What is Aleppo known for?

controversial member

;A History of Coffee", ''Economic History Congress'' XIII (Buenos Aires, 2002) full text Arguably the most controversial member of the Fatimid dynasty, Hakim confronted numerous difficulties and uprisings during his relatively long reign. While he did not lose any important territories in North Africa, the Ismaili communities there were attacked by Sunni fighters led by their influential Maliki jurists. Relations between the Fatimids and the Qarmatians of Bahrain also remained hostile. On the other hand, Hakim’s Syrian policy was successful as he managed to extend Fatimid hegemony to the emirate of Aleppo. Above all, the persistent rivalries between the various factions of the Fatimid armies, especially the Berbers (Berber people) and the Turks (Turkish people), overshadowed the other problems of Hakim’s caliphate. Whilst he was in Cairo, studying and preaching, he upset the highly excitable Chief of the Army, Badr al-Jamalī. It is also said by later sources that the Ismaili Imam-Caliph al-Mustanṣir (Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah) informed Hassan that his elder son Nizar would be the next Imam. Hassan was briefly imprisoned by Badr al-Jamali. The collapse of a minaret of the jail was taken to be an omen in the favor of Hassan and he was promptly released and deported. The ship that he was traveling on was wrecked. He was rescued and taken to Syria. Traveling via Aleppo and Baghdad, he terminated his journey at Isfahan (Isfahan (city)) in 1081. - 1138 – A '''massive earthquake (1138 Aleppo earthquake)''', one of the deadliest (List of earthquakes#Deadliest earthquakes on record) in recorded history, struck Aleppo, Syria. unreferenced section Further travels (1663-1667) In November 1663 again sailed for the East, calling at Alexandria and landing at Sidon, whence he proceeded by land to Damascus, Aleppo, and then through Mesopotamia to Mosul, Baghdad and Mendeli. In the ''Six Voyages'' Tavernier states that he departed from Butler's company (1630) with the intention to travel to Ratisbon (Regensburg) to attend Ferdinand III's investiture as King of Romans. However, as the actual investiture did not take place until 1636, it is probable that he actually attended the ceremony between his first and second voyages. By his own account he had seen Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Poland and Hungary, as well as France, England and the Low Countries, and spoke the principal languages of these countries. He was now eager to visit the East; and at Ratisbon he, with the help of Pere Joseph, Cardinal Richelieu's agent and ''Eminence grise'' he was able to join the retinue of a pair of French travelers, M. de Chapes and M. de St Liebau, who had received a mission to the Levant. In their company he reached Constantinople early in 1631, where he spent eleven months, and then proceeded by Tokat, Erzerum and Erivan to Persia (Persian Empire). His farthest point in this first journey was Isfahan (Isfahan (city)); he returned by Baghdad, Aleppo, Alexandretta, Malta and Italy, and was again in Paris in 1633. '''Hama''' ( WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

historical books

of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List) In 1400 01 conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 destroyed Baghdad and Battle of Ankara in 1402 triumphed

modern drawing

pages 97 thumb left 300px Modern or early modern drawing of a medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa, c. 535 (Image:Justinian Multiple Solidi.jpg) Belisarius had been recalled in the face of renewed hostilities by the Persians (Sassanid Empire). Following a revolt against the Empire in Armenia (Marzpanate Period) in the late 530s and possibly motivated by the pleas of Ostrogothic (Ostrogoths) ambassadors, King Khosrau I broke the "Eternal Peace" and invaded Roman territory in the spring of 540. See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and especially H. Börm, "Der Perserkönig im Imperium Romanum", in: ''Chiron'' 36, 2006, p. 299 ff. He first sacked Beroea (Aleppo) and then Antioch (allowing the garrison of 6,000 men to leave the city), J. Norwich, ''Byzantium: The Early Centuries'', 229 besieged Daras, and then went on to attack the small but strategically significant satellite kingdom of Lazica (Lazic War) near the Black Sea, exacting tribute from the towns he passed along his way. He forced Justinian I to pay him 5,000 pounds of gold, plus 500 pounds of gold more each year. Peace in a region dominated by the Bani Khalid, as well as internal problems that kept other regional powers from interfering, allowed the Al Khalifa, Al-Sabah, Al-Roumi and Al Jalahma to develop new maritime skills. Kuwait had arguably one of the best natural harbors in the Persian Gulf; its location allowed it to benefit from the caravan trade to Aleppo and Baghdad, Shatt al-Arab trade, and from smuggling trade into Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) territory that high tariffs encouraged. the Al Khalifa, Al-Sabah, Al-Roumi and Al Jalahma's self-sufficiency to the desert was abandoned as they became linked to this trading network that included trade in horses, wood, spices, coffee, dates and especially pearls; Kuwait was located within close sail of the pearl banks that stretched down the Persian Gulf coast. In the summer, boats sailed for pearls; in the winter, they turned to entrepôt trade. WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

traditional architectural

in 1979 to be replaced with a new plan presented by the Swiss expert and urban designer Stefano Bianca, which adopted the idea of "preserving the traditional architectural style of Ancient Aleppo" paving the way for UNESCO to declare the Old City of Aleppo as a World Heritage Site in 1986. WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

ancient works

malouf was revitalized. Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger, a French-naturalized Bavarian living near Tunis, commission a collection of ancient works, working with Ali al-Darwish of Aleppo. Al-Darwish and d'Erlanger's pioneering study of Tunisian music was presented at the International Congress of Arabic Music, held in 1932. Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger died only a few months after the congress, which revolutionized Arab music across the world. In Tunisia, the meeting inspired the Rachidia Institute, which was formed in 1934 to preserve the malouf. The Rachidia Institute undertook some alterations, revising lyrics that were considered profane, and also constructed two performance spaces in the old city of Tunis. The Institute also helped to transition malouf from being performed by folk ensembles with only a few instrument (including 'ud, tar (tar (lute)), darbuka, rabab and bendir) to symphonic pieces inspired by Western classical music (European classical music) and Egyptian ensembles. Economy The growth of the city from a small village to an important trading center was due to its diverse economy in the ancient world. The city came to control the trade lanes between different regions such as western Iran, Mesopotamia, Carchemish, and parts of Anatolia. Cities that Mari is confirmed to have traded with include Ur, Aleppo, and Ugarit. The cargo brought through the city grew to include dates, olives, pottery, grains, timber, and stone. Trade might also have occurred with the nearby city of Terqa, but excavations of Terqa are relatively recent and not all results are published. Georges Dossin, Les archives économiques du palais de Mari, Syria, T. 20, Fasc. 2, pp. 97-113 1939 thumb right 250px "Kingdom of Syria" in 1918 (Image:FEisalKingdom.png) The new Arab administration formed local governments in the major Syrian cities, and the Pan-Arab flag (Flag of the Arab Revolt) was raised all over Syria. The Arabs hoped, with faith in earlier British promises, that the new Arab state would include all the Arab lands stretching from Aleppo in northern Syria to Aden in southern Yemen. In June 1919, the American King-Crane Commission arrived in Syria to inquire about the local public opinion regarding the future of the country. The commission's workspace extended from Aleppo to Beersheba. They visited 36 major cities, met with more than 2000 delegations from more than 300 villages, and received more than 3000 petitions. Their conclusions confirmed the opposition of Syrians to the mandate in their country as well as to the Balfour declaration (Balfour Declaration of 1917), and their demand of a unified Greater Syria encompassing Palestine. The conclusions of the commission were rejected by France and ignored by Britain. thumb right 150px French drawing depicting Damascus (Image:Damas Juillet 1920.jpg) in 1920 The capital was the northern city of Aleppo, which had large Christian and Jewish communities in addition to the Sunni Muslims. The state also incorporated minorities of Shiites and Alawites. Ethnic Kurds, and Assyrians Syriacs (Assyrian people) inhabited the eastern regions alongside the Arabs. His travels In 1821 he began his missionary wanderings in the East by visiting Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Mesopotamia, Persia (Persian Empire), Georgia (Georgia (country)) and the Crimea. He returned to England in 1826. birth_place Tarnów, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (now Poland) death_place Aleppo, Ottoman Empire (now Syria) placeofburial Tarnów (since 1929) '''Józef Zachariasz Bem''' ( WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

poetic work

, and collected many valuable manuscripts. Tarjumān al-Ashwāq In the year 611 he was again in Makkah, where his friend Abū Shujā had died two years before. Ibn ‘Arabī performed Ḥajj and started compilation of his most famous poetic work the Tarjumān al-Ashwāq. After Ḥajj Ibn ‘Arabī left Makkah, travelling north towards the Roman lands, probably Konya or Malatya and in the year 610 611 he returned to Aleppo. In Aleppo this work caused uproar and consternation in certain quarters

world growing

population. In the early 20th-century, the town's Jews lived mainly in Al-Jamiliyah, Bab Al-Faraj and the neighbourhoods around the Great Synagogue. Unrest in Palestine in the years preceding the establishment of Israel in 1948 resulted in growing hostility towards Jews living in Arab countries (Antisemitism in the Arab World), culminating in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands. In December 1947, after the UN decided the partition of Palestine, an Arab

religious diversity

citadel to the emperor. Homs is a major industrial center, and with a population of at least 800,000 people, it is the third largest city in Syria after Aleppo to the north and the capital Damascus to the south. Its population reflects Syria's general religious diversity, composed mostly of Arabic (Arabic language)-speaking Sunni Muslims and Alawite and Christian (Eastern Christianity) minorities. The city boasts a number of historic mosques and churches and is close

major historic

last Borri first Francesca title In Aleppo I only survive by looking Syrian journal The Guardian date 12 November 2013 url http: commentisfree 2013 nov 12 only-survive-by-looking-syrian-hunted-by-islamists accessdate 13 November 2013 In February 2014, the opposition groups of the Islamic Front claimed responsibility for destroying a series of major historic buildings in the old city including the justice palace, the ''Carlton Citadel'' hotel which was being used as an Assad government base, WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

winning contemporary

. *Abed Azrie, composer and classical songs performer. *Abd al-Rahman Mowakket, prize-winning contemporary sculptor. *Harut Sassounian, Armenian-American writer, publisher of The California Courier. *Muhammed Faris, first Syrian cosmonaut. *Seta Dadoyan, Armenian scholar and historian. *Karnig Sarkissian, Armenian revolutionary songs performer. *Paul Baghdadlian, Armenian singer. *Najdat Anzour, TV director of Circassian (Circassians) origins. * Bassam


'''Aleppo''' ( Russell, Alexander (1794), The natural history of Aleppo, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, pp. 1–2 Gaskin, James J. (1846), Geography and sacred history of Syria, pp. 33–34

Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (List of cities by time of continuous habitation#Middle East); it has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC. ''Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition (2010) Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (1997) and this is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2010) Such a long history is probably due to its being a strategic trading point midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia (i.e. modern Iraq).

The city's significance in history has been its location at the end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. Then in the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch (Antakya) and Alexandretta (İskenderun), also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation, although perhaps it is this very decline that has helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has also witnessed a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks, until the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and the Battle of Aleppo (Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)). Agha Khan restoration plans of the old city

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