Places Known For

written work


Anuradhapura Kingdom

''. indicate that there were also Jains (Jainism) in Anuradhapura during the reign of Valagamba. Mendis (1999), p. 104 Literature from the 3rd century BC to 3rd century AD, inscriptions are recorded in the Brāhmī script. This gradually developed into the modern sinhala script, but this was not complete by the end of the Anuradhapura Kingdom. The first reference in historical sources to any written work is about 80 BC, but both Sinhala and Pali


Ardabil

the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations". The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, In the pre-Safavid written work Safvat as-Safa (oldest manuscripts from 1485 and 1491), the origin of the Safavids is tracted to Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah who is called a Kurd from Sanjan, while in the post-Safavid manuscripts, this portion has been excised and Piruz Shah Zarin Kollah is made a descendant of the Imams. R Savory, "Ebn Bazzaz" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica''). In the Silsilat an-nasab-i Safawiya (composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman, 1667–94), by Hussayn ibn Abdal Zahedi, the ancestry of the Safavid was purported to be tracing back to Hijaz and the first Shi'i Imam as follows: Shaykh Safi al-din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn (son of) Shaykh Amin al-Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al-din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al-Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja'afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma'il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad 'Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al-Kazim ibn Ja'far As-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul-'Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as-Salam. There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as-Safa. Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shi'i Imam and the nisba "Al-Kurdi" has been excised. The title name "Abu Bakr" (also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis) is deleted from Qutb ad-Din's name. ُSource: Husayn ibn Abdāl Zāhedī, 17th cent. Silsilat al-nasab-i Safavīyah, nasabnāmah-'i pādishāhān bā ʻuzmat-i Safavī, ta'līf-i Shaykh Husayn pisar-i Shaykh Abdāl Pīrzādah Zāhedī dar 'ahd-i Shāh-i Sulaymnān-i Safavī. Berlīn, Chāpkhānah-'i Īrānshahr, 1343 (1924), 116 pp. Original Persian: شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسمعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن موسی الکاظم ابن جعفر الصادق ابن محمد الباقر ابن امام زین العابدین بن حسین ابن علی ابن ابی طالب علیه السلام. family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids." There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 5th 11th century at Ardabil. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to Firuz Shah Zarin-Kulah. F. Daftary, "Intellectual Traditions in Islam", I.B.Tauris, 2001. pg 147: "But the origins of the family of Shaykh Safi al-Din go back not to Hijaz but to Kurdistan, from where, seven generations before him, Firuz Shah Zarin-kulah had migrated to Adharbayjan" When Shaykh Junayd, the son of Ibrāhim, assumed the leadership of the Safaviyya in 1447, the history of the Safavid movement was radically changed. According to R.M. Savory, "'Sheikh Junayd was not content with spiritual authority and he sought material power'". At that time, the most powerful dynasty in Persia was that of the Kara Koyunlu, the "Black Sheep", whose ruler Jahan Shah ordered Junāyd to leave Ardabil or else he would bring destruction and ruin upon the city. Junayd sought refuge with the rival of Kara Koyunlu Jahan Shah, the Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep Turkomans) (Aq Qoyunlu) Khan (Khan (title)) Uzun Hassan, and cemented his relationship by marrying Uzun Hassan's sister, Khadija Begum. Junayd was killed during an incursion into the territories of the Shirvanshah and was succeeded by his son Haydar Safavi. Haydar married Martha 'Alamshah Begom, Uzun Hassan's daughter, who gave birth to Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty. Martha's mother Theodora – better known as Despina Khatun Peter Charanis. "Review of Emile Janssens' ''Trébizonde en Colchide''", ''Speculum'', Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 1970), p. 476. – was a Pontic Greek princess, the daughter of the Grand Komnenos John IV of Trebizond. She had been married to Uzun Hassan Anthony Bryer, ''open citation'', p. 136. in exchange for protection of the Grand Komnenos from the Ottomans. Khan was the title of the rulers of various break-away states later reintegrated in Iran, e.g. 1747–1808 Khanate of Ardabil (in northwestern Iran east of Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea), 1747–1813 Khanate of Khoy (northwestern Iran, north of Lake Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van), 1747–1829 Khanate of Maku (Maku, Iran) (in extreme northwestern Iran, northwest of Khoy, and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia), 1747–1790s Khanate of Sarab (northwestern Iran east of Tabriz), 1747 – c.1800 Khanate of Tabriz (capital of Iranian Azerbeidjan). The following list reflects only one of several perspectives on the dialectology of Azerbaijani. Some dialects may be varieties of others. *Ardabil dialect (Ardabil and western Gilan, Iran) *Ayrum dialect (northwestern Azerbaijan; northeastern Armenia) birth_date wikipedia:Ardabil


Zhenjiang

;" 2010 High-speed rail People's Republic of China - In the 1070s, Shen had purchased a lavish garden estate on the outskirts of modern-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province, a place of great beauty which he named "Dream Brook" ("Mengxi") after he visited it for the first time in 1086. Shen Kuo permanently moved to the Dream Brook Estate in 1088, and in that same year he completed his life's written

work of the ''Dream Pool Essays'', naming the book after his garden-estate property. It was there that Shen Kuo spent the last several years of his life in leisure, isolation, and illness, until his death in 1095. thumb right 125px Hudson Taylor in 1893 (File:HudsonTaylorin1893.jpg) Due to health issues, Taylor remained in Switzerland, semi-retired with his wife. In 1900, Dixon Edward Hoste was appointed the Acting General Director of the CIM, and in 1902, Taylor formally resigned. His wife, Jennie, died of cancer in 1904 in Les Chevalleyres, Switzerland, and in 1905, Taylor returned to China for the eleventh and final time. There he visited Yangzhou and Zhenjiang and other cities, before dying suddenly while reading at home in Changsha. He was buried next to his first wife, Maria in Zhenjiang near the Yangtze River. *Sailed to China from San Francisco, 23 March 1905. Arrived 17 April 1905 in Shanghai, China *'''Died 3 June 1905 in Changsha, Hunan, China. Buried 9 June 1905 in Protestant Cemetery (no longer existing) in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China subdivision_type1 Major Cities subdivision_name1 Shanghai Nanjing Hangzhou Suzhou Ningbo Wuxi Nantong Shaoxing Changzhou Jinhua Jiaxing Taizhou (Taizhou, Zhejiang) Yangzhou Yancheng Taizhou (Taizhou, Jiangsu) Zhenjiang Huzhou Huai'an Zhoushan Quzhou Ma'anshan Hefei area_metro_km2 In 1982, the Chinese government set up the Shanghai Economic Area. Besides Shanghai, 4 cities in Jiangsu (Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Nantong) and 5 citeis in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Huzhou, Ningbo) were included. In 1992, a 14-city cooperative joint meeting was launched. Besides the previous 10 cities, the members included Nanjing, Zhenjiang and Yangzhou in Jiangsu, and Zhoushan in Zhejiang. In 1997, the regular joint meeting resulted in the establishment of the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Association, which included a new member Taizhou (Taizhou, Jiangsu) in Jiangsu in that year. In 2003, Taizhou (Taizhou, Zhejiang) in Zhejiang also joined the association. In 2010, the association accepted 6 new members after six-year observation and review, including Yancheng and Huai'an in Jiangsu, Jinhua and Quzhou in Zhejiang, and Ma'anshan and Hefei in Anhui. The total number of cities in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Association is now 22. Some other cities that have been in consideration and in review include Wenzhou and Lishui in Zhejiang, Lianyungang and Xuzhou in Jiangsu, and Chuzhou, Wuhu, Tongling, Huainan and Xuancheng in Anhui. *Urban cores: '''Shanghai''' (a municipality of China), '''Nanjing''' (the capital of Jiangsu Province), '''Hangzhou''' (the capital of Zhejiang Province), Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi. *Jiangsu Province: Nanjing, Suzhou (including county-level urban centres of Changshu, Taicang, Kunshan, Wujiang (Wujiang, Jiangsu) and Zhangjiagang), Wuxi (including county-level urban centres of Jiangyin and Yixing), Nantong (including county-level urban centres of Rugao, Haimen, and Qidong (Qidong, Jiangsu)), Changzhou (including county-level urban centres of Jintan and Liyang), Yangzhou (including urban centre of Yizheng), Yancheng (including county-level urban centres of Dafeng and Dongtai), Taizhou (Taizhou, Jiangsu) (including county-level urban centres of Jiangyan, Jingjiang, Taixing and Xinghua (Xinghua, Jiangsu)), Zhenjiang (including county-level urban centres of Danyang, Jurong (Jurong, Jiangsu) and Yangzhong), Huai'an. *Zhejiang Province: Hangzhou (including county-level urban centres of Lin'an, Fuyang (Fuyang, Zhejiang) and Jiande), Ningbo (including county-level urban centre of Cixi (Cixi City), Fenghua and Yuyao), Shaoxing (including county-level urban centres of Shangyu, Shengzhou and Zhuji), Jinhua (including urban centres of Dongyang, Lanxi (Lanxi, Zhejiang), Yongkang (Yongkang, Zhejiang) and Yiwu), Jiaxing (including county-level urban centres of Haining (Haining, Zhejiang), Pinghu and Tongxiang), Taizhou (Taizhou, Zhejiang) (including urban centre of Linhai), Huzhou, Zhoushan, Quzhou (including urban centre of Jiangshan). 200px (File:ChangZhou.jpg) a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the northwest, Wuxi to the east, and the province of Zhejiang to the south. - 200px (Image:Yangzhou.jpg) a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, Yangzhou borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou (Taizhou, Jiangsu) to the east, and Zhenjiang across the Yangtze River to the south. Historically it is one of the wealthiest of China's cities, known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets, painters, and scholars. - - Zhenjiang (Jiangsu) 镇江 鎮江 200px (File:Zhenjiang Dantu.jpg) a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province. Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Zhenjiang borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the Yangtze River to the north. Today Zhenjiang is an important transportation hub owing to its location near the intersection of the Yangtze River and the Grand Canal (Grand Canal (China)). - 200px (File:Zhenjiang Dantu.jpg) a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province. Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Zhenjiang borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the Yangtze River to the north. Today Zhenjiang is an important transportation hub owing to its location near the intersection of the Yangtze River and the Grand Canal (Grand Canal (China)). - The dish originated in the region of Yangzhou and Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province, with the plain variety more common in Yangzhou and the red variety more common in Zhenjiang. The dish became a part of Shanghai cuisine with the influx of migrants in the 19th and early 20th century. The dish originated in the region of Yangzhou and Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province, with the plain variety more common in Yangzhou and the red variety more common in Zhenjiang. The dish became a part of Shanghai cuisine with the influx of migrants in the 19th and early 20th century. In 252, just before Sun Quan's death, he was created the Prince of Langye, with his fief at Hulin (虎林, in modern Chizhou, Anhui). Later that year, after his younger brother Sun Liang became emperor under the regency of Zhuge Ke, Zhuge did not want the princes to be based near the important military bases along the Yangtze River, so he moved Sun Xiu to Danyang (丹陽, in modern Xuancheng, Anhui, not the modern locale in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu). Unlike his brother Sun Fen (孫奮) the Prince of Qi, who initially resisted, Sun Xiu did not put up any resistance to the move. Once he was at Danyang, however, the governor of Danyang Commandery, Li Heng (李衡), found many excuses to bully the young prince. Sun Xiu could not endure it, and so he petitioned his brother for another move; his brother had him moved to Kuaiji (會稽, in modern Shaoxing, Zhejiang). In spring 589, the Sui general Heruo Bi (賀若弼) crossed the Yangtze at Jingkou (京口, in modern Zhenjiang, Jiangsu), and the Sui general Han Qinhu (韓擒虎) crossed the Yangtze at Caishi (采石, in modern Ma'anshan, Anhui). Meanwhile, Yang Su was advancing from the west down the Yangtze, and Yang Jun was stationed in the middle Yangtze region, cutting off any Chen forces that might have been able to come to the aid of Chen's capital Jiankang. Heruo soon defeated and captured the Chen general Xiao Mohe, who was making a final attempt to repel Heruo and Han's forces from Jiankang, and Jiankang fell immediately after. Chen Shubao was captured but not harmed. Rather, he and his clan members were transported to Chang'an, where Emperor Wen treated them as honored guests. Some Chen generals briefly resisted, but soon the Sui had control. The Southern and Northern Dynasties period was over, and Sui had united China. Much as how he had torn down Yecheng after Yuchi defeat, Emperor Wen tore down Jiankang, establishing only a minor garrison at the nearby Shitou as Jiang Province (蔣州). birth_date


Kaifeng

work of his predecessors and especially conservative enemies, thereby probably also purging much of Shen Kuo's written work. Sivin, Nathan (1995). ''Science in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections''. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing. III, 44. Service under Sun Ru In 887, Qin Zongquan sent his brother Qin Zongheng (秦宗衡), with Sun as his deputy, to advance into Huainan Circuit (淮南, headquartered in modern

''. In 1086, Cai Jing was posted to the administrative office in Kaifeng, the capital. He supported the conservative faction in the imperial court, headed by Sima Guang, and won the praise of Sima. In 1094, Cai Jing became the Minister for Revenue (Three Departments and Six Ministries). He helped Zhang Dun (章惇) revive the New Policies of reformist chancellor (Chancellor (China)) Wang Anshi, although he set out on a campaign of attrition to destroy or radically alter the written


Hama

Province in 19th century and retained her status until 1918, when was captured by British forces. Evagrius Scholasticus was born in Epiphania (Hama), a Syrian town located next to the Orontes River in the heart of the Eastern Roman Empire. Controversy exists as to the date on which Evagrius was born, since historian G. F. Chesnut asserts that he was born in either 536 or 537, yet the researcher Whitby claims that he was born in 535. Chesnut, p. 215 His first written

work addressed the plague outbreak which infected a vast segment of the population. Evagrius himself was infected by the outbreak yet miraculously managed to survive this disaster during his youth. According to his own account, close members of his family died from the outbreak, including his wife at the time. Ecclesiastical History Preface, pgs. vii-viii Michael Whitby reasons that Evagrius was born into a wealthy aristocratic family with close ties to the political elite. *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Emesa (Homs): George Abu Zaham (1999–present) *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Epiphania (Hama) (Hama) and Exarchate of North Syria: Elias Saliba (1984–present) *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Laodicea (Latakia) and Exarchate of Theodorias (Theodorias (province)): John Mansur (1979–present) The main contemporary sources relating to Krak des Chevaliers were written by Muslims. They tend to emphasise Muslim success and overlook setbacks against the Crusaders, but they suggest that the Knights Hospitaller forced the settlements of Hama and Homs to pay tribute to the order. This situation lasted as long as Saladin's successors warred between themselves. The proximity of Krak des Chevaliers to Muslim territories allowed it to take on an offensive role, acting as a base from which neighbouring areas could be attacked. By 1203 the garrison were making raids on Montferrand (which was under Muslim control) and Hama, and in 1207 and 1208 the castle's soldiers took part in an attack on Homs. Krak des Chevaliers acted as a base for expeditions to Hama in 1230 and 1233 after the amir (emir) refused to pay tribute. The former was unsuccessful, but the 1233 expedition was a show of force that demonstrated the importance of Krak des Chevaliers. Syria Traditionally Alawis have lived in the Alawite Mountains along the Mediterranean coast of Syria. Latakia and Tartous are the region's principal cities. Today Alawis are also concentrated in the plains around Hama and Homs. Alawis also live in all major cities of Syria. They have been estimated to constitute about 11-12% of Syria's population http: www.chinapost.com.tw commentary afp 2012 02 20 332152 Turbulent-history.htmhttp: www.reuters.com article 2012 02 02 us-syria-alawites-sect-idUSTRE8110Q720120202 http: www.independent.co.uk news world middle-east syrians-flee-their-homes-amid-fears-of-ethnic-cleansing-7079802.html - 2.1 million people. http: www.minorityrights.org 5266 syria syria-overview.html As a child, Usama was raised by his nurse, Lu'lu'a, who had also raised his father and would later raise Usama's own children. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 17. He was encouraged by his father to memorize the Qur'an (Hafiz (Qur'an)), and was also tutored by scholars such as Ibn Munira of Kafartab and Abu Abdullah al-Tulaytuli of Toledo (Toledo, Spain). He spent much of his youth hunting (medieval hunting) with his family, partly as recreation and certainly as warrior (faris) training for battle as part of furusiyya. He also had much direct experience of battle, against the neighbouring crusader County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, hostile Muslim neighbours in Hama, Homs, and elsewhere, and Hashshashin who had established a base near Shaizar. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', pp. 5-14. Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


Safavid dynasty

-nasab-i Safaviya Firuz Shah Zarin-Kolah The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, In the pre-Safavid written work Safvat as-Safa (oldest manuscripts from 1485 and 1491), the origin of the Safavids is tracted to Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah who is called a Kurd from Sanjan, while in the post-Safavid manuscripts, this portion has been excised and Piruz Shah Zarin Kollah is made a descendant of the Imams. R Savory, "Ebn Bazzaz" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica''). In the Silsilat an-nasab-i Safawiya (composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman, 1667–94), by Hussayn ibn Abdal Zahedi, the ancestry of the Safavid was purported to be tracing back to Hijaz and the first Shi'i Imam as follows: Shaykh Safi al-din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn (son of) Shaykh Amin al-Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al-din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al-Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja'afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma'il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad 'Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al-Kazim ibn Ja'far As-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul-'Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as-Salam. There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as-Safa. Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shi'i Imam and the nisba "Al-Kurdi" has been excised. The title name "Abu Bakr" (also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis) is deleted from Qutb ad-Din's name. ُSource: Husayn ibn Abdāl Zāhedī, 17th cent. Silsilat al-nasab-i Safavīyah, nasabnāmah-'i pādishāhān bā ʻuzmat-i Safavī, ta'līf-i Shaykh Husayn pisar-i Shaykh Abdāl Pīrzādah Zāhedī dar 'ahd-i Shāh-i Sulaymnān-i Safavī. Berlīn, Chāpkhānah-'i Īrānshahr, 1343 (1924), 116 pp. Original Persian: شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسمعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن موسی الکاظم ابن جعفر الصادق ابن محمد الباقر ابن امام زین العابدین بن حسین ابن علی ابن ابی طالب علیه السلام. family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, ''The Cambridge History of Islam'', Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids." There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish (Kurdish peoples) dignitary, Firuz Shah Zarin-Kulah. F. Daftary, "Intellectual Traditions in Islam", I.B.Tauris, 2001. p. 147: "But the origins of the family of Shaykh Safi al-Din go back not to Hijaz but to Kurdistan, from where, seven generations before him, Firuz Shah Zarin-kulah had migrated to Adharbayjan" According to some historians, Tamara Sonn. ''A Brief History of Islam'', Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 83, ISBN 1-4051-0900-9 É. Á. Csató, B. Isaksson, C Jahani. ''Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic'', Routledge, 2004, p. 228, ISBN 0-415-30804-6. including Richard Frye, the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin: Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.


Alexandria

' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance, while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works

Guy p. 77 ISBN 0-7945-0225-3 (2006) The written work of Archimedes has not survived as well as that of Euclid, and seven of his treatises are known to have existed only through references made to them by other authors. Pappus of Alexandria mentions ''On Sphere-Making'' and another work on polyhedra (polyhedron), while Theon of Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction from the

of Alexandria, Egypt." inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt. He wrote the first treatises on the science of compressed air and its uses in pumps (and even a cannon). This, in combination with his work on the elasticity (theory of elasticity) of air ''On pneumatics'', earned him the title of "father of pneumatics." None of his written work has survived, including his ''Memorabilia,'' a compilation of his research that was cited


Somalia

;Collective Punishment", p. 14 the North Eastern Province (North Eastern Province (Kenya)) of Kenya, and the Jubaland region of Southern Somalia. They also inhabit Somalia's major cities such as Mogadishu and Kismayo. Duan is also known for describing in his written work of 863 AD the slave trade, ivory trade, and ambergris trade of Bobali, which is now Berbera in Somalia, East Africa (see Tang_Dynasty#Seaports_and_maritime_trade


Peru

around the world; the secretary of the Warsaw Philharmonica exclaimed, "I was completely enchanted. It is unbelievable that an amateur group could surpass our most professional choirs with such ease of execution" A reviewer for ''Voices'', Journal of the Federation of Choral Music, Chile, further remarked on this distinctive sound: '''''El Perú: Itinerarios de Viajes''''' is an expansive written work covering a variety of topics in the natural history of Peru, written by the prominent Italian (Italy)-born Peruvian geographer and scientist Antonio Raimondi in the latter half of the 19th century. The work was compiled from extensive and detailed notes Raimondi took while criss-crossing the country, studying the nation's geography, geology, meteorology, botany, zoology, ethnography, and archaeology; ''El Perú'' focuses to some extent on each of these topics and others. The first volume was published in 1874; several more volumes were published both before Raimondi's death and posthumously from his notes, the last being released in 1913, making a five volume set. The volumes are a classic example of exploration scholarship, and form one of the earliest and broadest scientific reviews of Peru's natural and cultural heritage. '''''Weberbauerocereus''''' is a genus of ceroid (cereus) cactus, considered to be intermediate between the genera ''Trichocereus'' and ''Cleistocactus''. The genus is named after August Weberbauer because of his extensive research in the Peruvian Andes. In 1936, Bronisław Huberman founded the ''Palestine Orchestra'' (now: Israel Philharmonic Orchestra), for which he recruited Jewish musicians cast out of Europe's orchestras. Huberman sought to include Partos, though the latter's take-up of the post was delayed due to a prior commitment - a contract with the government of the USSR through which Partos taught violin and composition in the Conservatory of Baku, Azerbaijan. In 1937, Partos left the USSR, after having refused to join the Communist Party during the period of the ''Moscow Trials''. He returned to Budapest, where he served as the orchestra’s Principal Violinist along with making concert tours of European countries. At that time, Bronisław Huberman invited Partos to a meeting in Florence, where he offered him the position of Principal Violist in the Palestine Orchestra. Declining attractive offers from South America (notably, Peru), Partos immigrated to British-Mandated Palestine in 1938. Rouse eventually became a professional mountaineer, lecturing, guiding, writing and acting as an adviser to the outdoor equipment trade. He moved to Sheffield in easy reach of the rocks of the Peak District. Rouse became a highly experienced climber in places as far afield as Scotland, North Wales, Patagonia, Peru, the Alps, the Andes, New Zealand and Nepal. He was also elected vice-president of the British Mountaineering Council. The Confederacy Army was made up of veterans of internal battles from both Peru and Bolivia. It was generally supported by the population of Peru and possessed strong supply lines thanks to the site of the battle. Its commanding officer, General Andrés de Santa Cruz; was regarded as a resourceful tactician and a capable leader. His army had about 6,000 men divided into three divisions, adding up nine infantry battalions and two cavalry regiments. The 1890s saw YEC building locomotives to much further a field and the start of long term relationships with railways in Chile, Peru and India. They also built a single electric locomotive for the British War Office. *Arthur Raymond Chung (Arthur Chung) (鍾亞瑟, Pinyin: Zhōng Yāsè; born 10 January 1918), former president of Guyana from 1970 to 1980. He was the first ethnic Chinese president in a non-Asian country. *Alberto Ken'ya Fujimori (Alberto Fujimori) (藤森 謙也) - former President of Peru, an ethnic Japanese (Japanese people). *Cheddi Berret Jagan (Cheddi Jagan), former chief minister (1957-1964) and president (1992-1997) of Guyana, an ethnic Indian. The '''Mountain Paca''' (''Cuniculus taczanowskii'') is a small burrow-dwelling rodent whose habitats are high altitude South American forests. Pacas are nocturnal, sedentary, and solitary animals with territorial tendencies. It eats mostly fruits and seeds. The mountain paca primarily inhabits higher Andean (Andes) Montane forest regions in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Commons:Category:Peru


Hollywood

includes written work and numerous short film appearances. His first hit "Moanin' Low," with lyrics by Howard Dietz, was written for Webb's co-star Libby Holman in the 1929 revue ''The Little Show''. Moving to Hollywood, Rainger teamed up with lyricist Leo Robin to produce a string of successful film songs. His career was diverse and he composed frequently for major art house (Art film) directors (film director), most


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