years after its founding—by Muslim Arabs. In what is today southern Iran, the Persians emerged to challenge Median supremacy on the Iranian plateau. By 550 BC, the Persians had replaced Median rule with their own dominion and even began to expand past previous Median imperial borders. Both Gandhara and Kamboja (Kamboja Kingdom) Mahajanapadas of the Buddhist texts soon fell a prey to the Achaemenian Dynasty during the reign of Achaemenid, Cyrus the Great (558–530 BC
military unit with both political and security components and posed the greatest threat to the communist occupation of Afghanistan in the north. Although many of the SCN leaders were affiliates of Rabbani (Burhanuddin Rabbani)’s Jamiat-e-Islami, the SCN established deep ties with local communities and ran its affairs independently from the Jamiat leadership based in Pakistan. Many former SCN commanders and fighters continue to exert influence and power at various levels
. Vidyalankara ''The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita'', 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala The mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes is also suggested as the location of the ancient Kambojas. ''Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire'', p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: ''Indian Historical Quarterly'', Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; ''Journal of the Asiatic Society'', 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society
. He had an active role in the war against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, fighting the Soviet Army from the northern Balkh Province. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan in 1989, Ustad Mohaqiq was appointed as the leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat for northern Afghanistan. * Dr Michael Witzel wrote in one of his research articles: ('' "The Old Persian -s- (as in ''asa'' 'horse') *śś śv c'v Proto-Indo-European language
was Merv, in today's Turkmenistan. Active political parties '''Junbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan''' (National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan): General Abdul Rashid Dostum controls a political party called Junbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan (National Islamic Movement) which is a core of Jabhe-ye-Motahed-e-Milli. He claims to have a strong support in up to eight provinces in the north of the country, including Samangan province, predominantly populated by ethnic Uzbeks
Power Rivalry and Radical Islam'' (International Library of Central Asia Studies), page 21 * April 21 – Namwaran and his children, Lady Angkatan and Bukah, are granted pardon by the Datu of Tondo (Kingdom of Tondo), as represented Jayadewa, Lord Minister of Pila (Pila, Laguna), which released them of all their debts as inscribed in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Philippines. * May 28 – victory of the Transoxania amir Ismail Samani
: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy) (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of North India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy:
Developments, 1880-1896, Kabul, 1971, p. 12 , making the Afghan Amir virtually a feudatory of the British Crown D. P. Singhal, India and Afghanistan: A Study in Diplomatic Relations, 1876-1907, New Delhi, 1982, p. 45 . Anwari died at Balkh towards the end of the 12th century. The ''Diwan (Deewan)'', or collection of his poems, consists of a series of long poems, and a number of simpler lyrics. His longest piece, ''The Tears of Khorassan'', was translated
, Shamsiddin S. "To the Question of the Origin of the Samanids", Transoxiana: Journal Libre de Estudios Orientales, the Samanids promoted the arts, giving rise to the advancement of science and literature, and thus attracted scholars such as Rudaki and Avicenna. While under Samanid control, Bukhara was a rival to Baghdad in its glory. ref name "Elton L. Daniel pg. 74" >
(Uttarakurus) which tribes were all located in around Oxus in Central Asia in remote antiquity, it can be thought that the Kurus, the Kambojas and the Parśus (Persian people) were a related people''). Sircar observes: 'Rajatrangini Rajatrangini 4.165-166. places the Kambojas along with the Tukharas in the upper Oxus valley including the Balkh and Badakshan'. Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, The Land of Kamboja, p 252, D. C. Sircar
The ancient city of Balkh was under the Greeks renamed ''Bactra'', giving its name to Bactria. It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Tokharistan. Balkh is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated some 12 km from the right bank of the seasonally flowing Balkh River, at an elevation of about 365 m (1,200 ft).
Outside the town was a large Buddhist monastery later known as Naubahar (Nava Vihara) (or Nava Vihāra in Sanskrit).