Austrian Empire

What is Austrian Empire known for?


literary association

volunteered to serve in the Seven Years' War in order to escape his father's decision to register him for legal studies, but quit after a year. In his early life he translated Destouches' works (1754) and wrote satirical almanacs (''Borlanda impasticciata'', ''Gran Zoroastro'' and ''Mal di Milza'') which scandalized the Milanese society. In 1761, together with his brother Alessandro (Alessandro Verri), he founded a literary association, the Società dei Pugni ("Society of the Fists"


religious complex

dominance in the Mediterranean. Rusconi 2005, p. 127-128. The ideals of irredentism were used to convince the population of the necessity of the war, but the true motive of the political leadership to join the war was their idea that Italy should become a great European power. Rusconi 2005, p. 184-185. The city of Zebrzydów was established in 1617 in order to house the growing number of pilgrims visiting the religious complex. The city rights were expanded

on the expansion of its furniture manufacturing and woodcraft industry as well as a growing number of pilgrims to its religious complex. During the same period, the problem arose of finding a wife for John's heir apparent, the future Pedro I of Brazil. Europe at the time considered Brazil distant, backward and unsafe, so it was not a simple task to find suitable candidates. After a year of seeking, the ambassador Pedro José Joaquim Vito de Meneses Coutinho, Marquis of Marialva, finally secured an alliance with one of Europe's most powerful royal houses, the Habsburgs (House of Habsburg), emperors of Austria (Austrian Empire), after seducing the Austrian court with numerous lies, a display of pomp, and the distribution of gold bars and diamonds among the nobility. Dom Pedro married archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of emperor Francis I (Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1817. Wilcken, Patrick. ''Império à deriva: a corte portuguesa no Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821''. Editora Objetiva, 2005, pp. 225-226. In Portuguese. The emperor and his minister Metternich considered the alliance "an advantageous pact between Europe and the New World," strengthening the monarchical regime in both hemispheres and granting Austria a new sphere of influence. Lustosa, Isabel. ''D. Pedro I''. Companhia das Letras, 2006, pp. 77-78. In Portuguese. The name ''Jawor'' is Polish for "sycamore". Prior to 1945, the town was part of Poland, Bohemia, Austria (Austrian Empire), Prussia and Germany. After this era, Ostend was turned into a harbour of some importance. In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the harbour of Antwerp, the Westerschelde. Therefore, Ostend rose in importance because the town provided an alternative exit to the sea. The Southern Netherlands (largely the territory of present Belgium) had become part of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Emperor Charles VI (Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor) granted the town the trade monopoly with Africa and the Far-East. The Oostendse Compagnie (the "Ostend trade company") was allowed to found colonies overseas. However, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure. The Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the international trade level. Both nations regarded international trade as their privilege. Napoleon's armies previously smashed the army of the Austrian Empire in the Ulm Campaign and the combined Austrian and Russian armies at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Austerlitz forced the Austrians to sue for peace and their Russian allies to withdraw from the conflict. On 14 October 1806, Napoleon crushed the armies of the Kingdom of Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. After a rapid pursuit, the broken pieces of the Prussian army were destroyed at the Battles of Prenzlau (Battle of Prenzlau) and Lübeck (Battle of Lübeck) and in a series of capitulations at Erfurt (Capitulation of Erfurt), Pasewalk (Capitulation of Pasewalk), Stettin (Capitulation of Stettin), Magdeburg (Siege of Magdeburg (1806)), and Hamelin (Siege of Hameln). Eylau was the first serious check to the ''Grande Armée'' and the myth of Napoleon's invincibility was badly shaken. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw; four days later, the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Russia (Russian Empire), Austria (Austrian Empire), and Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule. Napoleon knew that, once his attempts at dissuading one or more of the Seventh Coalition Allies from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the Coalition could put together an overwhelming force. If he could destroy the existing Coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. combatant1


social religious

his energies to his writings on social, religious, philosophical, and mathematical matters. Although forbidden to publish in mainstream (Mainstream (terminology)) journals (Magazine) as a condition of his exile, Bolzano continued to develop his ideas and publish them either on his own or in obscure Eastern European journals. In 1842 he moved back to Prague, where he died in 1848. Following Ruland's departure in 1863, the Queen (Queen Victoria) looked for a husband for Helena. However, as a middle child, the prospect of a powerful alliance with a European royal house was low. Chomet, p. 37 Her appearance was also a concern, as by the age of fifteen she was described by her biographer as chunky, dowdy and double-chinned. Packard, p. 99 Furthermore, Victoria insisted that Helena's future husband had to be prepared to live near the Queen, thus keeping her daughter nearby. Van der Kiste, p. 61 Her choice eventually fell on Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein; however, the match was politically awkward, and caused a severe breach within the royal family. Schleswig and Holstein were two territories fought over between Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and Denmark during the First (First Schleswig War) and Second Schleswig Wars. In the latter, Prussia and Austria (Austrian Empire) defeated Denmark, but the duchies were claimed by Austria for the Prince Christian's family (Duke of Augustenborg). However, following the Austro-Prussian War, in which Prussia invaded and occupied the duchies, they became Prussian, but the title Duke of Schleswig-Holstein was still claimed by Prince Christian's family. Packard, p. 121 The marriage, therefore, horrified King Christian IX of Denmark (Christian IX of Denmark)'s daughter, Alexandra, Princess of Wales (Alexandra of Denmark), who exclaimed: “The Duchies belong to Papa.” Alexandra found support in the Prince of Wales and Princess Alice (Alice of the United Kingdom), who openly accused her mother of sacrificing Helena's happiness for the Queen's convenience. Battiscombe, p. 77 She also argued that it would reduce the already low popularity of her sister, the Crown Princess of Prussia, at the German court in Berlin. Van der Kiste, p. 65 Among the other opposers were Prince Alfred (Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) and Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, but the Queen was ardently supported by her eldest daughter Victoria, who had been a personal friend of Christian's family for many years. Packard, p. 113 Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the formation of the Concert of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, the Romantic (German Romanticism) writer Constantin Frantz during the Vormärz era developed the concept of a Central European federation overcoming the German dualism (Austria–Prussia rivalry) between Austria (Austrian Empire) and Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). Frantz opposed the idea of a nation state as it was raised by the German question and advocated a commonwealth of the member states of the former Confederation of the Rhine together with the Austrian multiethnic state and Prussia with its large Polish share of population. This Central European block should have been joined by Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland as well as by Congress Poland, seeking autonomy from the hegemony of the great powers of France (Kingdom of France) and the British Empire in the west as well as from the Pan-Slav (Pan-Slavism) policies of the Russian Empire in the east. thumb right Steam locomotive (File:Muzejski vlak Slovenia.jpg) SŽ 25-026, manufactured in 1920 in Vienna, nowadays used by Slovenske železnice for tourist purposes Slovenia received its first railway connection in the 1840s, when the Austrian Empire built a railway connection - Südliche Staatsbahn or Austrian Southern Railway - between its capital, Vienna, and its major commercial port, Trieste. Thus, Maribor (Maribor railway station) was connected by railway to Graz (Graz Hauptbahnhof) in 1844. The stretch was extended via Pragersko (Pragersko railway station) to Celje (Celje railway station) in 1846, and further via Zidani Most (Zidani Most railway station) to Ljubljana (Ljubljana railway station) in 1849. A double-track line was continued via Postojna (Postojna railway station), Pivka (Pivka railway station), and Divača (Divača railway station), finally reaching Trieste in 1857.


making home

neuronet.pitt.edu accessdate 1 January 2011 His mother was Đuka Tesla, ''née'' Mandić, whose father was also a Serbian Orthodox priest. Tesla's biographer John O'Neill (John Joseph O'Neill (journalist)) relates that "


difficult fighting

, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I (Napoleon I of France), decisively defeated a Russo (Russian Empire)-Austrian (Austrian Empire) army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor), after nearly nine hours of difficult fighting. The battle took place near Austerlitz (Slavkov u Brna) (Slavkov u Brna) about 10 Km (6 mi) south-east of Brno in Moravia, at that time in the Austrian Empire (present day

, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I (Napoleon I of France), decisively defeated a Russo (Russian Empire)-Austrian (Austrian Empire) army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor), after nearly nine hours of difficult fighting. The battle took place near Austerlitz (Slavkov u Brna) (Slavkov u Brna) about 10 Km (6 mi) south-east of Brno in Moravia, at that time in the Austrian Empire (present day

Napoleon I , managed to score a decisive victory over the Russo-Austrian army, commanded by Czar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia). Despite difficult fighting in many sectors, the battle is often regarded as a tactical masterpiece. Austerlitz effectively brought the Third Coalition to an end. Preparations Eugen Kvaternik had planned to launch a rebellion years earlier against what was then the Austrian Empire since 1859. However, he failed to secure allies


opening theory

a strict criterion of correctness. Chess is a multiform game (strategy game)!'' — Danish (Denmark) Grandmaster (International Grandmaster) '''Bent Larsen''' *''Place the contents of the chess box (chess piece) in a hat, shake them up vigorously, pour them on the board (chessboard) from a height of two feet, and you get the style of Steinitz.'' — English (England) chess theorist (Chess opening theory table) and author '''Henry Bird''', on the unique


extensive work

December 2009 '''Heinrich Wilhelm Schott''' (January 7, 1794 - March 5, 1865) was an Austrian (Austrian Empire) botanist well known for his extensive work on the aroids (Family Araceae). Early life Karl was born at Vienna, Austrian Empire son of Ferdinand Bonaventura, 7th Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau (1834–1904) the head of the princely line of the House of Kinsky dynasty and Princess Marie of Liechtenstein (1835–1905). The Illyrian Provinces were created by the Treaty of Schönbrunn in 1809 when the Austrian Empire ceded the territories of western or Upper Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia) with Lienz in the East Tyrol, Carniola, southwest of the river Sava, Gorizia and Gradisca, and Trieste to the French Empire (First French Empire) after the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Wagram. These territories lying north and east of the Adriatic Sea were amalgamated with Dalmatia into the Illyrian Provinces, technically part of France, the capital of which was established at "Laybach", i.e.Ljubljana in modern Slovenia. The territory of the Republic of Ragusa, which was annexed to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808, was also integrated into the Illyrian Provinces. The French Empire (First French Empire) invaded the island in 1806, joining it to the Illyrian Provinces. The Montenegrin Forces of Prince-Episcope (Bishop) Peter I Njegos (Petar I Petrović-Njegoš) conquered the island with Russian (Russian Empire) naval assistance Dalmatia and Montenegro by J. Gardner Wilkinson in 1807 during his attempt to construct another Serbian Empire. However, the Great Powers decided to return the island to the Austrian Empire in 1815, and it accordingly became a part of the Austrian crown land of Dalmatia. www.1911encyclopedia.org From 1867, Korčula was in the Cisleithanian part of Austro-Hungary (Austria–Hungary). After the fall of Venice and the Napoleonic (Napoleonic Wars) interlude, Rovinj was part of the Austrian Empire until World War I. According to the last Austrian census in 1911, 97.8% of the population was Italian-speaking. Then it belonged to Italy from 1918 to 1947, when it was ceded to SR Croatia within SFR Yugoslavia. During that period many of the Italian inhabitants left the city.


musical abilities

of the Austrian Empire). Drlíková (2004), p. 7 He was a gifted child in a family of limited means, and showed an early musical talent in choral singing. His father wanted him to follow the family tradition, and become a teacher, but deferred to Janáček's obvious musical abilities. In 1865 young Janáček enrolled as a ward of the foundation of the Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno, where he took part in choral singing under Pavel Křížkovský and occasionally


historical school

Carl Menger The school originated in Vienna, in the Austrian Empire. However, later adherents of the school such as The School owes its name to members of the German Historical School of economics (Historical school of economics), who argued against the Austrians during the ''Methodenstreit'' ("methodology struggle"), in which the Austrians defended the reliance that classical economists placed upon deductive logic. *1529 – Treaty of Saragossa


prominent political

to own land, and limited in their professional employment and education opportunities. The May Laws compelled many Podolian and other Pale Jews to emigrate. These laws are credited with having caused more than two million Jews to leave Russia for the United States, England, South Africa, and Latin America. Protests were lodged by both Jewish organizations and prominent political and intellectual figures in Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), the United States, Zollverein

soldiers. *Grigory Kirillovich Razumovsky (1759–1837) - the fifth son of Kirill, known from his writings in the West as Gregor or Grégoire, a geologist, botanist and zoologist, as well as prominent political dissenter with Czarist Russia, who lost his Russian allegiance in 1811 and was subsequently incorporated into the Bohemian nobility and accorded the rank of Count in the Austrian Empire. Gregor was the first to describe and classify the ''Lissotrion helveticus'' (Palmate Newt). His branch of the family survives to this day. *Leon (Lvov) Grigorievich Razumovsky (1816–1868), grandson of Kirill, envoy of Saxe-Coburg to the court of Napoleon III. Father of Camillo Lvovich Razumovsky. Because of its alpine (Alps) setting, alpine skiing is popular in the surrounding area. Tržič was the hometown of Countess Francisca von Strassoldo Grafenberg, wife of the Austrian (Austrian Empire) general Joseph Radetzky. As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, the Bishopric of Würzburg was secularized in 1803 and granted to the Electorate of Bavaria. In the same year Ferdinand III (Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany), former Grand Duke of Tuscany (Grand Duchy of Tuscany), was compensated with the Electorate of Salzburg. In the Peace of Pressburg of 26 December 1805, Ferdinand lost Salzburg to the Austrian Empire, but was compensated with the Würzburg territory, Bavaria having relinquished it in return for Tyrol (county of Tyrol). Mining was much expanded under the Austrian Empire with the encouragement of the Imperial authorities. Charles VI funded the construction of ponds („tăuri”) in 1733. After the empire broke up in 1918, most of the remaining veins were mined out under fixed-length concessions (''cuxe'') granted to local citizens. The sulphide-rich waste generated large volumes of sulphuric acid which in turn liberated heavy metals into local water sources, in addition to the mercury (Amalgamation) used to extract the gold. death_date

Austrian Empire

The '''Austrian Empire''' ( '') was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg Monarchy) by proclamation in 1804. It was a multinational empire and one of the world's great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire (621,538 square kilometres 239,977 sq mi ). It was also the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The ''Ausgleich'' of 1867 elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire, creating a new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

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