Austrian Empire

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) was a Polish historian and diplomat. At its height during the Middle Ages, it was an important silver mining center, providing mineral wealth for both the Fugger banking family and, through them, for the Austrian emperors. During this period, its population of about 20,000 inhabitants made it the second largest city in the Austrian Empire, after Vienna. During the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars, Lienz was occupied twice by French First Republic French

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revolutionaries (many of whom were landowners) refused to debate the abolition of serfdom (which, at the time, covered the larger part of the Romanian population in Transylvania). Ioan N. Ciolan, Constantin Voicu, Mihai Racovițan, "Transylvania:Romanian history and perpetuation, or, what official Hungarian documents say", Military Publishing House, 1993 In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more

made international

(lover) mistress , Baroness Mary Vetsera, at his Mayerling (The Mayerling Incident) hunting lodge in 1889 made international headlines, fueled international conspiracy (Conspiracy theory) rumours and ultimately may have sealed the long-term fate of the Habsburg monarchy. - Großer Refraktor Vienna Observatory Vienna (History of Vienna), Austrian Empire Vienna, Austria 69 cm (27" ) 10.5 m 1880

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publisher Morrow year 1976 isbn 0688029566 page 48 while most foreign sources simply refer to him as "Croatian".

Grove Press isbn 0802137873, 9780802137876

, 9780813190877 DATE OF BIRTH


of Spanish heroism inspired Austria (Austrian Empire) and showed the force of nation-wide resistance to Napoleon, setting in motion the rise of the Fifth Coalition (War of the Fifth Coalition) against France. thumb upright The ''Medalla de Bailén''. (File:Medalla de Bailén.jpg) Neither the fruit of brilliant strategic planning, nor the war's largest or bloodiest battle, Bailén nonetheless assumed mythical status in Spain, its symbolism rapidly eclipsing the reality—the negotiated surrender

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'''Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher''' (24 June 1804 – 28 March 1849) was an Austrian (Austrian Empire) botanist, numismatist and Sinologist. He was a director of the Botanical Garden of Vienna. He was born in Pressburg (Bratislava) (Bratislava) and died in Vienna. In 1704, Brody was purchased by Potocki family (Potocki). In 1734 the fortress was destroyed by Russian troops and replaced by Stanisław Potocki's palace in the Baroque style. In 1772, Brody became a part of Habsburg Empire (from 1804 - Austrian Empire). In 1812, Wincenty Potocki was forced by the Austrian government to remove the city's fortifications. As their name suggests, they operated in the Alps. Among their victories in the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859, were those over the Austria (Austrian Empire)ns at Varese (battle of Varese) and Como (battle of San Fermo). Between 1849 and 1860, the area of the county was part of Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian (Austrian Empire) crown land. During this time, the county did not existed since voivodeship was divided into districts. Temes County was re-established in the 1860s, when the area was again incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. thumb 250px Bács-Bodrog, Syrmia, Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény counties after 1881, the five counties, which were formed in the territory of former Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar (Image:Vojvodina10.png) In 1848 1849 the area of the county was part of Serbian Voivodship, while between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian (Austrian Empire) province (during this time, the county did not existed since new Austrian province was divided into districts). The county was re-established in the 1860s, when the area was again incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. He distinguished himself in the Battle of Valmy, and in the fighting around Menen in the campaign of 1793 (French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1793) he forced an Austrian (Austrian Empire) regiment to surrender. Promoted Brigadier General for this accomplishment, he soon received further advancement from Lazare Carnot, who recognized his abilities. In 1797 he became ''Général de Division (Général)''. In 1813 he was appointed and sent as French Ambassador at Vienna, where he was engaged in an unequal diplomatic duel with Metternich (Klemens von Metternich) during the fateful months that witnessed the defection of Austria from the cause of Napoleon to that of the Allies, to confirm the alliance between France and Austria (Austrian Empire), objective he was not able to fulfill; the Empire had its days cut short. In that same year he was appointed Governor of the stronghold of Torgau (Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony)), one of the main strategic points for the defense of the Empire. On 17 November 1813, after reviewing the troops on horse, he died of typhus. This garrison suffered an outbreak of typhus, and of the 26,000 men that constituted it, 17,000 died of the epidemic. His aide-de-camp, Captain (Captain (land)) comte de Rohan-Chabot, brought to France his heart, and afterwards the name of the comte de Narbonne-Lara was inscribed on the east side of the Arc de Triomphe. thumb left 240px The two surviving sons of Wolfgang Amadeus and Constanze Mozart: Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (left) and Karl Thomas Mozart Karl Thomas (File:Carl and Franz Xaver Mozart.jpg) (right). Painting by Hans Hansen (:da:Hans Hansen (1769-1828)), Vienna, 1800. Needing money, in 1808, he travelled to Lemberg (Lviv), where he gave music lessons to the daughters of the Polish count Wiktor Baworowski. Although the pay was good, Franz felt lonely in the town of Pidkamin, near Rohatyn, so in 1809, he accepted an offer from the imperial (Austrian Empire) chamberlain (Chamberlain (office)), Count von Janiszewski, to teach his daughters music in the town of Burshtyn. Besides teaching, he gave local concerts, playing his own and his father's pieces. These concerts introduced him to the important people in Galicia (Galicia (Eastern Europe)). The '''Battle of Lissa''' (sometimes called ''Battle of Vis'') took place on 20 July 1866 in the Adriatic Sea near the Dalmatian island of Lissa (Vis (island)) ("Vis" in Croatian) and was a decisive victory for an outnumbered Austrian Empire force over a superior Italian (Regia Marina) force. It was the first major sea battle between ironclads and one of the last to involve deliberate ramming. He grew up during the Napoleonic Wars, when the Slovene Lands were changing hands between France (French First Empire) and the Austrian Empire. The official language of instruction in his schools changed several times during his childhood between French (French language) and German (German language), neither of which was his native tongue. In addition, Latin (Latin language) and Greek (Ancient Greek) were required subjects for all students. Thus, by age 16, Frederic Baraga was multilingual—a skill that would serve him well in later life. Career Born in Lemberg, Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria), Austrian Empire (now Lviv, Ukraine), Redl came from a poor family, his father being a railway clerk. An exceptional intelligence enabled him to rise quickly in the officer ranks of the Austrian army, a position usually reserved for the wealthy and privileged. He joined the counter-espionage service and rose to become its chief. During his tenure in office he greatly improved the methods used by the Austrian counter-espionage service. But at the same time he himself was a spy for Russia, Austria's enemy, and his exposure was largely due to the improvements he had developed himself. '''Pavol Jozef Šafárik''' (''Safáry'' ''Schaffáry'' ''Schafary'' ''Saf(f)arik'' ''Šafarík'' ''Szafarzik'', Czech ''Pavel Josef Šafařík'', German ''Paul Joseph Schaffarik'', Serbian ''Павле Јосиф Шафарик'', Latin ''Paulus Josephus Schaffarik'', Hungarian ''Pál József Saf(f)arik'') (13 May 1795, Kobeliarovo(Kisfeketepatak), Kingdom of Hungary part of the Holy Roman Empire at the time ruled by the Habsburgs – 26 June 1861, Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia, at the part of the Austrian Empire) was a Slovak (Slovaks) philologist, poet, one of the first scientific Slavists; literary historian, historian and ethnographer. The island was a port attached to Murano in the 8th century, but is now known for market gardening. Ruined fortifications, including the so-called ''Torre Massimiliana'' (Tower of Maximilian), ring the isle. Forts existed in the island as early as the 16th century. After the fall of the Republic of Venice, the French (Napoleonic Wars) built here a stronghold in 1811-1814. After Napoleon's defeat, the Austrian (Austrian Empire) Archduke Maximilian of Austria Este had a tower built here in 1843-1844, and also found here refuge during a revolt. The tower has a polygonal base of 25 m and is surrounded by a ditch. On the upper floor up to 13 cannons could be housed. It was used by the Italian Army as late as World War I. Early life Holub was born in Holice (Holice (Pardubice District)) in eastern Bohemia (then within the Austrian Empire, now the Czech Republic) in the family of municipal doctor. After studying at German-language grammar school in Žatec (Saaz), he was admitted at Prague University where he obtained a degree as a doctor of medicine (1872). '''Schlaraffia''' is a worldwide German language


Croatian National Revival , a political and cultural campaign advocating unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian (Hungarian language), along with promotion of Croatian literature and culture.

and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspired the Croatian National Revival (Illyrian movement), a political and cultural campaign advocating unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian (Hungarian language), along with promotion of Croatian literature and culture.


Croatian National Revival , a political and cultural campaign advocating unity of all South Slavs in the empire. Its primary focus was establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian (Hungarian language), along with promotion of Croatian literature and culture.

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of Passarowitz . Although the territory of northern Serbia was reverted to Ottoman rule according to the Treaty of Belgrade, the region saw almost continuous warfare during the 18th century. As a result, the Ottomans never established full feudal order in the Belgrade Pashaluk. Free peasants owning small plots of land constituted the majority of population. Furthermore, most of the leaders of future armed rebellions earned valuable military knowledge serving in Austrian irregular troops, Freikorps. The proximity of the Austrian border provided the opportunity of getting the needed military material. Serbian national leaders could also count on financial and logistic support of fellow Serbs living in relative prosperity in Austrian Empire. The town was first mentioned in a written document in 1256 as ''Bogun'' (today's Old Bohumín). Hosák et al. 1970, 84-85. Historical documents regarding the first centuries of the town are scarce. King Louis II (Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia) granted the town and château of Bohumín to George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1523. The town began to develop during rule by the House of Hohenzollern, although further development of Bogumin was halted by frequent epidemics of bubonic plague and floodings of the Olza. It was officially known in German as ''Oderberg'', and by the end of the 16th century the majority of citizens followed Protestantism. The successor after the Hohenzollerns in 1620 was Lazar Henckel, whose family of bankers and entrepreneurs hailed from Habsburg (Habsburg Monarchy)-ruled Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary). In 1624 only 138 permanent residents lived in the town. After defeating Maria Theresa of Austria during the Silesian Wars, King Frederick II of Prussia annexed most of Silesia, although Oderberg remained in Austrian Silesia. The town successively became part of the Austrian Empire (1804) and Austria-Hungary (1867). The '''Austrian Littoral''' (

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" Piattoli, through Czartoryski, briefly worked in the diplomatic service and admnistration of the Russians, too. Like Czartoryski, Piattoli tried to push for a more lenient and friendly attitude towards Poland at the Russian court, but with little success. placeofburial

Austrian Empire

The '''Austrian Empire''' ( '') was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg Monarchy) by proclamation in 1804. It was a multinational empire and one of the world's great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire (621,538 square kilometres 239,977 sq mi ). It was also the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The ''Ausgleich'' of 1867 elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire, creating a new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

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