Kedrenos also records the story, considered rather implausible, that Kallinikos' descendants, a family called "''Lampros''" ("Brilliant"), kept the secret of the fire's manufacture, and continued doing so to his day. Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
used by the Romans. On site, large Roman cranes (Crane (machine)#History) were employed to erect the monoliths. Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano Brought
. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria." In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader. The majority view tends This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus is attacking a Gnostic myth known to us best at present in the form it took in the system of Valentinus. The Mother, Sophia-Achamoth, produced as a result of the complicated sequence of events which followed the fall of the higher Sophia, and her offspring the Demiurge, the inferier and ignorant maker of the material universe, are Valentinian figures: cp. Irenaeus, ''Adversus haereses (On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis)'' 1.4 and 5. Valentinius had been in Rome, and there is nothing improbable in the presence of Valentinians there in the time of Plotinus. But the evidence in the Life ch.16 suggests that the Gnostics in Plotinus's circle belonged rather to the other group called Sethians on Archonties, related to the Ophites or Barbelognostics: they probably called themselves simply "Gnostics." Gnostic sects borrowed freely from each other, and it is likely that Valentinius took some of his ideas about Sophia from older Gnostic sources, and that his ideas in turn influenced other Gnostics. The probably Sethian Gnostic library discovered at Nag Hammadi included Valentinian treatise: ep. Puech, Le pp. 162-163 and 179-180. to understand Plotinus' opponents as being a Gnostic sect—certainly (specifically Sethian (Neoplatonism and Gnosticism)), several such groups were present in Alexandria and elsewhere about the Mediterranean during Plotinus' lifetime. Also, several of his criticisms bear specific similarity to Gnostic doctrine (Plotinus pointing to the gnostic doctrine of Sophia and her emission of the Demiurge is most notable among these similarities). The word ''Diophantine'' refers to the Hellenistic (Hellenistic civilization) mathematician of the 3rd century, Diophantus of Alexandria, who made a study of such equations and was one of the first mathematicians to introduce symbolism (mathematical symbol) into algebra. The mathematical study of Diophantine problems Diophantus initiated is now called "Diophantine analysis". A linear Diophantine equation is an equation between two sums of monomials of degree zero or one. '''Diophantus of Alexandria''' ( Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
-alternate history (alternate history (fiction)) genre that could be dubbed "Alternative future"; whilst set in an alternate universe, they are still set in the future. In the first four novels, set in the 22nd century, the point of divergence is the Franco–Prussian War (Franco-Prussian War) of 1870, where Grimwood posits a reality where Napoléon III's France defeats Otto von Bismarck's Prussia, causing the German Empire never to form and the Second
It was during this era that the Christian philosopher Aeneas of Gaza called Gaza, his hometown, "the Athens of Asia." J.S. Tunison: "Dramatic Traditions of the Dark Ages", Burt Franklin, New York, p.11 Following the division of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century CE, Gaza remained under control of the Eastern Roman Empire that in turn became the Byzantine Empire. The city prospered and was an important centre for the Levant. Kaegi, W. ''Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests'', p. 95 Dahl was rescued and taken to a first-aid (first aid) post in Mersa Matruh, where he regained consciousness, but not his sight, and was then taken by train to the Royal Navy hospital in Alexandria. There he fell in and out of love with a nurse, Mary Welland. An RAF inquiry into the crash revealed that the location to which he had been told to fly was completely wrong, and he had mistakenly been sent instead to the no man's land between the Allied and Italian forces. Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
, and the Christian bishops of the 4th century were specifically termed "bishops of the churches about Gaza." The Christian community then scarcely numbered 200 in Gaza, according to the ''vita (Biography)'' of St. Porphyry, and the community-at-large resisted the closing of temples and destruction of pagan images which was under way in more Christianized regions. Compare the contemporary treatment of the Serapion of Alexandria of Alexandria in 391, followed soon after by the destruction of the temples of Heliopolis (Heliopolis (ancient)) and Apameia (Apamea (Syria)). thumb left Map showing the hearth-areas of the major Jewish ethnic divisions (File:Jews 1490.png ) in Afro-Eurasia circa 1490 CE. In the Hadrianic war of 132-135 AD 580,000 Jews were slain, according to Cassius Dio (lxix. 14). According to Theodor Mommsen, in the first century C.E. there were no less than 1,000,000 Jews in Egypt, in a total of 8,000,000 inhabitants; of these 200,000 lived in Alexandria, whose total population was 500,000. Adolf Harnack (''Ausbreitung des Christentums'', Leipzig, 1902) reckons that there were 1,000,000 Jews in Syria at the time of Nero in 60's AD, and 700,000 in Judea, and he allows for an additional 1,500,000 in other places, thus estimating that there were in the first century 4,200,000 Jews in the world. Jacobs remarks that this estimate is probably excessive. thumb right SBSK insignia (Image:Memorial badge of the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade.PNG) 266px thumb right Upload of Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade in Alexandria (Image:Karpac3.jpg) for its trip to Tobruk '''Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade''' (Polish (Polish language) ''Samodzielna Brygada Strzelców Karpackich'', '''SBSK''') was a Polish military unit (Polish Army) formed in 1940 in French (France) Syria composed of the Polish soldiers exiled after the Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) in 1939 as part of the Polish Army in France (Sikorski's Army). It was commanded by General Stanisław Kopański. Based in Latrun, the brigade was equipped with British weapons, reinforced and trained. In October 1940 it was moved to Egypt, where it undertook garrison duties. Among other tasks it guarded Prisoner-of-war camps and prepared the fortification of Alexandria. However, as Poland was still formally at peace with Italy, it could not have been sent to the front. On 12 January 1941 the reorganization along the British regulations ended and the unit was renamed to ''Polish Independent Brigade Group''. It was modelled after a British motorized infantry brigade and was then moved to the port of Haifa, from where it was to be transported to Greece. However, before the first of the detachments had been embarked on the ships, the Battle of Greece ended as the Germans overran that country. Even as a young woman, she showed her independence by entering a department store in Alexandria to buy her own clothes instead of having them brought to her home. She helped to organize ''Mubarrat Muhammad Ali'', a women's social service organization, in 1909 and the Union of Educated Egyptian Women in 1914, the year in which she traveled to Europe for the first time. She helped lead the first women's street demonstration during the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, and was elected president of the Wafdist Women's Central Committee. The two sailed first from Trieste to Alexandria, planning to arrive in Jerusalem by Christmas. Instead they remained in Egypt for nearly a year, leaving for Palestine in the summer of 1832. He joined the first independent Senate when he was elected from a district in Alexandria in 1924. During his tenure in the Egyptian Senate, he supported various legislation relating to strengthening the independence of the Egyptian judicial system. He also resisted the introduction of any special privileges for minorities in Egypt whether based on ethnicity or religion (including the Christian Copts) first suggested by the Brunyate Commission for Judicial reform in 1917. He retired from the Senate in 1930. Proceedings of the Egypt Senate (Majlis Al-Shuyukh) 1924, 1929-30, Government Press, Cairo (in Arabic) There is evidence for both a local trade of Cypriot oil and for a larger trading network that may have reached as far as the Aegean, although most Cypriot oil was probably limited to the Eastern Mediterranean. Many olive oil presses have been found on Cyprus, and not just in rural areas, where they might be expected for personal, local use. They have been found in some of the larger coastal cities as well, including Paphos, Curium and Amathus. In Alexandria, Egypt, there is a large presence of a type of amphora made in Cyprus known as Late Roman 1 or LR1 that was used to carry oil. This indicates that a lot of Cypriot oil was being imported into Egypt. There is also evidence for Cypriot trade with Cilicia and Syria. History The iota subscript (ͺ) (also known as '''hypogegrammeni''') was an editorial marking invented by the librarians (Library of Alexandria) at Alexandria to denote the absence of iota (ι) which were used in the long diphthongs ᾱ (alpha)ι (iota), η (eta)ι, and ωι. In Koine Greek, the iotas used in long diphthongs stopped being pronounced. However, many times, these iotas were essential to differentiate between different usages of the same word — the only notable difference between the nominative and dative singular of a first declension feminine noun is, for many words, that iota. Because of spacing, it would have been impossible to fit the iota on the line beside the letter that preceded it. Therefore, the iota was written under the letter to save space. Although the library of Alexandria and its texts were burned, the practice was carried over in clinical copies of certain texts, and the hypogegrammeni was used often by the Greek Orthodox Church (which used polytonic orthography for ceremonial purposes) and mediaeval Byzantine copyists. In modern renderings of ancient Greek, the iota is still carried subscriptum, even though it is now common practice to pronounce the iota indicated by the hypogegrammeni. Abbott, Evelyn and Edwin Mansfield. ''A Primer of Greek Grammar: Accidence & Syntax''. Duckworth Publishing, 1997. Twelfth Printing. ISBN 0715612581 Education and career He was educated in Alexandria, Egypt, and in Christ's College, Cambridge. BA 1960, MA 1963. Peter I Peter I (Peter I of Cyprus) (1359–1369), son of Hugh IV, may perhaps be the best known King of Cyprus. He is mentioned in Chaucer's canterbury tales. He led an expedition to Alexandria that upset the Italian (Italy) merchants, but proved successful (at least in gathering booty). He toured Europe in order to gather support for his love of crusading, but found their promises unfulfilled. He sacked Alexandria again regardless, and in destroying the gates found it impossible to hold against the Mameluks. He was driven out, but had he held it would have been a very valuable outpost. He was murdered by his nobles, but left a very devoted wife Eleanor of Aragon (Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Cyprus) (supposedly he took her nightgown with him on his campaigns), who with the help of the Italians pursued the assassins. Peter I Peter I (Peter I of Cyprus) (1359–1369), son of Hugh IV, may perhaps be the best known King of Cyprus. He is mentioned in Chaucer's canterbury tales. He led an expedition to Alexandria that upset the Italian (Italy) merchants, but proved successful (at least in gathering booty). He toured Europe in order to gather support for his love of crusading, but found their promises unfulfilled. He sacked Alexandria again regardless, and in destroying the gates found it impossible to hold against the Mameluks. He was driven out, but had he held it would have been a very valuable outpost. He was murdered by his nobles, but left a very devoted wife Eleanor of Aragon (Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Cyprus) (supposedly he took her nightgown with him on his campaigns), who with the help of the Italians pursued the assassins. thumb Shazdeh Garden (Image:Shazdeh Garden Mahan Iran.jpg) is one of the largest gardens of Kerman Province. From the time of the Achaemenid Dynasty (Achaemenid) the idea of an earthly '''paradise''' spread through Persian literature (Persian Literature) and example to other cultures, both the Hellenistic gardens of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies in Alexandria. The Avestan (Avestan language) word ''pairidaēza-'', Old Persian *''paridaida-'' Although the genuine Old Persian form must have been *''paridaida-'', Modern Persian ''palīz'' 'garden' from Middle Persian ''palēz'' presupposes a variant *''pardaiza-'' (with syncope (Syncope (phonetics)) of ''-i-''), which seems to be the cognate of *''paridaida-'' from a different Iranian language (Avestan, Median or Parthian) borrowed into Persian still in an early period. , Median (Median language) *''paridaiza-'' (walled-around, i.e., a walled garden), was borrowed into Greek (Greek language) in the form Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
; and the chariots were loaded into spring-loaded gates. When the chariots were ready, the emperor (or whoever was hosting the races, if they were not in Rome) dropped a cloth known as a ''mappa'', signalling the beginning of the race. . The gates would spring open, creating a perfectly fair beginning for all participants. thumb Flag of Kastelorizo. (File:Kastelorizoflag.gif) The population and the economy reached its apogee
DATE OF DEATH April 29, 1933 PLACE OF DEATH Alexandria, Egypt The ''battalion'' also took part in the Battle of Alexandria on the 21st March, with the British force numbering about 14,000 and the French around 20,000. At the latter engagement, the British forces displayed much heroism and valour, with the Guards Brigade, in the center, acting in a highly professional manner against the French forces, which ended in victory for the British. The British suffered just
of California Press location Berkeley year 1996 edition 2nd ed. pages 25–26 isbn 0520205316 Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
thumb 260px Residential neighborhood in Alexandria (File:Kafr Abdou, Alexandria, Egypt.jpg) thumb right 260px Skyline from Montaza (File:View from Montaza.jpg) thumb right 260px Yachting club in Montaza (File:Alexandria yacht club.jpg) '''Alexandria''' ( ; accessdate 24 September 2014 publisher Collins Dictionary date n.d. ''' along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part (north coast of Egypt) of the country. It is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. Alexandria is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypt's imports and exports. It is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipeline (Pipeline transport)s from Suez. Alexandria is also an important tourist resort.
Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town ''c.'' 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It became an important center of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Hellenistic (Ptolemaic Kingdom) and Roman & Byzantine Egypt (Egypt (Roman province)) for almost 1000 years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (''Pharos''), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world; now replaced by a modern one (Bibliotheca Alexandrina)); and the Necropolis (Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa), one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages (Wonders of the Middle Ages). Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome.