. They replaced previous military units that had performed that duty, and were later replaced by others. The oldest courtyard of the palace is still called the "Swiss Court" ''(Schweizerhof)'' in acknowledgement of their 20-year presence. *In Portugal, a Swiss regiment was raised by the Count of Lippe on June 12, 1762. It comprised two battalions (commanded by Colonel Gabriel Thorman and Colonel Marcus Saussure) of 809 men each, consisting of four companies of Swiss troops plus four non-Swiss companies, for a total of 1618 men. Enlistment was for six years, and the soldiers could not be required to serve at sea. Half the soldiers had to be Swiss, while the other half could be made up of Germans and Hungarians. The Portuguese government paid the sum of 2,960,000 reis (Portuguese real) to raise, arm and equip these two battalions. Colonels paid for their officers. Each soldier earned 4,537 reis per month plus a daily ration of bread. On June 22, 1763, Colonel Gabriel Thorman was sentenced to imprisonment until he returned funds and property embezzled from his regiment, while Colonel Marcus Saussure was sentenced to death for desertion. The regiment was disbanded on 17 September 1763 by a decree that also ordered the raising of a new Swiss regiment (the "Reais Estrangeiros (Foreign Legion)"), which met a similar fate to its predecessor. Its eight companies comprised ninety soldiers each, plus the superior and inferior officers. It was ordered dissolved in 1765, and its commander, Colonel Luiz Henrique Graveson, condemned by a council of war to death by hanging. This sentence was commuted to a firing-squad, and the execution was carried out on November 15, 1765, in the field of Ourique, on January 2, 1766. combatant1
written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet in 1823, and its currently official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel, although other less-known musical versions exist. The poem bore the subtitle ''"A magyar nép zivataros századaiból"'' ("From the stormy centuries of the Hungarian people"); it is often argued that this subtitle – by emphasizing past rather than contemporary national troubles – was added expressly to enable the poem to pass Habsburg (Austrian Empire) censorship. The full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history. A soldier attempted to assassinate Ferdinand in 1856 and many believe that the infection he received from the soldier's bayonet led to his ultimate demise. He died on 22 May 1859, shortly after the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia had declared war against the Austrian Empire. This would later lead to the invasion of his Kingdom by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Italian unification in 1861. During the uprising, the Sejm realized the need for unified national insignia that could be used by the Polish military. On February 7, 1831 it adopted white and red, the tinctures (Tincture (heraldry)) (colors) of the Polish and Lithuanian coats of arms, as the national cockade of Poland. The white-and-red cockade was henceforth worn by Polish soldiers in the November Uprising, as well as by participants of the Kraków Uprising of 1846, Polish freedom fighters in the Grand Duchy of Posen and the Austrian Empire during the Spring of Nations (Revolutions of 1848) of 1848, and Polish insurgents during the January Uprising of 1863–1864. White and red colors were also used by civilians to show their protest against the Russian rule, as well as by people in France, Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Germany (German Confederation), Belgium and other countries as a sign of their sympathy with the Polish cause. The Sejm's decision was not, however, immediately accepted by all. Left-wing politicians of the time, such as Joachim Lelewel, continued to regard the revolutionary blue, white and red as true national colors. Tricolor standards were used by some Polish guerrilla units during the January Uprising. Brune was recalled to active service in 1815, during the Hundred Days, and as commander of the army of the Var, he defended the south of France against the forces of the Austrian Empire. He was murdered by royalists (House of Bourbon) during the White Terror (The White Terror (France)) at Avignon, during the opening stage of the Bourbon Restoration. His body was thrown in the river Rhône (Rhône (river)), but was later recovered and buried in a pyramid-shaped tomb in the cemetery of Saint-Just-Sauvage. In 1793, Joubert distinguished himself by the defence of a redoubt at the Col de Tende in northwest Italy, with only thirty men against a battalion of the enemy. Wounded and made prisoner in the battle, he was released on parole by the Austrian (Austrian Empire) commander-in-chief, De Vins, soon afterwards. In 1794 he was again actively engaged, and in 1795 promoted to brigadier general (brigadier general (France)). In English, the term ''the Kaiser'' is usually reserved for the Emperors of the German Empire, the emperors of the Austrian Empire and those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the First World War, the term ''the Kaiser'' — especially as applied to Wilhelm II of Germany — gained considerable pejorative connotations in English-speaking countries. From 1842–1849, King Ludwig I of Bavaria built a country house to the west of town. It was named ''Pompejanum'' after its model, the house of Castor and Pollux (Castor and Polydeuces) at Pompeii. In 1866 the Prussian Army inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians (Austrian Empire) in the neighbourhood during the Austro-Prussian War. Early stages Steinitz was born on May 17, 1836 in the Jewish ghetto of Prague (now capital of the Czech Republic; then in Bohemia, a part of the Austrian Empire). The last of a hardware retailer's thirteen sons, he learned to play chess at age 12.
-0-7043-3365-9 url http: www.goodreads.com book show 493734.Lovers_on_the_Nile She was officially born August 6, 1841 (but more probably 1845) in Nagyenyed, Austrian Empire (today Aiud, Romania) and was baptised Florenz Barbara Maria. She said that her nurse helped her to a refugee camp in Vidin, Bulgaria. Possibly it was there that she was adopted by an Armenian family with name Finnian (or Finnin). Her nurse married and left her, probably during the first
in Moldavia and, after May, in northern Wallachia, viewed the alliance as broken—he had Vladimirescu executed, and faced the Ottoman intervention without Pandur or Russian backing, suffering major defeats in Bucharest and Drăgăşani (before retreating to Austrian (Austrian Empire) custody in Transylvania). Djuvara, p.301; Giurescu, p.116–117 These violent events, which had seen the majority of Phanariotes siding with Ypsilantis, made Ottoman Dynasty Sultan
thousand of the nobility. Ujejski then gave utterance to the universal feeling of indignation in his powerful poem ''Choral'', which has become one of the notable patriotic Polish songs of that period. The Hungarian Diet, customarily called together every three years in Pozsony (Bratislava), was also called "Diéta" in the Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire) before the 1848 revolution. From 1848 to the end of the 19th century, local Polish and Czech people co-operated, united
with Emperor Henry IV (Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor). With the lands of the former archbishopric, Werfen finally fell to the Austrian Empire after the Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna) in 1816. Early life She was born as Ernestine "Tini" Rössler to a German (German language)-speaking family in the town of Libeň (
von Bittenfeld Herwarth von Bittenfeld ), also known as the '''Battle of Sadowa''', '''Sadová''', or '''Hradec Králové''', was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom
Monarchy with the German Confederation. The programme failed to meet its main objectives, but it remained the common political program of all currents within the Slovene national movement until World War I. Following the Vienna Rebellion that forced Ferdinand I (Ferdinand I of Austria) to abolish feudalism and adopt a constitution, many nations of the Austrian Empire saw a chance for strengthening their ideas. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, for the first
of Spanish heroism inspired Austria (Austrian Empire) and showed the force of nation-wide resistance to Napoleon, setting in motion the rise of the Fifth Coalition (War of the Fifth Coalition) against France. thumb upright The ''Medalla de Bailén''. (File:Medalla de Bailén.jpg) Neither the fruit of brilliant strategic planning, nor the war's largest or bloodiest battle, Bailén nonetheless assumed mythical status in Spain, its symbolism rapidly eclipsing the reality—the negotiated surrender
The '''Austrian Empire''' ( '') was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg Monarchy) by proclamation in 1804. It was a multinational empire and one of the world's great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire (621,538 square kilometres 239,977 sq mi ). It was also the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The ''Ausgleich'' of 1867 elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire, creating a new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.