Anuradhapura

What is Anuradhapura known for?


900

century BC (i.e. the protohistoric period), though excavations have revealed information about the earlier inhabitants of the city. Further excavations in Anuradhapura have uncovered information about the existence of a protohistoric habitation of humans in the citadel. The protohistoric Iron Age, which spans from 900 to 600 BC, marked the appearance of iron technology, pottery, the horse, domestic cattle and paddy cultivation. In the time period 700 to 600 BC

;Deraniyagala, Siran, The Prehistory of Sri Lanka; an ecological perspective. (revised ed.), Colombo: Archaeological Survey Department of Sri Lanka, 1992: 730-2, 735 *Pattadakal – Located in Karnataka, South India *Anuradhapura – Located in Sri Lanka *Sigiriya – Located in Sri Lanka Archaeological evidence for the beginnings of the Iron age in Sri Lanka is found at Anuradhapura, where a large city–settlement was founded before 900 BC. The settlement was about 15

hectares in 900 BC, but by 700 BC it had expanded to 50 hectares. http: www.arkeologi.uu.se afr symposium abstracts Deraniyagala1.htm A similar site from the same period has also been discovered near Aligala in Sigiriya. http: www.dailynews.lk 2008 11 13 fea06.asp Pottery has been found at Anuradhapura bearing Brahmi (Brāhmī script) script and non-Brahmi writing and date back to 600 BC – one of the oldest examples of the script.<


featuring+depictions

rule. Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became increasing popular. Great Building Era thumb The Ruwanwelisaya Ruwanwelidaham Saya (Image:Ruwanwelisaya.jpg) Stupa


art location

rule. Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became increasing popular. Great Building Era thumb The Ruwanwelisaya Ruwanwelidaham Saya (Image:Ruwanwelisaya.jpg) Stupa


numerous guest

Cargills if you will be staying for a while. Sleep There are numerous guest houses Anuradhapura new town, and many more budget accommodations. Prices at hostels start from Rs 1,500 to 2,000 per person for a night. If you don't have and idea of where you'll be staying, any tuk-tuk driver will be happy to offer you rooms that he or his brother is renting, usually offering very basic comfort at a reasonable price (A price negotiation is necessary). Usually he'll take you to see the room


Polonnaruwa

-and-burn agriculture was a standard technique. As expanding population and commercial pressures reduced the amount of available forestland, however, slash-and-burn cultivation steadily declined in favor of permanent cultivation by private owners. Until the 13th century, the village farming communities were mainly on the northern plains around Anuradhapura and then Polonnaruwa, but they later shifted to the southwest. In the 1970s, wide expanses of the northern and eastern plains were

of the most scenic landscapes in the world, the best of which is the Colombo-Badulla main line which runs hugging the steep mountains of the Sri Lankan highlands. The railways connect the main cities of Kandy, Galle, Matara (Matara, Sri Lanka), Anuradhapura, Gampaha, Negombo, Kurunegala, Avissawella, Kalutara, Polonnaruwa, Batticaloa, Trincomalee, Badulla, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Matale, Vavuniya, Puttalam and Chilaw

is chronicled in two documents, the Mahavamsa, written in Pāli around the 4th century BC, and the much later Chulavamsa (probably penned in the 13 century CE by the Buddhist monk Dhammakitti). These are ancient sources which cover the histories of the powerful ancient Sinhalese kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa which lasted for 1500 years. The Mahavansa describes the existence of fields of rice and reservoirs, indicating a well-developed agrarian society


title traditional

;ref Wikipedia:Anuradhapura Commons:Category:Anuradhapura


temple architecture

at Thiruvananthapuram, and annexed Anuradhapura and the northern province of Ceylon. Rajendra Chola I completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, invaded Bengal, and undertook a great naval campaign that occupied parts of Malaya (Malay Peninsula), Burma, and Sumatra. The Chola dynasty began declining by the 13th century and ended in 1279. Cholas were great builders and have left some of the most beautiful examples of early Dravidian temple architecture. Brihadisvara Temple


historical literary

foundation - under the name Anuradhapura (Anuradha's city) it was to become capital of Rajarata for over a thousand years. Buddhist claims and conflict A temple dedicated to a deity in "Gokarna" city is mentioned in a 5th century CE religious and historical literary work called Mahavamsa. It mentions that Mahasena (King Mahasena) (334–361) a Mahayanist zealot known for his temple destructions, who ruled a central kingdom of the island from the southern city


scenic landscapes

of the most scenic landscapes in the world, the best of which is the Colombo-Badulla main line which runs hugging the steep mountains of the Sri Lankan highlands. The railways connect the main cities of Kandy, Galle, Matara (Matara, Sri Lanka), Anuradhapura, Gampaha, Negombo, Kurunegala, Avissawella, Kalutara, Polonnaruwa, Batticaloa, Trincomalee, Badulla, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Matale, Vavuniya, Puttalam and Chilaw with the Capital Colombo. The lines to Jaffna, Kankesanturai and Mannar (Mannar, Sri Lanka) have been destroyed by the LTTE. There were also narrow gauge (narrow gauge railways) lines from Nanu Oya to Nuwara Eliya, Avissawella to Yatiyantota and Avissawella to Ratnapura and Opanayaka, which were dismantled due to financial losses from their operation. Ancient history The origin legend and early recorded history of the Buddhist (Buddhism) Sinhalese is chronicled in two documents, the Mahavamsa, written in Pāli around the 4th century BC, and the much later Chulavamsa (probably penned in the 13 century CE by the Buddhist monk Dhammakitti). These are ancient sources which cover the histories of the powerful ancient Sinhalese kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa which lasted for 1500 years. The Mahavansa describes the existence of fields of rice and reservoirs, indicating a well-developed agrarian society. The oral tradition of the Sinhalese people also speaks of many royal dynasties prior to the Sinha royal dynasty: Manu, Tharaka, Mahabali, Raavana (Ravana), etc. A few years after the arrival of Sthavira Mahinda, Bhikkhuni Sanghamitta, who is also believed to be the daughter of Emperor Asoka, came to Sri Lanka. She started the first nun's order in Sri Lanka, but this order of nuns died out in Sri Lanka in the 11th century and in Burma in the 13th. In 429 CE, by request of China's emperor, nuns from Anuradhapura were sent to China to establish the Nun's Order. The order was then spread to Korea. In 1996, 11 selected Sri Lankan nuns were ordained fully as Bhikkhunis by a team of Theravāda monks in concert with a team of Korean Nuns in India. There is disagreement among Theravada vinaya authorities as to whether such ordinations are valid. In the last few years the head of the Dambulla chapter of the Siyam Nikaya in Sri Lanka has carried out ordination ceremonies for hundreds of nuns. This has been criticized by other leading figures in the Siyam Nikaya and Amarapura Nikaya, and the governing council of Burmese Buddhism has declared that there can be no valid ordination of nuns in modern times, though some Burmese monks disagree with this. See the article on this subject in ''Buddhist Studies Review'', 24.2 (2007) Image:Sunset at Phnom Bakheng.JPG Khmer (Khmer people) monk in meditation at Phnom Bakheng in Angkor, Cambodia. Image:Ruwanwelisaya.jpg Ruwanwelisaya in Anuradhapura, the most sacred stupa in Sri Lanka. Image:Dambulla-buddhastupa.jpg Dambulla cave temple in Sri lanka, one of the oldest Buddhist temples. *c. 900 BC: the Villanovan culture emerges in northern Italy. *c. 900 BC: Foundation of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. *900 BC: Kingdom of Kush. The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese (Sinhalese people) were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superiority in this sector, they were often called 'masters of irrigation'. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153–1186 CE (Common era)). Wikipedia:Anuradhapura Commons:Category:Anuradhapura


collection year

rule. Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became increasing popular. Great Building Era thumb The Ruwanwelisaya Ruwanwelidaham Saya (Image:Ruwanwelisaya.jpg) Stupa

Anuradhapura

'''Anuradhapura''' ( ; Tamil (Tamil language): அனுராதபுரம் is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of North Central Province, Sri Lanka and the capital of Anuradhapura District. Anuradhapura is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Sri Lankan civilization. It was 3rd capital of the Kingdom of Rajarata after Tambapanni (Kingdom of Tambapanni) and Upatissa Nuwara (Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara).

The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the center of Theravada Buddhism for many centuries. The city lies 205&nbsp;km north of the current capital Colombo in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (North Central Province, Sri Lanka), on the banks of the historic Malvathu Oya. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (List of cities by time of continuous habitation) and one of the eight World Heritage Sites of Sri Lanka.

It is believed that from the 4th century BC, it was the capital of the Sinhalese (Sinhala people) until the beginning of the 11th century AD. During this period it remained one of the most stable and durable centers of political power and urban life in South Asia. The ancient city, considered sacred to the Buddhist world, is today surrounded by monasteries covering an area of over sixteen square miles (40&nbsp;km²).

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