of his work now. In 1923 Glière was invited by the Azerbaijan People's Commissariat of Education to come to Baku and compose the prototype of an Azerbaijani national opera. The result of his ethnographical research was the opera ''Shakh-Senem'', now considered the cornerstone of the Soviet-Azerbaijan national opera tradition. Here the musical legacy of the Russian classics from Glinka (Mikhail Glinka) to Scriabin (Alexander Scriabin) is combined with folk song (Folk music) material and some symphonic orientalisms. In 1927, inspired by the ballerina Yekaterina Vasilyevna Geltzer (1876–1962), he wrote the music for the ballet ''Krasny mak'' (''The Red Poppy''), later revised, to avoid the connotation of opium, as ''Krasny tsvetok'' (''The Red Flower'', 1955). ''The Red Poppy'' was praised "as the first Soviet ballet on a revolutionary subject". Perhaps this was his most famous work in Russia as well as abroad. One number from the score, his arrangement of an old Russian folk song ''Yablochko'' ("little apple") consists of an introduction, a basso statement of the theme, and a series of increasingly frenetic variations ending with a powerful orchestral climax. It is identified in the ballet score by its almost equally well-known name, the ''Russian Sailor's Dance''. It is probably his best-known single piece, and is still heard at symphony concerts around the world, frequently as an encore. The ballet-pantomime ''Chrizis'' was revised just after ''The Red Poppy'', in the late 1920s, followed by the popular ballet ''Comedians'' after Lope de Vega (1931, later re-written and re-named ''The Daughter from Castile''). ''Principal cities: Baku, Tbilisi, Yerevan, Dubai, Moscow'' In 2011, Georgian Airways began operating flights from Batumi to Tel Aviv, Baku, Moscow, Kharkov, Odessa and Donetsk. It also launched flights from Georgia to Tehran. In 1928-29, after a tumultuous stay in Greece (where he was engaged in fights with the police and invited to leave the country), he went again to the Soviet Union. Through extended visits in more remote places such as the Moldavian ASSR (where he got in touch with his friend Ecaterina Arbore), Nizhny Novgorod, Baku and Batumi, Istrati learned the full truth of Joseph Stalin's communist dictatorship, out of which experience he wrote his famous book, ''The Confession of a Loser'', the first in the succession of disenchantments expressed by intellectuals such as Arthur Koestler, André Gide and George Orwell. Istrati dealt with the mounting persecution of Old Bolsheviks and the gradual victimization of whole population groups. His views were also harshly made clear in a two letters he sent to the GPU (State Political Directorate) leadership in December 1928. * Birmingham Oratory in Birmingham, England is completed. * Abdulla Shaig Puppet Theatre (Baku Puppet Theatre) in Baku, Azerbaijan is completed and opened. thumb right Caspian Sea at the Port of Türkmenbaşy (File:Turkmenbashi2.jpg) Türkmenbaşy is Turkmenistan's only port and sea link to the West. A ferry service connects Türkmenbaşy to Baku, Azerbaijan. It is the western terminus of the Trans-Caspian railway, which connects the city to Turkmenistan's capital Ashgabat and points further east. The city is also connected to Ashgabat by bus and by Turkmenistan Airlines. *'''Lenini rajoon''' (Lenin city district), Tallinn Estonia *'''Lenin rayonu''' (Lenin city district), Baku Azerbaijan *'''Leninova''' (Lenin (metro station)) – now Dejvická, Prague Czech Republic Podgorny's position was constantly threatened by Brezhnev and his allies. In an article in ''Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta'' from February 1965, the newspaper criticised the Kharkiv Party organisation which Podgorny had previously headed, but also its management of the economy. By indirectly criticising Podgorny, the article raised doubts about his qualifications as a leading member of the Soviet leadership. Podgorny launched a counterattack in his 1965 speech in Baku, Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic, were he criticised the Soviet leadership's heavy industrial policy (heavy industry). This, as it turned out, would be a move he would regret for life. Instead of offending just Brezhnev and Shelepin, he offended the whole conservative wing of the leadership. To make matters even worse for Podgorny, Mikhail Suslov, who had kept outside of the conflict, sided with Brezhnev, and called his views "revisionist". Later in 1965, Podgorny lost his seat in the Secretariat (Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), and on 9 December 1965 he replaced Mikoyan as Chairman (List of heads of state of the Soviet Union) of the Presidium (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet) of the Supreme Soviet (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union). Commons:Category:Baku
founded the inter-teip movement ''Nokhchi-Latta-Islam'', and politician Aleksandr Dugin was also working with him during this time. Book by Paul Klebnikov Noukhaev was the subject of a book entitled ''Conversation with a Barbarian: Interviews with a Chechen Field Commander on Banditry and Islam'' by the late American Russian journalist Paul Klebnikov. The book is based on interviews with Noukhaev conducted by Klebnikov in Baku, Azerbaijan. In it, Noukhaev discusses his past
professional music of the palace conditions. In this period a dastgah form starts to develop in the structure and forms of mugam. New colors and shades as well as tasnifs developed in mugam performance. The masters of mugam of Azerbaijan sang gazals written in aruz genre by Fizuli, Habibi and Khatai (Ismail I). The music events were held in most regions of Azerbaijan in the 19th century and mugam was performed at these events. In the 19th century famous French scientist Alexandre Dumas (Alexandre Dumas, père) who attended the ceremony in Shamakhy, wrote in his works about his trip saying he was greatly impressed by mugam that sounded there. History of mugam and stages of development Such events held in Azerbaijan were attended by khanendes from Karabakh, Baku and Tabriz which in turn caused the blending of singing traditions of different regions. The Ottoman Army of Islam began to attack Hill 905 on July 31 to the northwest of Baku, but failed to get the hill and halted their attack on August 2. Major General L.C. Dunsterville coordinated future combined operations with the Cossack forces commended by Colonel Lazar Bicherakhov, and sent about 300 British soldiers to Baku and they arrived there on August 5. The Army of Islam launched second attack to Hill 905 on August 5. This attack failed again and they lost 547 officers and soldiers. The main body of "Dunsterforce" debarked in Baku on August 20 . Nevertheless, middle-class Armenians prospered under Russian rule and they were the first to seize the new opportunities and transform themselves into a prosperous bourgeoisie when capitalism and industrialisation came to Transcaucasia in the later half of the 19th century. The Armenians were much more skilled at adapting to the new economic circumstances than their neighbours in Transcaucasia, the Georgians and the Azeris (Azerbaijan). They became the most powerful element in the municipal life of Tbilisi, the city regarded by Georgians as their capital, and in the late 19th century they began to buy up the lands of the Georgian nobility, who had gone into decline after the emancipation of their serfs. Armenian entrepreneurs were quick to exploit the oil boom which began in Transcaucasia in the 1870s, having large investments in the oil-fields in Baku in Azerbaijan and the refineries of Batumi on the Black Sea coast. All this meant that the tensions between Armenians, Georgians and Azeris in Russian Transcaucasia were not simply ethnic or religious in nature but were due to social and economic factors too. Nevertheless, in spite of the popular image of the typical Armenian as a successful businessman, at the end of the 19th century 80 per cent of Russian Armenians were still peasants working the land. See Suny Chapter 2 "Images of Armenians in the Russian Empire" in ''Looking Toward Ararat: Armenia in Modern History''. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-2532-0773-8 foundation 1992 location Baku, Azerbaijan key_people Rovnag Abdullayev (President) The district in Greater Baku, Azerbaijan Medical University (Azerbaijan Medical University named after Nariman Narimanov) and metro station (Baku Metro) in Baku are named after him. In the Lankaran region (Lankaran (rayon)) there is a town named ''Narimanabad'' in his honour. There are cities named after him also in Russia and Belarus. * Commons:Category:Baku
from Krasnovodsk to Baku in Azerbaijan. The Tashkent Railway connecting the Transcaspian Military Railway with the network of other Russian and European railways was completed in 1906. '''Aghasi Mammadov''' (born June 1, 1980 in Baku) is an Azerbaijani boxer (boxing) who competed in the bantamweight division (54 kg) at the 2004 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal. Ashumova is a teacher at the Azerbaijan Institute of Physical Culture
form which emerges by the folding of the landscape’s natural topography and by the wrapping of individual functions of the Center. All functions of the Center, together with entrances, are represented by folds in a single continuous surface. This fluid form gives an opportunity to connect the various cultural spaces whilst at the same time, providing each element of the Center with its own identity and privacy. As it folds inside, the skin erodes away to become an element of the interior landscape
Uzun-Ada on the Caspian Sea, but the terminus was later shifted north to the harbour at Krasnovodsk. The Railway reached Samarkand via Bukhara in 1888, where it halted for ten years until extended to Tashkent and Andijan in 1898. The permanent bridge over the Oxus (Amu-Darya) was not completed until 1901, and until then trains ran over a rickety wooden construction that was often damaged by floods. As early as 1905, there was a train ferry across the Caspian Sea from Krasnovodsk to Baku in Azerbaijan. The Tashkent Railway connecting the Transcaspian Military Railway with the network of other Russian and European railways was completed in 1906. '''Aghasi Mammadov''' (born June 1, 1980 in Baku) is an Azerbaijani boxer (boxing) who competed in the bantamweight division (54 kg) at the 2004 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal. Ashumova is a teacher at the Azerbaijan Institute of Physical Culture in Baku. She has been a scholarship holder with the Olympic Solidarity program since November 2002. She is married to sport shooting coach Vladimir Lunyov and is the mother of young shooter Ruslan Lunyov. '''Zemfira Meftakhetdinova''' ( Commons:Category:Baku
to the Baku oil fields. Modern history In modern era Manjil was the site of a historical battle between the nationalist revolutionary forces of Jangal (led by Mirza Koochak Khan) and the joint British (United Kingdom) and White Russian (White movement) forces on June 12, 1918. The latter forces (led by General Dunsterville (Lionel Dunsterville) and Colonel Bicherakhov) willing to pass through Manjil as the only passage to the Caspian in order to reach Baku and overthrow the newly formed Baku Commune (led by Stepan Shahumian). General Dunsterville's private diaries and notes, including those kept during his command of the Dunsterforce Mission to North Persia and Baku, 1918 were transcribed from the original by General Dunsterville's great granddaughter, and are co-located on the Great War Primary Documents Archive the ruling feudalistic society was not ready to give up on its privileges and respect the newly elected Majlis Parliament (''Majlis''). In June 1908 the parliament was shut down during a coup d'état ordered by the new monarch, Mohammad Ali Shah. The Russian Cossack Brigade under the command of Colonel Liakhov (Vladimir Liakhov) serving the Shah bombarded the parliament and arrested pro-democracy leaders, activists, journalists, and members of Parliament. Uprisings all over the country followed in particular in Tabriz, Ardabil and Rasht. During the Tabriz uprising Kuchak Khan tried to join Sattar Khan&Haj Baba Khan-e- Ardabili's forces, but was unable to actively participate due to an illness. He was injured in the Constitutionalist war, and had to travel to Baku and Tbilisi for medical attention. On June 12, 1918 Manjil was the site of a battle between the Jangali troops and the joint British (United Kingdom) and White Russian (White movement) forces. The latter force (led by General Dunsterville and Kernel Bicherakhov) although formally just trying to organize the return of Russian soldiers back home, in reality was planning to pass through Manjil as the only passage to the Caspian in order to reach Baku and fight against the newly formed Baku commune (led by Stepan Shahumian). General Dunsterville's private diaries and notes, including those kept during his command of the Dunsterforce Mission to North Persia and Baku, are transcribed from the original by General Dunsterville's great granddaughter, and are co-located on the Great War Primary Documents Archive Mirza Koochek Khan's troops were defeated in this war because of the use of artillery, armored car and airplanes by the joint forces. Mirza's field commander was a German officer (''Major Von Pashen'') who had joined the Jangal movement after being released by them from the British prison in Rasht. On June 12, 1918 Manjil was the site of a battle between the Jangali troops and the joint British (United Kingdom) and White Russian (White movement) forces. The latter force (led by General Dunsterville and Kernel Bicherakhov) although formally just trying to organize the return of Russian soldiers back home, in reality was planning to pass through Manjil as the only passage to the Caspian in order to reach Baku and fight against the newly formed Baku commune (led by Stepan Shahumian). General Dunsterville's private diaries and notes, including those kept during his command of the Dunsterforce Mission to North Persia and Baku, are transcribed from the original by General Dunsterville's great granddaughter, and are co-located on the Great War Primary Documents Archive Mirza Koochek Khan's troops were defeated in this war because of the use of artillery, armored car and airplanes by the joint forces. Mirza's field commander was a German officer (''Major Von Pashen'') who had joined the Jangal movement after being released by them from the British prison in Rasht. ceased 23 November 2009 headquarters Baku , Azerbaijan key_people Fizouli Alakbarov (CEO) Imair Airlines Key People right thumb An Imair Airlines boarding pass for a flight from Baku (Image:IK Boarding Pass.jpg) to Almaty. (2005) '''Imair Airlines''' was an airline based in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was a private airline operating international scheduled and charter passenger services from 1995 until its collapse on 23 November 2009. Its main base was Heydar Aliyev International Airport, Baku. Flight International, Directory: World Airlines, p.92, 3 April 2007 '''Imair Airlines''' was an airline based in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was a private airline operating international scheduled and charter passenger services from 1995 until its collapse on 23 November 2009. Its main base was Heydar Aliyev International Airport, Baku. Flight International, Directory: World Airlines, p.92, 3 April 2007 *'''Azerbaijan''' **Baku - Heydar Aliyev International Airport '''Base''' *'''Kazakhstan''' Azerbaijan Democratic Republic After the February Revolution in Russia Mehmandarov resigned and left for Baku. With the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, Samedbey Mehmandarov became the third and last Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan (Ministry of Defense (Azerbaijan)). He held this position until 11th Red Army troops invaded (Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan) Azerbaijan in 1920. After the fall of the national government and establishment of the Soviet rule in Azerbaijan Mehmandarov was arrested, but was released two months later. He taught in military schools and was an advisor to the Commissariat of Military and Naval Forces of Azerbaijan SSR until his retirement in 1928. birth_date September 16th, 1945 birth_place Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR death_date '''Yevgeny Vaganovich Petrosyan''' ( Commons:Category:Baku
Necati Şaşmaz confirmed that some of events in Nagorno-Karabakh War and Khojaly
of the Caucasus. During that period, the ARF regarded armed activity, including terror, as necessary for the achievement of political goals. When the series production of heavier 2-8-4 class IS Joseph Stalin got under way in 1937
in theatres of Tabriz. He is known as a pioneer of set designing in Iranian cinema. He moved to Tehran in 1946 and worked in the bigger theatres. Although he had a limited experience and background in Iranian cinema, made some decorations for historical films which are among the memorable and outstanding examples. He was one of the supervisors for building a small town for IRIB as the location of historical films and TV series. '''Azerbaijan Medical University''', named after Nariman Narimanov ( Commons:Category:Baku
'''Baku''' ( below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal parts: the downtown area and the old Inner City (Old City (Baku)) (21.5 ha (hectare)). At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over two million people. url http: www.azstat.org statinfo demoqraphic en 2_2.shtml title Population by economic and administrative regions, urban settlements at the beginning of the 2009 accessdate 21 November 2009 archiveurl web.archive.org web 20091114093435 http: www.azstat.org statinfo demoqraphic en 2_2.shtml archivedate 14 November 2009 deadurl no Officially, about 25 percent of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area.
Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts (Baku#Governance) (raions) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay (Bay of Baku) and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, away from Baku. The Inner City of Baku along with the Shirvanshah's Palace (Palace of the Shirvanshahs) and Maiden Tower (Maiden Tower (Baku)) were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku is also among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife. url http: www.reuters.com article lifestyleMolt idUSTRE5AC0NE20091113?pageNumber 2&virtualBrandChannel 11617 title Travel Picks: Top 10 cities to party the night away publisher Reuters accessdate 21 November 2009 date 13 November 2009 archiveurl web.archive.org web 20091123104005 http: www.reuters.com article lifestyleMolt idUSTRE5AC0NE20091113?pageNumber 2&virtualBrandChannel 11617 archivedate 23 November 2009 deadurl no
The city is the scientific, cultural and industrial center of Azerbaijan. Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there, including SOCAR (State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic), one of the world's top 100 companies and others (List of companies of Azerbaijan). In recent years Baku has become an important venue for international events. It hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest (Eurovision Song Contest 2012) in 2012 and will host the 2015 European Games, 2016 European Grand Prix and Euro 2020.
The city is renowned for its harsh winds. This is reflected in the city's nickname, the "City of Winds".