Aleppo

What is Aleppo known for?


team run

of that city by blocking community streets and altering the skyline. Neolithic 1 – Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) Recent findings made by a Syrian-Polish joint excavation team run by Prof. R.F. Mazurowski, in Tell Qaramel, 25 km to the north of Aleppo put the beginning of the Neolithic 1 (PPNA) around 10,700 to 9400 BC or 10200-8800 cal. BCE according to the ASPRO chronology. Previous excavations at that site brought the discovery


friendly relationship

in Constanţa. Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Syrian embassy in Bucharest Russia has an embassy in Damascus and a consulate in Aleppo, and Syria has an embassy in Moscow (Embassy of Syria in Moscow). As with most of the Arab countries (Arab world), Russia enjoys a historically strong and stabely friendly relationship with Syria. Syria normally maintains


title fighting

of Aleppo (2012) fought for control of the city.


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building including

the Fountain of Qayt Bay and al-Ashrafiyya Madrasa. On the Arabian peninsula, Qaitbay sponsored the restoration of mosques and the construction of madrasas, fountains and hostels in Mecca and Medina. After a serious fire struck the Mosque of the Prophet (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi) in Medina in 1481, the building, including the Tomb of the Prophet, was extensively renewed through Qaitbay's patronage. Meinecke, ''Mamlukische Architektur'', II.396-442. The written history


deep interest

- les Jeunes de Langues. After a study period in Aleppo, he arrived in 1674 in Isfahan (Isfahan (city)) where he stayed till June 1676. From a short description of his stay we learn of his deep interest in the manners of the "dervish". Later that year, Zengi, the ''atabeg'' of Aleppo and Mosul, besieged the castle of Barin (Barin (castle)) in the territory of Tripoli. Raymond called for help from King Fulk of Jerusalem, but Zengi defeated them in a pitched battle outside the castle, and Raymond was taken prisoner. Zengi continued the siege, but began negotiations with the besieged when he heard that further relief was on its way from Raymond of Antioch, Joscelin II of Edessa, and Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus, who was in Antioch at the time. Those besieged in Barin did not know of these movements but readily agreed to hand over the castle to Zengi in exchange for the release of Raymond and an end to the siege. Under the vizier al-Aziz (Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah), there was a large amount of toleration conceded to the other sects of Islam, and to other communities, but the belief that the Christians of Egypt were in league with the Byzantine emperor, and even burned a fleet which was being built for the Byzantine war, led to some persecution. Al-Aziz attempted without success to enter into friendly relations with the Buwayhid ruler of Baghdad, and tried to gain possession of Aleppo, as the key to Iraq, but this was prevented by the intervention of the Byzantines. His North African possessions were maintained and extended, but the recognition of the Fatimid caliph in this region was little more than nominal. thumb Aircraft Engines IAE Model V2527-A5 (File:Turbine (Syrianair).jpg) Syrian Airlines was established in autumn 1946, with two propellers and started to fly between Damascus, Aleppo and Deir ez-Zour and Al-Qamishli. Operations began in 1947. Financial difficulties caused the suspension of services in 1948, but after receiving government support operations were resumed in 1951. The airline expanded during the next years to include Beirut, Baghdad, and Jerusalem, then Cairo and Kuwait then Doha, in addition to flights during the ''hajj''. The airline started its operations in June 1947 using two Beech D-18s and three Douglas DC-3 (C-47 Dakotas). The Dakotas had been acquired from Pan American World Airways (PAA), which provided technical assistance to Syrian Airways during the very first years of operation. The airline's domestic network linked Damascus, Aleppo, Latakia, Kamishly and Palmyra. Syrian Airways also operated a regional network, with flights to Beirut, Baghdad, Jerusalem, Amman; followed by Cairo, Kuwait, Doha and Jeddah. In May 1948, the war in Palestine and financial difficulties led to the withdrawal of PAA and to the suspension of service until the summer of 1952. On December 21, 1953, one of the airline's Douglas planes crashed near Damascus killing all nine aboard. The airline's operating permit was cancelled following the crash. The airline was allowed to fly again in 1954. The D-18s had been returned to the Syrian Air Force in 1949, while four additional Dakotas were acquired between 1952 and 1956. In the 9th century, tribes from the "Jabal el Summaq" area north of Aleppo, in Syria began settling the southern half of the mountain range. These tribes were known as the Tanoukhiyoun and in the 11th century they converted to the Druze faith and ruled the areas of Mount Lebanon stretching from Metn in the north to Jezzine in the south, this entire area became known as the ‘Jabal ad-Duruz’. In the early 17th century, Emir Fakhreddine the 2nd (Fakhr-al-Din II) ascended the throne in the Druze part of the mountains known as the Chouf. In an effort to unify Mount Lebanon, Emir Fakhreddine opened the door to Christian and in particular Maronite settlement of the Chouf and Metn. birth_date WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


distinctive style

, as well as in the Anatolian Peninsula and the Mediterranean islands of Crete and Cyprus. Nablus also developed trade relations with Aleppo, Mosul, and Baghdad. Doumani, 1995, Chapter: The City of Nablus. Nablus costume was of a distinctive style that employed colorful combinations of various fabrics. Due to its position as important trade center with a flourishing ''souk'' ("market


original ancient

of this. The original ancient name, '''Halab''', has been preserved as the current Arabic name of the city. It is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that Halab means 'iron' or 'copper' in Amorite languages, since it was a major source of these metals in antiquity. However, according to the 20th-century historian sheikh Kamel al-Ghazzi and contemporary linguist priest Barsoum Ayyoub, the name '''Halab''' (and consequently '''Aleppo''') is derived from the Aramaic word '''Halaba''' which means


period early

John L. Esposito (ed.) year 1995 publisher Oxford University Press isbn 0-19-506613-8 The most notable architectural remains from early Mesopotamia are the temple complexes at Uruk from the 4th millennium BC, temples and palaces from the Early Dynastic (Early Dynastic Period of Sumer#Early Dynastic period) period sites in the Diyala River valley such as Khafajah and Tell Asmar, the Third Dynasty of Ur remains at Nippur (Sanctuary of Enlil) and Ur


pioneering study

malouf was revitalized. Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger, a French-naturalized Bavarian living near Tunis, commission a collection of ancient works, working with Ali al-Darwish of Aleppo. Al-Darwish and d'Erlanger's pioneering study of Tunisian music was presented at the International Congress of Arabic Music, held in 1932. Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger died only a few months after the congress, which revolutionized Arab music across the world. In Tunisia, the meeting inspired the Rachidia

Aleppo

'''Aleppo''' ( Russell, Alexander (1794), The natural history of Aleppo, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, pp. 1–2 Gaskin, James J. (1846), Geography and sacred history of Syria, pp. 33–34

Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (List of cities by time of continuous habitation#Middle East); it has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC. ''Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition (2010) Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (1997) and this is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2010) Such a long history is probably due to its being a strategic trading point midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia (i.e. modern Iraq).

The city's significance in history has been its location at the end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. Then in the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch (Antakya) and Alexandretta (İskenderun), also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation, although perhaps it is this very decline that has helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has also witnessed a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks, until the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and the Battle of Aleppo (Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)). Agha Khan restoration plans of the old city

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