Arabia Petraea

What is Arabia Petraea known for?


cultural presence

and deprivation by the Parthians and Palmyrenes (Palmyra), it had nothing like the constant incursions faced in other areas on the Roman frontier, such as Germany and North Africa, nor the entrenched cultural presence that defined the other, more Hellenized, eastern provinces. Geography thumb 450px The Roman Empire in the time of Hadrian (File:Roman Empire 125.png) (ruled AD 117–38), showing, in western Asia, the imperial province of '''Arabia Petraea''' (Jordan NW Saudi Arabia


daraa

First as part of the Diocese of the East, Arabia turned a frontline of Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. In the 5th or 6th century it was transformed into Palaestina Salutaris. Episcopal sees Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province of Arabia listed in the ''Annuario Pontificio'' as titular sees: ''Annuario Pontificio 2013'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013


public building

;ref name "Birley 2000, p. 187" succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta (Publius Septimius Geta). With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's


early period

groups Rome RMap.html This view corroborates Nachmanides' claim of an origin for the Amalekites earlier than Esau's grandson. However, the passage in question does not require this interpretation as it may be referring to the region by a name from a later era. However, the Arab historian Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī, citing 'traditional' Arab history, relates that the Amalekites did indeed exist at this early period having originated in the region of Mecca before the time


presence

and deprivation by the Parthians and Palmyrenes (Palmyra), it had nothing like the constant incursions faced in other areas on the Roman frontier, such as Germany and North Africa, nor the entrenched cultural presence that defined the other, more Hellenized, eastern provinces. Geography thumb 450px The Roman Empire in the time of Hadrian (File:Roman Empire 125.png) (ruled AD 117–38), showing, in western Asia, the imperial province of '''Arabia Petraea''' (Jordan NW Saudi Arabia

, and Tabae in Somalia developed a lucrative trade network (Trade route) connecting with merchants from Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt (Ptolemaic Kingdom), Greece, Parthian Persia (Parthian Empire), Sheba, Nabataea (Nabataeans) and the Roman Empire. They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the ''beden'' to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire (Arabia Petraea) and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab

people Arab merchants barred Indian merchants from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian Peninsula because of the nearby Roman presence. However, they continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, which was free from any Roman threat or spies. The reason for barring Indian ships from entering the wealthy Arabian port cities was to protect and hide the exploitative trade practices of the Somali and Arab merchants in the extremely lucrative ancient Red Sea


extensive public

;ref name "Birley 2000, p. 187" succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta (Publius Septimius Geta). With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's


building program

;ref name "Birley 2000, p. 187" succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta (Publius Septimius Geta). With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's


current term

Greek : ''Αραβία''). The Romans (ancient Rome) named three regions with the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term "Arabian Peninsula": * Arabia Petraea: for the area that is today southern modern Syria, Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Saudi Arabia. It was the only one that became a province (Roman province), with Petra as its capital. * Arabia Deserta ("Desert Arabia"): signified the desert


230

2003 , p. 231. Also, once the severity of the Muslim threat was realized, the Byzantines had little preceding battlefield experience with the Arabs, and even less with zealous soldiers united by a prophet. Kaegi 2003 (#refKaegi2003), p. 230. Even the Strategicon (Strategicon of Maurice), a manual of war (Byzantine military manuals) praised for the variety of enemies it covers, does not mention warfare against Arabs at any

length. thumb left Ruins of Qa’ableh (File:Qableh1.JPG). Ancient Somalis domesticated the camel somewhere between the third millennium and second millennium BC from where it spread to Ancient Egypt and North Africa. Near Eastern archaeology: a reader – By Suzanne Richard pg 120 In the classical period (Classical antiquity), the city states of Mosylon, Opone, Malao (Malao (ancient)), Sarapion, Zeila Mundus


important cultural

Trajan added the province of Arabia (Arabia Petraea) to the Roman Empire in the second century AD. The new province was east of Palestine, so the Decapolis was no longer the Greco-Roman cultural front line. In addition, the cities were grouped into different Roman provinces: Syria (Syria (Roman province)), Palestina Secunda, and Arabia (Arabia Petraea). However, the Decapolis remained an important cultural region in the Roman east, even though the term was no longer used

Arabia Petraea

'''Arabia Petraea''', also called '''Provincia Arabia''' or simply '''Arabia''', was a frontier province (Roman province) of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian peninsula. Its capital was Petra. It was bordered on the north by Syria (Syria (Roman province)), on the west by Iudaea (Iudaea Province) (merged with Syria from 135 AD) and Aegyptus (Aegyptus (Roman province)), and on the south and east by the rest of Arabia, known as Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix.

It was annexed by Emperor Trajan, like many other eastern frontier provinces of the Roman Empire, but held onto, unlike Armenia (History of Armenia), Mesopotamia and Assyria, well after Trajan's rule – its desert frontier being called the Limes Arabicus. It produced no usurpers and no emperors (Philippus (Philip the Arab), though Arab, was from Shahbā (Shahba), a Syrian city added to the province of Arabia at a point between 193 and 225 — Philippus was born around 204). As a frontier province, it included a desert populated by the nomadic Saraceni, and bordering the Parthian hinterland.

Though subject to eventual attack and deprivation by the Parthians and Palmyrenes (Palmyra), it had nothing like the constant incursions faced in other areas on the Roman frontier, such as Germany and North Africa, nor the entrenched cultural presence that defined the other, more Hellenized, eastern provinces.

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