Ávila, Spain

What is Ávila, Spain known for?


madrid

, reducing to just 4,000 inhabitants. In the 19th century there was some population growth with the construction of the railway line from Madrid to the French border at Irun and an important junction near the town. In 1936, at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the town quickly became part of the area occupied by rebel troops. Growth continued slowly again under Franco (Francisco Franco), but Ávila has not had a major influence in Spanish society in recent history, apart from

;Cathcart King 1988, 29" *Narrow-gauge railway Santander-Bilbao (FEVE) *Broad-gauge railway Santander-Palencia-Valladolid-Ávila (Ávila, Spain)-Madrid (RENFE) *Broad-gauge high-speed railway Santander-Torrelavega-Valladolid-Segovia-Madrid (RENFE) - Ávila (Ávila, Spain) Adaja Douro in Villamarciel Tordesillas and Arévalo - - 50px A-50 (File:A-50Spain.png) Autovía de la Cultura (Autovía A-50) Salamanca

are Seville, Granada, Santander (Santander, Cantabria), Oviedo, Gijón, Bilbao and San Sebastián. All of them with historical landmarks and a lively cultural agenda. Early life Born Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás on December 16, 1863 in Madrid, he spent his early childhood in Ávila (Ávila, Spain). His mother Josefina Borrás was the daughter of a Spanish official in the Philippines, and Jorge was the only child of her second marriage. She


previous century

– Caceres; Celtiberian-type mint: ''Tamusiensi''), ''Ocelon Ocelum'' (Castelo Branco (Castelo Branco, Portugal)), ''Cottaeobriga'' (Almeida) and ''Lancia'' (Serra d’Opa). Veneration Constantine the Great built a church in his honour. His relics were translated ''ca.'' 630 to a spring at Squillace, close by the Vivarium, the monastery founded in the previous century by Cassiodorus in the heel of Italy.


commentary

. On his return to Spain he was appointed Grand Chancellor of Castile (Crown of Castile), and in 1449, Bishop of Ávila (Ávila, Spain), whence his title ''Abulensis''. Besides a Spanish commentary on the chronicles of Eusebius and other minor works, he wrote commentaries on the historical books of the Old Testament as far as Second Chronicles (Books of Chronicles), and on the Gospel according to St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew). These are extremely diffuse, containing many digressions

on dogmatic and other subjects, which, though often excellent in themselves, are out of place in a commentary. An edition of his works in 13 folio (folio (printing)) volumes was published at Venice in 1507 and 1547; a more complete edition in 24 folio volumes appeared at the same place in 1615, and another in 27 folio volumes in 1728. Life Melchor de Jovellanos was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. Selecting law as his profession, he studied at Oviedo, Ávila, Spain


important architectural

Jose o de las Madres 03.jpg thumb 200px Convento de San José The Convent of Saint Joseph is the first monastery of Discalced Carmelite (Discalced Carmelites) nuns founded by Saint Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Ávila). The convent was built in the year of 1562, although the most important architectural element, the church, was built in 1607. The Church was designed by the architect Francisco de Mora (1553-1610). It is a national monument since 1968. Iglesia de San Pedro * Start date: about 1100. * The church of Saint Peter is located outside the town walls in the Plaza de Mercado Grande at the door of the Alcazar. Presents analogous with that of San Vicente. * Latin cross floor and three naves of five sections. Apsidal chapels: mayor chapel, chapel of the south apse and chapel of the north apse. Ermita de San Segundo thumb 200px Torreón de los Guzmanes. (File:Avila Torreon de los Gusmanes.jpg) 200px thumb upright Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Sonsoles. (File:Ermitadesonsoles.jpg) Beautiful hermitage located to the west of Ávila, outside the town walls, on the right bank of the Adaja river. Highlights the sculpted capitals in which the sculptor is the footprint of the apse of San Andrés. Alabaster statue made by Juan de Juni. Popular belief has it that, on introducing a handkerchief into the tomb and asking for three wishes, the saint will grant one. His pilgrimage is celebrated on 2 May, Segundo (Saint Segundo) being the patron saint of Ávila. Palacio de Don Diego del Águila This 16th-century palace is located inside the walls and attached to it as junt walk through the door of San Vicente, defended the access of Muslim troops.


important works

) capitals of the monument. Highlight the tomb of Saint Peter of the Boat and, above all, the Cenotaph of the Holy Brothers Martyrs, the head of the temple, Saint Vincent of Ávila, and her sisters, along with the torture he suffered in the 4th century, Saint Sabina and Saint Cristeta, (Cenotafio de los santos Vicente, Sabina y Cristeta), one of the most important works of Romanesque sculpture in Spain. Convento de San José File:Avila - Convento de San


great artistic

cross plan, three naves, dome, tribunes (Tribune (architecture)), three apses, atrium (Atrium (architecture)), two towers and crypt. * All the façade and the environment where it is located are of great artistic value. * Interior: Latin cross room with three naves. The pillars are of a Greek cross with half columns on the heads. * Crypt: Consists of three chapels, for the three apses of the church are mainly romanesque (Romanesque art) and have the best Capital (architecture


professional training

to what has been called ''brick Romanesque'' style. Centers of Mudéjar art are found in other cities, such as Toro (Toro (Spain)), Cuéllar, Arévalo and Madrigal de las Altas Torres. 250px thumb Ávila Police Academy (Image:Academia Policía.JPG) If the applicant has been chosen, they will receive professional training in Ávila (Ávila, Spain)'s police academy for six months. Whilst trainees reside at the academy, they learn about Spanish law, receive firearms and self


major influence

, reducing to just 4,000 inhabitants. In the 19th century there was some population growth with the construction of the railway line from Madrid to the French border at Irun and an important junction near the town. In 1936, at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the town quickly became part of the area occupied by rebel troops. Growth continued slowly again under Franco (Francisco Franco), but Ávila has not had a major influence in Spanish society in recent history, apart from


main+view

merlons, paintings by 3 m. thick, an average height of 12 m. and 9 gates. It is the largest fully illuminated monument in the world. It is possible to walk upon the walls themselves for roughly half their circumference. Whilst some of the walls will never be navigable in this way because of their integration into other structures, there is a large stretch of the walls that have yet to be made safe for pedestrians. Cathedral thumb right 200px Main view of the Cathedral of Ávila (File:Ávila Chatedral main view.jpg) thumb right 200px Apse of the cathedral through the town walls (File:Cimorro Catedral Ávila.jpg)


exceptional+early

of the clutches of the Duke. Blaine hires Pratt, whom Stephen had employed in ''The Reverse of the Medal'', to gather information on the Duke. Life Cristóbal de Morales was born in Seville and, after an exceptional early education there which included a rigorous training in the classics as well as musical study with some of the foremost composers, he held posts at Ávila (Ávila, Spain) and Plasencia. All that is known about his family is that he had a sister, and that his father had died prior to his sister's marriage (in 1530). Others who lived in Seville were considered to be potential relatives of Morales. These include Cristóbal de Morales, whose position was to sing for the Duke of Medina Sidonia (Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia) in 1504, Alonso de Morales, whose title was treasurer of the cathedral in 1503, Francisco de Morales (d 1505), a canon, and Diego de Morales, who was the cathedral notary in 1525. In Germany, Worms Cathedral, has wheel windows in the pedimental ends of its nave and gables, very similar to the Early Christian Basilica of S. Agnese in Rome. The apsidal western end has a central wheel window with smaller oculi in each face. The Church of the Apostles, Cologne has an array of both ocular and lobed windows forming decorative features in the gables and beneath the Rhenish Helm spire. The octagonal dome has a ring of oculi with two in each of the curved faces. thumb upright San Pedro, Ávila, Spain Ávila (File:Avila San Pedro View.jpg), Spain. In Trebic, Czech Republic, is the 12th- and 13th-century Romanesque style Basilica of St Procopius with apsidal windows similar to those at Worms, but in this case the openings are filled with tracery of a Gothic form, clearly marking the transition to a new style. At age sixteen Suárez entered the Society of Jesus in Salamanca, and he studied Philosophy and Theology there for five years from 1565 to 1570. It seems he was not a promising student at first; in fact, he nearly gave up his matters of study after failing the entrance exam twice. After passing the exam at third attempt, though, things changed, and he completed his course of Philosophy with distinction, going on to study Theology, to then teach Philosophy in Ávila (Ávila, Spain) and Segovia. He was ordained (ordination) in 1572, and taught Theology in Ávila, Segovia (1575), Valladolid (1576), Rome (1580–85), Alcalá (Alcalá de Henares) (1585–92), Salamanca (1592–97), and Coimbra (1597–1616). *April 2009 Even though the tremors are strongly felt in the city, Teramo is not damaged by L’Aquila Earthquake (2009 L'Aquila earthquake). *16 of December 2009 The city and the province of Teramo sign a protocol of friendship and cooperation with the provincial council of Ávila (Ávila, Spain) in Spain. She was born in Ávila (Ávila, Spain), the daughter of a military officer, and received a law degree from the Universidad de León. She met Rodríguez Zapatero in León (León, León) in 1981. They married on 27 January 1990 and have two daughters, born 1993 and 1995. * The U.S. consular compound (consulate) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is stormed by gunmen, who kill nine Saudis in a four-hour battle but do not gain entry to the consulate building itself. Saudi security forces kill three of the gunmen, arrest two others, and pursue several more. There are no Americans dead, though some are slightly wounded. (BBC) (Reuters AFP) * In Spain the Basque (Basque people) separatist group ETA detonate seven bombs in bars, cafes and town squares across the country. The cities attacked are León (León, Spain), Ávila (Ávila, Spain), Santillana del Mar, Ciudad Real, Málaga, Valladolid, and Alicante. All the attacks were preceded by warnings and nobody was seriously hurt. (BBC) *Ukrainian presidential election controversy (Ukrainian presidential election, 2004): EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana has returned to Ukraine for talks on the country's political crisis.(BBC) Life He was born in Guadalajara, Spain (his surname comes from his father, Shem-Tov de León), and spent 30 years in Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Spain) and Valladolid before moving to Ávila (Ávila, Spain), where he lived for the rest of his life. He died at Arévalo in 1305 while returning to his home. ;'''July 14''': Shootout between Police Assault Guard and fascist militias in the streets surrounding the cemetery of Madrid, where the burials of José Castillo and Calvo Sotelo are taking place. Four people killed. ;'''July 17''': Army uprising in Morocco. Military uprising of the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco. General Manuel Romerales, commanding officer of the East Army, is murdered by rebels, who also imprisoned commanding General Gomez in the late afternoon. Loyal police troops from the Guardia Civil and Guardia de Asalto hold the cities Tetouan and Larache, but come under heavy attack by the rebels. General Franco (Francisco Franco) orders the killing of his nephew, a major in Tetuán, for staying loyal to the government. By late evening, all of Morocco is in the hands of the rebels. From the Canary Islands, Franco declares a "state of war (war)" for all of Spain. Prime Minister Santiago Casares Quiroga spends the whole day telephoning different regional military administrations to clarify the situation. Pamplona, Zaragoza, Oviedo, Salamanca, Ávila (Ávila, Spain), Segovia, and Cadiz are already in rebel hands. ;'''July 18''': The rebels gain control over about one third of Spain. Historians agree that the Mudéjar style developed in Sahagún, León (Sahagún, Spain) as an adaptation of architectural and Ornament (architecture) ornamental motifs (motif (art)) (especially through decoration with plasterwork and brick). Mudéjar extended to the rest of the Kingdom of León, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Ávila (Ávila, Spain), Segovia, etc., giving rise to what has been called ''brick Romanesque'' style. Centers of Mudéjar art are found in other cities, such as Toro (Toro (Spain)), Cuéllar, Arévalo and Madrigal de las Altas Torres. 250px thumb Ávila Police Academy (Image:Academia Policía.JPG) If the applicant has been chosen, they will receive professional training in Ávila (Ávila, Spain)'s police academy for six months. Whilst trainees reside at the academy, they learn about Spanish law, receive firearms and self-defense training, conduct practical application exercises, learn the basics of the English language and undergo training in crime investigation. After that, the applicant will have the ''aula práctica'', that mixes theoretical knowledge with practical situations for three months. Finally, the pupil will receive a policing practice, in which there will be various common situations that will form him as an agent. The Vettones lived in the northwestern part of the ''meseta (Geography of Spain#The Inner Plateau and associated mountains)''—the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula—the region where the modern Spanish provinces of Ávila (Ávila (province)) and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora (Zamora (province)), Toledo (Toledo (province)), Cáceres (Cáceres (province)) and also the eastern border areas of modern Portuguese (Portugal) territory. Their own capital city, which the ancient sources mysteriously failed to mention at all, has not yet been found though other towns mentioned by Ptolemy Ptolemy, ''Geographika'', II, 5, 7 were located, such as ''Capara'' (Vendas de Cápara), ''Obila'' (Ávila (Ávila, Spain)), ''Mirobriga'' (Ciudad Rodrigo), ''Turgalium'' (Trujillo, Cáceres), ''Alea'' (Alía – Caceres) and probably ''Bletisa'' ''Bletisama'' (Ledesma, Salamanca). Other probable Vettonian towns were ''Tamusia'' (Villasviejas de Tamuja, near Botija – Caceres; Celtiberian-type mint: ''Tamusiensi''), ''Ocelon Ocelum'' (Castelo Branco (Castelo Branco, Portugal)), ''Cottaeobriga'' (Almeida) and ''Lancia'' (Serra d’Opa). Veneration Constantine the Great built a church in his honour. His relics were translated ''ca.'' 630 to a spring at Squillace, close by the Vivarium, the monastery founded in the previous century by Cassiodorus in the heel of Italy. Select Abstracts He was known in Squillace as ''San Agario''. A relic of his arm was brought to Guardavalle in 1584 by the bishop of Squillace, Marcello Sirleto, hence Agathius' patronage of this city. Relics from Squillace were also brought to Cuenca (Cuenca, Spain) and Ávila (Ávila, Spain) in Spain, where he is known as ''San Acato''. Sant' Agazio (Acacio) The cathedral was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on October 31, 1984. It is the only Spanish cathedral that has this distinction independently, without being joined to the historic center of a city (as in Salamanca, Santiago de Compostela, Ávila (Ávila, Spain), Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain), Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Alcalá de Henares or Cuenca (Cuenca, Spain)) or in union with others buildings, as in Seville. On his return to Spain he was appointed Grand Chancellor of Castile (Crown of Castile), and in 1449, Bishop of Ávila (Ávila, Spain), whence his title ''Abulensis''. Besides a Spanish commentary on the chronicles of Eusebius and other minor works, he wrote commentaries on the historical books of the Old Testament as far as Second Chronicles (Books of Chronicles), and on the Gospel according to St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew). These are extremely diffuse, containing many digressions on dogmatic and other subjects, which, though often excellent in themselves, are out of place in a commentary. An edition of his works in 13 folio (folio (printing)) volumes was published at Venice in 1507 and 1547; a more complete edition in 24 folio volumes appeared at the same place in 1615, and another in 27 folio volumes in 1728. Life Melchor de Jovellanos was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. Selecting law as his profession, he studied at Oviedo, Ávila (Ávila, Spain), and the University of Alcalá, before becoming a criminal judge at Seville in 1767. Following Charles' departure to Germany, the riots multiplied in the cities of central Castile (Geography of Spain#The Inner Plateau and associated mountains), especially after the arrival of legislators who had voted "yes" to the taxes Charles had asked for. Segovia had some of the earliest and most violent incidents; on May 30, a mob of woolworkers murdered two administrators and the city's legislator who had voted in favor. Haliczer 1981 (#Hal81), p. 3. Incidents of a similar size occurred in cities such as Burgos and Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Spain), while others, such as León (León, Spain), Ávila (Ávila, Spain), and Zamora (Zamora, Spain), suffered minor altercations. Pérez 2001 (#Per01), p. 50–52. The Junta of Ávila Other cities now followed the lead of Toledo and Segovia, deposing their governments. A revolutionary Cortes,

Ávila, Spain

'''Ávila''' ( ; Latin (Latin language): ''Abila'' and ''Obila'') is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community (Autonomous communities of Spain) of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.

It is sometimes called the ''Town of Stones and Saints'', and it claims that it is one of the towns with the highest number of Romanesque and Gothic (Gothic architecture) churches (and bars and restaurants) per capita in Spain. (Zamora (Zamora, Spain), a town of similar size, claims the greatest number of Romanesque churches in Europe.) It is notable for having complete and prominent medieval (Middle Ages) town walls, built in the Romanesque (Romanesque architecture) style. The town is also known as ''Ávila de los Caballeros'', ''Ávila del Rey'' and ''Ávila de los Leales'' (Ávila of the Knights, the King and the Loyalists), each of these epithets being present in the town standard (Heraldic flag).

The writer José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín (José Martínez Ruiz)), in his seminal book ''El alma castellana'' (The Castilian Soul), described it as "perhaps the most 16th-century town in Spain", and it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.

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