Aleppo

What is Aleppo known for?


huge book

price checkin checkout content Dorm and Roof top dorm available at circa 250 SP. Single rooms ranging from 250-500 SP. Other room prices can be found on the website. Huge book library for lending, trading and buying. Satellite TV and mini-restaurant. The only real backpackers hostel in Aleppo and in a fantastic location, 50 m off Marry St., 100 m from the clock tower and less to the Baron hotel. * '''Hotel Kaser Alandaloss''' - Just off Bab Al-Faraj Street, in sight of the clock tower on a small block, nestled between a couple of soap merchant stores. The rooms are nice, and they have excellent showers and a comfortable central area to sit, eat, use the internet etc.. There's no option for breakfast, but if you want some tea or some food, they are more than likely to make some for you. Around 1200SP for a twin room with a bathroom. Mid-range * '''Tourist Hotel''' - Well known for having sparkling clean bathrooms, perhaps the cleanest in all of Syria according to some reports. * '''Hotel Somar''' – It is nothing fancy but rooms here are clean with satellite TV, bathrooms and a little shared courtyard. The price is expensive, however, compared to the budget hotels, which offer rooms of a similar standard. A double with en suite bathroom is US$31 as per May 2010. Breakfast is not included. Splurge * WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


commercial life

with the post of Prime Minister in the administration of President Mohammad Ali al-Abid. The National Bloc, Hasani’s prime opponent in local politics, staged a countrywide strike that lasted for sixty days, demanding that France address the issue of Syrian independence in a serious manner. During the strike, commercial life was brought to a standstill and hundreds of Syrians were arrested and deported to remote prisons on the Syrian-Turkish (Turkey) border. Hasani arrested many leaders


massive stone

WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


outstanding contribution

Congress International des Orientalistes in Paris in 1973. In 1975, he was conferred Fellow of the Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy for outstanding contribution in the field of comparative philosophy. He was a Principal Consultant to the World of Islam Festival held in London in 1976, and was speaker and delegate at the International Islamic Conference held concurrently at the same place. He was also a speaker and an active participant at the First World Conference on Islamic Education held at Mecca in 1977, where he chaired the Committee on Aims and Definitions of Islamic Education. From 1976-77, he was a Visiting Professor of Islamic at Temple University, Philadelphia, United States. In 1978. He chaired the UNESCO meeting of experts on Islamic history held at Aleppo, Syria, and in the following year the President of Pakistan, General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, conferred upon him the Iqbal Centenary Commemorative Medal. WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


commitment quot

and closed in 1899), Mersin, Baghdad, * 1893 Ankara, Aleppo (closed in 1921), Bassorah * 1898 Mytilini (closed in 1921) WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


military band

upright Arab musician in Aleppo, Syria with an oud circa 1915. The ancient Turkic peoples had a similar instrument called the ''kopuz (komuz)''. This instrument was thought to have magical powers and was brought to wars and used in military bands. This is noted in the Göktürk monument inscriptions, the military band was later used by other Turkic state's armies and later by Europeans. Fuad Köprülü, ''Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar'' (First Sufis in Turkish

% of commercial shipping operating in Ottoman waters. Not all regions benefited from steam ships as rerouting meant trade from Iran, Iraq and Arabia now did not need to go through Istanbul, Aleppo, and even Beirut, leading to losses in these territories. Quataert (2004) (#Quataert04), p. 302; Quataert (2000) (#Quataert00), pp. 116–118. thumb 220px right Military band Military band parade (Image:Proclamation of King Faisal I as King of Syria.jpg) in Aleppo on March 8, 1920, following the coronation of King Faisal I (Faisal I of Iraq) as King of Syria. thumb right 220px "Kingdom of Syria" in 1918 (Image:FEisalKingdom.png) '''Gaziantep''', previously and still informally called '''Antep'''; ʻayn tāb WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


major resistance

and Chagataid families to join Hulegu's expedition to Iran and strengthened the army with 1,000 siege engineers from China. Möngke's armies, led by his brother Hulegu (c. 1217–65), launched an attack on the Ismailis in Iran, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Mongke himself. Hulegu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Mongke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances. For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Mongke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Mongke told Hulegu whether the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulegu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulegu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulegu sent Mongke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Mongke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate for his victory in reply. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulegu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing of the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulegu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza. WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


difficult campaign

%20Shpakau%20paper.doc.doc ''The Byzantine navy was the continuation of the Roman navy'' . After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax (Heraklion), Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Dawla was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros liberated Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar (Hungarian people) incursions into the Byzantine Balkans. thumb 240px Romanos III Argyros—severely ill—dies inside the palace in 1034. In the picture, Romanos in a bath where he dies, from the ''Chronicle'' of John Scylitzes John Skylitzes (Image:Romanos III Argyros -severely ill- dies inside the palace in 1034 In the picture, Romanos in a bath where he dies from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.jpg). In 1030 he resolved to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims (Islam) on the eastern frontier by leading a large army in person against Aleppo, but by allowing himself to be surprised on the march sustained a serious defeat at Azaz, near Antioch. Though this disaster was reduced by the capture and successful defence of Edessa (Edessa, Mesopotamia) by George Maniakes (George Maniaces) in 1032 and by the sound defeat of a Saracen fleet in the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea), Romanos never recovered his early popularity. Campaign of 1068 The first military operations of Romanos did achieve a measure of success, reinforcing his opinions about the outcome of the war. Antioch was exposed to the Saracens of Aleppo who, with help from Turkish troops, began an attempt to reconquer the Byzantine province of Syria. Finlay, pg. 33 Romanos began marching to the southeastern frontier of the empire to deal with this threat, but as he was advancing towards Lykandos, he received word that a Seljuk army had made an incursion into Pontus and plundered Neocaesarea (Niksar). Finlay, pg. 34 Immediately he selected a small mobile force and quickly raced through Sebaste (Elaiussa Sebaste) and the mountains of Tephrike to encounter the Turks on the road, forcing them to abandon their plunder and release their prisoners, though a large number of the Turkish troops managed to escape. Finlay, pg. 34 left thumb Coin of John II Komnemos, depicting the Virgin Mary crowning John. (Image:JeanIIComneneVirginCrowningJohn.jpg) The emperor then directed his attention to the Levant, where he sought to re-inforce Byzantium's suzerainty over the Crusader States. In 1137 he conquered Tarsus (Tarsus (city)), Adana, and Mopsuestia from the Principality of Armenian Cilicia (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia), and in 1138 Prince Levon I of Armenia (Leo I, Prince of Armenia) and most of his family were brought as captives to Constantinople. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium: The Decline and Fall'', 76 This opened the route to the Principality of Antioch, where Prince Raymond of Poitiers (Raymond of Antioch) recognized himself the emperor's vassal in 1137, and John arrived there in triumph in 1138. There followed a joint campaign as John led the armies of Byzantium, Antioch and Edessa (County of Edessa) against Muslim Syria. Although John fought hard for the Christian cause in the campaign in Syria, his allies Prince Raymond of Antioch and Count Joscelin II of Edessa sat around playing dice instead of helping John to press the siege of Shaizar. These Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign, while Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. While the emperor was distracted by his attempts to secure a German (Holy Roman Empire) alliance against the Normans of Sicily, Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor. Homs is a major industrial center, and with a population of at least 800,000 people, it is the third largest city in Syria after Aleppo to the north and the capital Damascus to the south. Its population reflects Syria's general religious diversity, composed mostly of Arabic (Arabic language)-speaking Sunni Muslims and Alawite and Christian (Eastern Christianity) minorities. The city boasts a number of historic mosques and churches and is close to the Krak des Chevaliers, a world heritage site. Initially, the Egypt-based Tulunids came into control of it, but they were forced out by the Aleppo-based Hamdanids who were briefly succeeded by the Qarmatians, after their Turkish rebel ally Aftakin invaded northern Syria and established Homs as his base. Gil, 1997, p. 343. In 891 geographer al-Yaqubi wrote that Homs was situated along a broad river from which the inhabitants drank water from. It was one of the largest cities in Syria and had several smaller districts surrounding it. In 944 the Hamdanids took definitive control of the city, dominating it until 1016. Arab geographer al-Mas'udi claimed in the early 10th-century that Homs was "noted for the personal beauty of its inhabitants." le Strange, 1890, p. 353. In 985 al-Muqaddasi noted that Homs was the largest city in all of Syria, but it had suffered "great misfortunes" and was "threatened with ruin." He stated that when the city was conquered by the Muslims they turned half of its church into a mosque. al-Muqaddasi quoted in le Strange, 1890, p. 354. Geography The Governorate of Homs (Homs Governorate) is the largest in Syria. Homs, the governorate's capital, is located in central western Syria, situated along the east bank of the Orontes River in a particularly fertile area. The city is in between the southern outliers of al-Ansariyah mountains located to its west and Mount Lebanon, overlooking the Homs Gap. Because of the gap, the area around Homs receives much more rainfall than interior regions to its north and south. To the east of Homs, is the Syrian Desert. Lake Homs, impounded by a huge dam of Roman origins (Lake of Homs Dam), is to the southwest, lying some WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


winning+contemporary

. *Abed Azrie, composer and classical songs performer. *Abd al-Rahman Mowakket, prize-winning contemporary sculptor. *Harut Sassounian, Armenian-American writer, publisher of The California Courier. *Muhammed Faris, first Syrian cosmonaut. *Seta Dadoyan, Armenian scholar and historian. *Karnig Sarkissian, Armenian revolutionary songs performer. *Paul Baghdadlian, Armenian singer. *Najdat Anzour, TV director of Circassian (Circassians) origins. * Bassam


research shows

across the Near East as trade was rerouted. Quataert’s research shows volume of trade began to rise in the 19th century. By 1900 sailboats accounted for 5% of ships visiting Istanbul, however this 5% was greater in number than any year of the 19th century. In 1873, Istanbul handled 4.5 million tons of shipping – this was 10 million tons by 1900. These ships accelerated growth of port cities with deep harbours (harbor) to accommodate ever-growing ships. Europeans however owned 90% of commercial shipping operating in Ottoman waters. Not all regions benefited from steam ships as rerouting meant trade from Iran, Iraq and Arabia now did not need to go through Istanbul, Aleppo, and even Beirut, leading to losses in these territories. Quataert (2004) (#Quataert04), p. 302; Quataert (2000) (#Quataert00), pp. 116–118. thumb 220px right Military band Military band parade (Image:Proclamation of King Faisal I as King of Syria.jpg) in Aleppo on March 8, 1920, following the coronation of King Faisal I (Faisal I of Iraq) as King of Syria. thumb right 220px "Kingdom of Syria" in 1918 (Image:FEisalKingdom.png) '''Gaziantep''', previously and still informally called '''Antep'''; ʻayn tāb WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

Aleppo

'''Aleppo''' ( Russell, Alexander (1794), The natural history of Aleppo, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, pp. 1–2 Gaskin, James J. (1846), Geography and sacred history of Syria, pp. 33–34

Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (List of cities by time of continuous habitation#Middle East); it has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC. ''Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition (2010) Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (1997) and this is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2010) Such a long history is probably due to its being a strategic trading point midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia (i.e. modern Iraq).

The city's significance in history has been its location at the end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. Then in the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch (Antakya) and Alexandretta (İskenderun), also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation, although perhaps it is this very decline that has helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has also witnessed a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks, until the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and the Battle of Aleppo (Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)). Agha Khan restoration plans of the old city

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