the early 20th century, being described by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in 1907, but has since vanished. west of ar-Raqqah, and the tombs of several of Ali's followers (such as Ammar ibn Yasir and Uwais al-Qarani) are located in ar-Raqqah
traces its history to the Hellenistic period, with the foundation of the city of '''Nikephorion''' ( In Roman (Roman Empire) times, it was part of the province of Osrhoene
the city, during his retreat from an abortive expedition to capture Ctesiphon. In the 6th century, Kallinikos became a center of Assyrian monasticism (Syriac Christianity). Dayra d'Mār Zakkā, or the Saint Zacchaeus Monastery, situated on Tall al-Bi'a, became renowned. A mosaic inscription there is dated to the year 509, presumably from the period of the foundation of the monastery. Daira d'Mār Zakkā is mentioned by various sources up to the 10th century
stream echosdorient10pariuoft#page n99 mode 2up p. 94 e p. 145. No longer a residential bishopric, Callinicum is today listed by the Catholic Church as an archiepiscopal (archbishop) titular see of the Maronite Church. ''Annuario Pontificio 2013'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 856 Early Islamic period File:Awis al-Qarni mosque and Bab
and in early June 2013 the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant said they were open to receive complaints at their Raqqa headquarters.
72 Mar humidity 60 Apr humidity 53 May humidity 45 Jun humidity 34 Jul humidity 38 Aug humidity 41 Sep humidity 44 Oct humidity 49 Nov humidity 60 Dec humidity 73 year humidity 54 source 1 source 2
. The dam is , also transliterated ''Oways b. Anis al-Qarni'', ''Oveys Gharani'' and ''Veysel Karani'') was a Muslim mystic (Mysticism), martyr and philosopher of Yemen who lived during the lifetime of Muhammad, but never met Muhammad personally. Beale, ''Oriental Bibliotheca'' As reported by the renowned historical scholar Ibn Battuta, Uwais' tomb is found in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, where he was killed in the Battle of Siffin, where he fought on the side of Ali. Another shrine was made in his honor in Baykan, in the Siirt Province of Turkey. ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''Owais Karni''
of the Islamic empire stretching from Spain to Central Asia. In the Middle East, the glass industry of Syria continued during the Islamic period with the major centres of manufacture being at Ar-Raqqah, Aleppo and Damascus, with the most important products being highly transparent colourless glass, and gilded glass, rather than coloured glass. The production of coloured glass in Southwest Asia existed by the 8th century, at which time the Alchemy and chemistry
-Raqqah. The splendour of the court in ar-Raqqah is documented in several poems, collected by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahāni (Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani) in his "Book of Songs" (Kitāb al-Aghāni (Kitab al-Aghani)). Only the small, restored so called Eastern Palace at the fringes of the palace district gives an impression of Abbasid architecture. Some of the palace complexes dating to this period have been excavated by a German team on behalf of the Director General of Antiquities
of the region. The growth of the city meant on the other hand a removal of the archaeological remains of the city's great past. The palace area is now almost covered with settlements, as well as the former area of the ancient ar-Raqqa (today Mishlab) and the former Abbasid industrial district (today al-Mukhtalţa). Only parts were archaeologically explored. The 12th-century citadel was removed in the 1950s (today Dawwār as-Sā'a, the clock-tower circle). In the 1980s rescue excavations in the palace area
beduinischen Vorherrschaft bis zu den Seldschuken journal Islamic History and Civilization. Studies and Texts issue 40 location Leiden publisher Brill year 2002 * *
was the development of stonepaste ceramics (Stoneware), originating from 9th century Iraq. Mason (1995), p. 5 The first industrial complex for glass and pottery production was built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century.
to weaken Ali's position, but did not resolve the tensions that were plaguing the empire. To the Shia, Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam (Imam (Shia Islam)). To Sunnis, Ali ibn Abi Talib was the fourth Rashidun Caliph, and Muawiyah the first Caliph of the Ummayyad dynasty. The events surrounding the battle are highly controversial between Sunni and Shia, and serve as part of the split between the two groups. Stoneware, originating from 9th century Iraq, was also
'''Ar-Raqqah''' ( east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The city was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809 under the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, ar-Raqqah was the sixth largest city in Syria.
During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured by rebel group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which made it its headquarters in Syria. As a result, the city has been hit by Syrian government, US and Arab nation airstrikes.