (Hebei) with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality (Tianjin) to the southeast. accessdate 9 February 2008
Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population (List of cities in the People's Republic of China by urban population) after Shanghai and is the nation's political (Politics of the People's Republic of China), cultural (Chinese culture), and educational center (List of universities and colleges in Beijing). title Beijing url http: www.encyclopedia.com topic Beijing.aspx encyclopedia The Columbia Encyclopedia edition 6th year 2008 It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies (List of the largest companies of China), and is a major hub (transport in Beijing) for the national highway (China National Highways of Beijing), expressway (Expressways of Beijing), railway (Rail transport in the People's Republic of China#Current network), and high-speed rail (High-speed rail in China) networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport is the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic (World's busiest airports by passenger traffic).
The city's history (history of Beijing) dates back three millennia (millennium). As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Historical capitals of China), Beijing has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries. Beijing has seven (List of World Heritage Sites in China) UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, Great Wall, and the Grand Canal (Grand Canal (China)). (Chinese) 走进北京七大世界文化遗产--千龙网 2014-08-18