Óc Eo

What is Óc Eo known for?


international de

, Kolkata, Punthi Pustak, 1998, p.413. Scholarship has now determined that Ptolemy's Kattigara was at eight and a half degrees North of the Equator, and was the forerunner of Saigon as the main port and entrepot at the mouth of the Mekong. Albert Herrmann, “Der Magnus Sinus und Cattigara nach Ptolemaeus”, ''Comptes Rendus du 15me Congrès International de Géographie,'' Amsterdam, 1938, Leiden, Brill, 1938, tome II, sect. IV, ''Géographie Historique et Histoire de la Géographie

the southeastern point. The Sinus Magnus, or Great Gulf, was the actual Gulf of Thailand. Albert Herrmann, “Der Magnus Sinus und Cattigara nach Ptolemaeus”, ''Comptes Rendus du 15me Congrès International de Géographie, Amsterdam, 1938,'' Leiden, Brill, 1938, tome II, sect. IV, ''Géographie Historique et Histoire de la Géographie,'' pp. 123-8 Christopher Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage of 1502–1503, planned to follow the coast of Champa southward around the Cape

was seeking”. Letter dated 7 July 1503; quoted in J.M. Cohen (ed.), ''The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus,'' Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1969, p.287. References *Albert Herrmann, “Der Magnus Sinus und Cattigara nach Ptolemaeus”, ''Comptes Rendus du 15me Congrès International de Géographie'', Amsterdam, 1938, Leiden, Brill, 1938, tome II, sect. IV, Géographie Historique


knowledge

discoveries in that region that can be dated to the period of Funan have been identified with the historical polity of Funan. The discoveries at Óc Eo and related sites are our primary source for the material culture of Funan. The Vietnamese archaeologist and historian Hà Văn Tấn has written that at the present stage of knowledge, it was impossible to demonstrate the existence of a Funan culture, widely spread from the Mekong Delta through the Chao Praya delta to Burma, with Oc Eo

Banteaymeas (now Hà Tiên), Nicholas Sellers, ''The Princes of Hà-Tiên (1682-1867): the Last of the Philosopher-Princes and the Prelude to the French Conquest of Indochina: a Study of the Independent Rule of the Mac Dynasty in the Principality of Hà-Tiên, and the Establishment of the Empire of Vietnam,'' Brussels, Thanh-long, 1983, p.164. not far from Óc Eo. John Caverhill, “Some Attempts to ascertain the utmost Extent of the Knowledge of the Ancients in the East

Caverhill, “Some Attempts to ascertain the utmost Extent of the Knowledge of the Ancients in the East Indies”, ''Philosophical Transactions,'' vol.57, 1767, pp. 155–174. *Adhir K. Chakravarti, “Early Sino-Indian Maritime Trade and Fu-Nan”, D.C. Sircar (ed.), ''Early Indian Trade and Industry,'' Calcutta, University of Calcutta Centre of Advanced Study in Ancient Indian History and Culture, ''Lectures and Seminars,'' no. VIII-A, part I, 1972, pp. 101–117. *George Cœdès, “Fouilles


174

of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Bougon, 25th–29th September 2006,'' Chiang Mai, Siam Ratana, c2008, pp.167-174. Many of the remains have been collected and are on exhibition in Museum of Vietnamese History in Ho Chi Minh City. Among the coins found at Óc Eo by Malleret were eight made of silver bearing the image of the Hamsa (bird) or Crested Argus, apparently minted in Funan. Lương Ninh, “Óc Eo - Cảng thị quốc tế của Vương quốc Phù Nam

Indies”, ''Philosophical Transactions,'' vol.57, 1767, pp.155-174. The plea in 1979 by Jeremy H.C.S. Davidson for “a thorough study of Hà-tiên in its historical context and in relation to Óc-eo” as indispensable

Caverhill, “Some Attempts to ascertain the utmost Extent of the Knowledge of the Ancients in the East Indies”, ''Philosophical Transactions,'' vol.57, 1767, pp. 155–174. *Adhir K. Chakravarti, “Early Sino-Indian Maritime Trade and Fu-Nan”, D.C. Sircar (ed.), ''Early Indian Trade and Industry,'' Calcutta, University of Calcutta Centre of Advanced Study in Ancient Indian History and Culture, ''Lectures and Seminars,'' no. VIII-A, part I, 1972, pp. 101–117. *George Cœdès, “Fouilles


cattigara

, Kolkata, Punthi Pustak, 1998, p.413. Scholarship has now determined that Ptolemy's Kattigara was at eight and a half degrees North of the Equator, and was the forerunner of Saigon as the main port and entrepot at the mouth of the Mekong. Albert Herrmann, “Der Magnus Sinus und Cattigara nach Ptolemaeus”, ''Comptes Rendus du 15me Congrès International de Géographie,'' Amsterdam, 1938, Leiden, Brill, 1938, tome II, sect. IV, ''Géographie Historique et Histoire de la Géographie

,'' pp.123-8; Louis Malleret, ''L’Archéologie du delta du Mékong,'' Tome Troisiéme, ''La culture du Fu-nan,'' Paris, 1962, chap.XXV, “Oc-Èo et Kattigara”, pp.421-54. thumb Mr Caverhill proves the ancient Cattigara to be the same with the modern Ponteamass (Banteaymeas), ''The Monthly Review, Or, Literary Journal,'' Volume 40, 1769, p.98. (File:The Monthly Review, Or, Literary Journal, Volume 40, 1769.JPG) John Caverhill deduced in 1767 that Cattigara was the Mekong Delta port

for accurate understanding and interpretation of the site, still remains unanswered. Jeremy H.C.S. Davidson, “Archaeology in Southern Viet-Nam since 1954”, in R. B. Smith and W. Watson (eds.), ''Early South East Asia: Essays in Archaeology, History, and Historical Geography,'' New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp.215-222, see p.216. The eighteenth-century French geographer, Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, located Cattigara at the mouth of the Mekong (''Cottiaris


vasco da gama

of the New World and the Meaning of its History,'' Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1961, pp.106-122. Columbus planned to meet up with the expedition sent at the same time from Portugal around the Cape of Good Hope under Vasco da Gama, and carried letters of credence from the Spanish monarchs to present to da Gama. The letter, dated 14 March 1502, is published in Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, ''Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos,'' 2nd. edn., Madrid


important position

Tấn argued that, from the late neolithic or early metal age, Óc Eo gradually emerged as an economic and cultural centre of the Mekong Delta and, with an important position on the Southeast Asian sea routes, became a meeting place for craftsmen and traders, which provided adequate conditions for urbanization, receiving foreign influences, notably from India, which in turn stimulated internal development. Ha Van Tan, "Óc Eo: Endogenous and Exogenous Elements", ''Viet Nam Social Sciences,'' 1-2 (7-8), 1986, pp. 91-101. Funan was part of the region of Southeast Asis referred to in ancient Indian texts as Suvarnabhumi (Suwannaphum), and may have been the part to which the term was first applied. Pang Khat, «Le Bouddhisme au Cambodge», René de Berval, ''Présence du Bouddhisme,'' Paris, Gallimard, 1987, pp.535-551, pp.537, 538; Amarajiva Lochan, ”India and Thailand: Early Trade Routes and Sea Ports”, S.K. Maity, Upendra Thakur, A.K. Narain (eds,), ''Studies in Orientology: Essays in Memory of Prof. A.L. Basham,'' Agra, Y.K. Publishers, 1988, pp.222-235, pp.222, 229-230; Prapod Assavavirulhakarn, ''The Ascendancy of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia,'' Chieng Mai, Silkworm Books, 2010, p.55. Oc Eo as the Kattigara of Ptolemy left 230px thumb The ancient canal linking Óc Eo to Angkor Borei (Image:Oceo.jpg) Óc Eo may have been the port known to the Romans as Kattigara. "Oc-Eo dans le delta du Mékong serait donc une identification plus probable": Germaine Aujac, ''Claude Ptolémée, Astronome, Astrologue, Géographe: Connaissance et Représentation du Monde habité,'' Paris, Editions du CTHS, 1993, p.125, n.10. See also Adhir Chakravarti, “The Economic Foundations of Three Ancient Civilizations of South-east Asia: Borobudur, Dvararavati and Angkor: Preliminary Report of a Study Tour in some countries of South-east Asia in April–May 1985”, in Haraprasad Ray (ed.), ''Studies on India, China, and South East Asia: Posthumous Papers of Prof. Adhir Chakravarti,'' Kolkata, R.N. Bhattacharya, 2007, p.89; and Adhir Chakravarti, “International Trade and Towns of Ancient Siam”, ''Our Heritage: Bulletin of the Department of Post-graduate Training and Research, Sanskrit College, Calcutta,'' vol. XXIX, part I, January–June 1981, pp1-23, nb p.9. An alternative proposed by J. L. Moens was that the name derived from the Sanskrit, ''Koti-nagara'' “Cape City”, referring to its location near Cape Ca Mau, the southern point of Indochina: J. L. Moens, "De Noord-Sumatraanse Rijken der Parfums en specerijen in Voor-Moslimse Tijd," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp.325-336, p.335; also J. L. Moens, "Kotinagara het antieke handescentrum op Yava's. Eindpunt," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp. 437-48, p.448; and also W.J. van der Meulen, "Ptolemy's Geography of Mainland Southeast Asia and Borneo," ''Indonesia,'' no.19, April 1975, pp.1-32, p.17. Kattigara was the name given by the 2nd century AD Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemy to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum (Indian Ocean) at (due to a scribal error) eight and a half degrees South of the Equator. Paul Schnabel, „Die Entstehungsgeschichte des kartographischen Erdbildes des Klaudios Ptolemaios“, ''Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: Philosophisch-Historische Klasse,'' Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bd.XIV, 1930, S.214-250, nb 239-243. Erich Polaschek, ‘Ptolemy's "Geography" in a New Light’, ''Imago Mundi'', Vol. 14, (1959), pp. 17-37, nb pp.25 & 35. Category:Kingdom of Funan Category:Ancient Vietnam Category:Buildings and structures in An Giang Province Category:Archaeology of Vietnam Category:1st millennium Category:1st-century establishments Category:7th-century disestablishments Category:History of Cambodia Category:Communes of An Giang Province thumb left 300px Cam Mountains (File:Núi ở An Giang.jpg) An Giang first became a province in 1832, having been settled by ethnically Vietnamese migrants moving southwards in search of new land. It is believed that An Giang was once an important centre of the vanished Óc Eo culture, presumably owing to its position on the river. Traditionally, An Giang has been known for its silk industry. A maritime route opened up with the Chinese-controlled Jiaozhi (centred in modern Vietnam) and the Khmer (Khmer people) kingdom of Funan (Kingdom of Funan) by the 2nd century CE, if not earlier. Hill (2009), p. 291. At the formerly coastal site of Óc Eo in the Mekong Delta, Roman coins were among the vestiges of long-distance trade discovered by the French archaeologist Louis Malleret in the 1940s. Milton Osborne, ''The Mekong: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future'' (2001:25). Óc Eo may have been the port known to the geographer Ptolemy and the Romans as Kattigara or Cattigara, though most modern scholars place it at Jiaozhi, near modern Hanoi. Hill 2004 - see: and Appendix F. Zürcher (2002), pp. 30-31. The trade connection extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lanka , all the way to Roman-controlled ports in Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea. The trading area of the Pyu states spanned across the present-day Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. Artifacts from the 2nd century northwest India to Java and the Philippines have been found at Beikthano. Likewise, Pyu artifacts have been found along the coasts of Arakan (Rakhine State), Lower Burma, and as far east as Óc Eo (in present-day southern Vietnam). Aung-Thwin (2005), p. 18 The Pyu also conducted trade and diplomatic relations with China. In 800 and 801–802, Sri Ksetra sent a formal embassy, along with 35 musicians to the Tang court. According to the Chinese, the Pyu used gold and silver coinage. But only silver coins have survived. Htin Aung, p. 13


336

Cape Ca Mau, the southern point of Indochina: J. L. Moens, "De Noord-Sumatraanse Rijken der Parfums en specerijen in Voor-Moslimse Tijd," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp.325-336, p.335; also J. L. Moens, "Kotinagara het antieke handescentrum op Yava's. Eindpunt," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp. 437-48, p.448; and also W.J. van der Meulen, "Ptolemy's Geography of Mainland

-Hiue'' 漢學, vol.II, pts.1-3, 1948), in ''T'oung Pao'' 通報, vol.40, livres 4 5, 1951, pp. 336–351, n.b. pp. 338, 341. *Paul Lévy, "Recent Archaeological Researches by the École Français d’Extrême Orient, French Indo-China, 1940–1945", in Kalidas Nag (ed.), ''Sir William Jones: Bicentenary of his Birth Commemoration Volume, 1746–1946'', Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1948, pp. 118–19; paraphrased in R. C. Majumdar, ''Ancient Indian colonisation


site+covers/

Culture in Southern Vietnam.jpg 150 px left This map shows the locations of archeological sites associated with Oc Eo culture. It is located at the Museum of Vietnamese History, Ho Chi Minh City. Excavation at Óc Eo began on February 10, 1942, after French archaeologists had discovered the site through the use of aerial photography. The first excavations were led by Louis Malleret. The site covers 450 ha. Óc Eo is situated within a network of ancient canals that crisscross the low


amp set

; Asiatic Society Monographs,'' Vol. I, 1909, pp.193, 775 and Albert Herrmann, „Die alten Verkehrswege zwischen Indien und Süd-China nach Ptolemäus“, ''Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin,'' 1913, pp.771-787, p.784. amp;set%5Bmets%5D http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zvdd.de%2Fdms%2Fmetsresolver%2F%3FPPN%3DPPN391365657_1913&set%5Bzoom%5D default&set%5Bdebug%5D 0&set%5Bdouble%5D 0&set%5Bstyle%5D English translation at:


accurate

'', ''Shresthapura'' and ''Vyadhapura'', which are known from inscriptions to have been used at the time for cities in the region and provide a more accurate idea of the true geography of the ancient Khmer territory. Claude Jacques, “‘Funan’, ‘Zhenla’: The Reality Concealed by these Chinese Views of Indochina”, in R. B. Smith and W. Watson (eds.), ''Early South East Asia : Essays in Archaeology, History and Historical Geography,'' New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp.371-9. Hà Văn

for accurate understanding and interpretation of the site, still remains unanswered. Jeremy H.C.S. Davidson, “Archaeology in Southern Viet-Nam since 1954”, in R. B. Smith and W. Watson (eds.), ''Early South East Asia: Essays in Archaeology, History, and Historical Geography,'' New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp.215-222, see p.216. The eighteenth-century French geographer, Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, located Cattigara at the mouth of the Mekong (''Cottiaris

Óc Eo

'''Óc Eo''' (from the -- , "O Keo", meaning "Glass canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta region of Vietnam. It is also one of the modern day communes of Vietnam. Óc Eo may have been a busy port of the kingdom of Funan (Kingdom of Funan) between the 1st and 7th centuries AD. Scholars use the term "Óc Eo Culture" to refer to the ancient material culture of the Mekong Delta region that is typified by the artifacts recovered at Óc Eo through archeological investigation.

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