Places Known For

world main


to the Dockanema Documentary Film Festival, and international festival showcasing documentary films from around the world. Main sights During its five centuries of Portuguese colonialization, the city has gained several examples of Portuguese architecture. Most of the note-worthy buildings are former colonial administrative buildings or current government buildings. The city's landmarks include: Right thumb Maputo's Tunduru Garden, with its Manueline (File:Jardim Tunduru.jpg) arch. * Fortress

Jackson, Mississippi

university located in Clinton, Mississippi. Mississippi College comprises the main campus in Clinton, as well as satellite campuses in Brandon (Brandon, Mississippi) and Madison, Mississippi, and the Mississippi College School of Law in Jackson (Jackson, Mississippi). It is the oldest college in the state of Mississippi and the second-oldest Baptist affiliated university in the world. The Mississippi College School of Law is located


2014 left 166 px thumb An anchor outside the main entrance to the Minsk World (File:Minsk World main entrance anchor.JPG) theme park in Shenzhen Situated in the Pearl River Delta in China's Guangdong Province, Shenzhen Port is adjacent to Hong Kong. The city's coastline is divided by the Kowloon Peninsula into two halves, the eastern and the western. Shenzhen’s western port area lies to the east of Lingdingyang in the Pearl River Estuary


.htm title Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895–1899 Recreation thumb 220p right Grand Anse Beach, St. George's, Grenada (File:Grand Anse Beach Grenada.jpg), West Indies, often reported as one of the top 10 beaches in the world. The non-member states are Andorra, Grenada, Equatorial Guinea, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day. This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media (Medes), Great King, King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e. of the world). Through


has begun in the area. Fairfield is considered one of the most ethnically diverse suburbs in the entire world. A tropical disturbance developed southeast of Chuuk early on July 31. The system moved west-northwestward over the next several days with little change in organization. On August 4, however, organized convection quickly began to redevelop, and the Japan Meteorological Agency began monitoring it as a tropical depression. The system continued

North Korea

in the United Nations General Assembly, and all countries with the exception of North Korea agree to grant overflying rights to U.S. military aircraft, which is how the alleged survey will be conducted. Secretly, however, these aircraft are now equipped with sprayers which will enable them to spread the highly contagious (contagion) new virus quickly and efficiently around the world. Originating from a monsoon trough on July 21, Judy began

Sri Lanka

the 30 years long civil war came to an end, the CSE was the best performing stock exchange in the world. WikiPedia:Sri Lanka Dmoz:Regional Asia Sri Lanka commons:Sri Lanka


and returning. You will receive an extra official paper to be kept in the passport (make sure you don't lose it!). When leaving, you need to visit the emigration office (''migración''), where you get the exit stamp. ''Inmigración'' and ''migración'' are found on all border crossing-points. Traveling to and from neighboring countries by land is no problem. By plane The capital city of Lima has the '''Jorge Chávez International Airport''' with frequent flights all over the world. Main airlines are American Airlines, Delta, Lan, Lan Peru, Iberia, Copa, Taca, United and others. There are non-stop flights to Lima from Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark (Newark (New Jersey)), New York City, and San Francisco in the United States. There is also a non-stop flight to Toronto, Canada with '''Air Canada'''. There are five different airlines that offer non-stop service to Europe. In the future there may be non-stop flights from Oceania or Asia but for now travelers usually connect through Los Angeles (non-U.S.-citizen have to pass immigration even for transfer, consuming 1-2 hours - so ensure your stop-over is long enough!) or through Santiago de Chile. The city of Iquitos had flights to Leticia, Colombia with AviaSelva. '''example, Iberia flies directly from Madrid to Lima, the trip lasting around 13 hours. However LAN and KLM flights are much better in quality. LAN and Iberia often fly in code share mode (1 plane, 2 flight codes) meaning if you've a LAN flight, you may have to check in at Iberia service desk or the opposite way, sometimes they send you from one to the next and back, so just queue at the shorter service desk. There is an internal flight tax, around US$6, same conditions as the international one. When booking domestic flights, there are several Peruvian travel agencies that can get you your plane tickets for the "Peruvian price" for a fee of about US$20, you'll notice that the prices can vary by several hundred dollars for the SAME flights when looking at LANs Peruvian site (http: index-es-pe.html) and the USA site (http: index-en-us.html). You can purchase flights online. The same for Taca. Make sure to confirm your ticket 72 hours in advance, as you'll risk being bumped off your flight if you don't. Most travel agencies can do it for you, if you want. For always current peruvian and foreign airlines see the site of the International Airport Jor Chavez '''Ecuador As Ecuador neighbors Peru, it is easy to find cheap flights connecting Guayaquil and Quito to Lima, (the hub for inner cities of Peru. Or you can travel by minivans from Guayaquil to Tumbes and there take a flight to Lima. By boat The city of Iquitos in the Amazonas (Peru) Amazonas region has connections by boat to Leticia in Colombia and Tabatinga in Brazil (about 10 hours). There are also a little bit expensive cruceros by Amazonas River to enjoy the manificent of the peruavian-brazilian joungle. Get around Times and Distances Almost all of the cities outside Lima had a flight time between 1 hour and 1 hours and a half. It is recommended to use airlaines. For example, from Lima to Zorritos in Tumbes (beautiful beach qith modern resorts), the travel by bus is 18 hours. Yurimaguas-Iquitos(water): 2.5 days Quito-Lima(bus): 25 hours Lima-Cuzco(bus): 21 hours Lima-Cuzco(plane): 1.30 hour In cities and around Inside the cities, there is usually no problem getting around on city buses or taxis. Buses cost between 0.70 and 1.50 Soles (US$0.20-0.40) inside a city, taxis between 7 and 8 soles (US$2-2.60) in Lima, normally less in other cities. "Taxi" does not necessarily mean a car; the term also refers to bicycles, motor rickshaws, and motor bikes for hire. Taxis are divided between "formal" taxis, painted and marked as such and have a sticker with SOAT, and informal ones, that are just cars with a windshield sticker that says "Taxi". The last ones are better left to the locals, especially if you don't speak Spanish. Apart from the more upscale radio taxi (also the more expensive ones), the fare is not fixed or metered, but it is negotiated with the driver before getting into the vehicle. Ask at your hotel or hostal about the rate you may expect to pay to ride to a specific location to have a point of reference. There is no tipping at taxis. "Micros" (from microbus), are small minivans or Coaster buses, also known as "combis" and "custers". They do not have actual bus stops (they exist, although in practice the driver won't stop unless you ask), but fixed routes. The direction is shown by boards in the windscreen or painted on the side. If you want to catch a bus, just give the driver a sign (raise your hand similar to hitch-hiking) to stop. If the bus is not completely overfilled (and sometimes when it is, too), it will stop to pick you up. During the ride, the ticket collector will ask you for the fee or, if there is not a ticket collector, you pay the driver when you get off (this is more common when taking longer trips where most people are going to the last stop, for example from Ollantaytambo to Urubamba). If you want to exit, just say loudly "''Bajo!''" (''BAH-ho'') or "''Esquina baja!''" (''s-KEE-nah BAH-ha''), and the driver will stop at the next possibility. They are cramped and dirty, and not helpful unless in small towns or during off peak hours. They also stop in the middle of the road, so be careful when getting down. '''Please note''': Micros are very common but known for being quite dangerous, different government programs are trying to reduce the amount of micros, it is advised to not take a micro. By bus Some main roads, especially along the coastal strip, are paved, but there are still a lot of dirt roads in very poor condition. In the rainy season, landslides may block even major roads. Inter-city travel is mostly by bus, and some cities have train connections. In contrast to ''colectivos'', buses, and of course trains, start from fixed points, either the central bus terminal or the court of the appropriate bus company. It is a good idea to buy your ticket one day in advance so that you can be relatively sure of finding a seat. If you come directly before the bus leaves, you risk finding that there are no more seats available. In most bus terminals you need to buy a separate departure tax of 1 or 1,5 soles. If you are so unlucky as to be taller than 1.80m 5'11", you will most likely be uncomfortable on the ride since the seats are much tighter than in Europe or some parts of North America. In this case, you can try to get the middle seat in the rear, but on dirt roads the rear swings heavily. In older buses, the seats in the first row are the best, but many buses have a driver cabin separated from the rest of the bus so that you look an a dark screen or a curtain rather than out the front windshield. In older buses, you can get one or two seats beside the driver, which gives you a good view of the passing landscape. First-class express buses, complete with video, checked luggage and even meal service, travel between major cities, but remember to bring ear plugs as the video on these buses may be played extra-loud for the majority of the trip. You may need to present a passport to purchase a ticket. Make sure that your luggage is rainproof since it is often transported on the roof of the bus when travelling in the Andes. Avoid bus companies that allow travellers to get into the bus outside the official stations. They are normally badly managed and can be dangerous, due both to unsafe practices or to highway robberies, which are unfortunately not uncommon. This should be heeded especially by female travellers going on their own. There are many shoddy bus services in Peru, and it's best to go with one of the major companies such as Cruz del Sur, Oltursa or Ormeño. Get information at the hotel, hostal or tourist information booth before catching a ride. You can find more information in the web that compares diverse companies. '''train Even when going by train, it's best to buy the ticket in advance. Buy 1st class or buffet class (still higher), or you risk getting completely covered by luggage. People will put their luggage under your seat, in front of your feet, beside you and everywhere where some little place is left. This makes the journey quite uncomfortable, since you can't move any more and the view of the landscape is bad. There are five rail lines in Peru: * Cuzco - Machu Picchu * Cuzco - Juliaca - Puno * Arequipa - Juliaca * Lima - Huancayo * Huancayo - Huancavelica Service between Arequipa and Juliaca has been suspended as of early 2007. For more information on trains to Machu Picchu , go to PeruRail's web site Ferrocarril Central Andino the line joining Lima to Huancayo is the second highest railway in the world and the Highest in South America. The Journey on board of the Train of the Andes, through the heart of Peru is simply breathtaking. It is an 11 hour experience where the train reaches an altitude of 4781m.a.s.l (15,681 ft) and goes through 69 tunnels, 58 bridges and makes 6 zigzags. In 1999, the company was privatized, in 2005, Ferrocarril Central Andino renovated their passenger wagons in a Luxurious and comfortable way which puts the railway in the list of the most famous trains along with the Orient Express and the Transsiberien. Unfortunately the service is irregular. You can check in the web site '''foot Beside the famous Inca trail to Machu Picchu, you can do a lot of more hikes all along the Sierra, preferably in the dry season. The hiker's Mecca is Huaraz, where you can find a lot of agencies that offer guided tours and or equipment to borrow. The thin vegetation in the higher Sierra makes off-trail hiking easy. Good maps are hard to find inside Peru. It is better to bring them from home. Make sure you have enough iodine to purify your drinking water. When hiking in higher altitude, good acclimatisation is absolutely necessary. Take a good sleeping bag with you, since nights in the Sierra may become bitterly cold (-10°C in 4,500 m altitude are normal, sometimes still colder). Beware of thunderstorms that may rise up very suddenly. Rapid falling temperature and hard rain falls are a serious danger in higher altitudes. Don't forget that the night lasts for 12 hours year-round, so a flashlight is a good idea. When hiking on higher, but not snow covered mountains, water may be rare. Getting alcohol for stoves is easy: Either buy the blue colored ''alcohol de quemar'' or, better, simply buy pure drinking alcohol. You can get this in every town for about 3 Soles (US$0.85) per liter. (Don't even think about drinking it). It won't be so easy to find special fuel for gasoline stoves. Gasoline for cars can also be found in many hardware stores (''ferreterias'') sold by liters, but you can actually buy it directly on gas stations, provided you bring your own bottle. By car It is also possible to tour the interior of the country by car. This gives you a chance to get "off the beaten track" and explore some of the areas that haven't been transformed by tourism. An international driver's license is needed for driving in Peru. Peru has three main roads which run from north to south: the fully paved ''Panamericana'' (RN 1) which passes through the whole country; more to the east there are the partially paved ''Carretera de la Sierra'' (RN 3) as well as the ''Carretera Marginal de la Selva'' (RN 5). Most parts of these roads are toll roads in the direction from north to south. The main roads are connected by 20 streets from west to east. Beware that, aside from a few major roads which are in good condition, most roads are unpaved and your speed on them will be severely restricted. For these roads a 4WD is necessary. This is especially true during the rainy season from November to April. You should travel very well informed about your route. Take a good road map with you (e.g. ''Waterproof Peru Map'' by ITMB). On the web, ''cochera andina'' provides useful information about road conditions, travel times and distances for more than 130 routes in Peru. Be sure to bring plenty of gas, as gas stations in unpopulated areas are very rare and will oftentimes be closed. Purchasing gas late at night can be an adventure all its own, as even in more populated areas gas stations tend to close early and the pumps are locked. The owner of the station sometimes sleeps inside and, if you can rouse him, he will come out and let you fill up. Be aware of the higher gasoline consumption in the mountains which often increases to more than 20 l 100 km (12 MPG) (5 gal 62 mi). The traffic regulations are almost the same as in Europe and the U.S. But locals tend to interpret them freely. You better honk in unclear situations, e.g. in curves and at crossings to indicate the right of way. Also note that traffic checkpoints tend to be scattered throughout the country and the police may try to extract bribes from foreigners for passage. It would be wise to travel with a native speaker who can navigate the roads and deal with law enforcement. Touting Like in most countries, also in Peru there is a vast crowd of touts hanging around the airports and bus stations or bus terminals. It is any travellers' wise decision not to do business with the people that are trying to sell you their stuff on the street bus station airport. First of all, if they would have a decent place, they wouldn’t have to sell it to non suspecting tourists trying to drag them off from wherever they can find them. More important, it really is not a good idea to hand out money to the first person you meet upon arriving somewhere. '''TIP: ''' When you arrive in any town, be sure to have already decided what hotel you will be going to. Don't mention this or any other information to the touts awaiting you. They will use whatever you tell them to construe lies to make you change your mind and go with them. If you’ve already picked a reasonable hotel chances are that you will be OK there and they will have any (extra) information you’d be looking for, like bookings for tours or tickets. Talk thumb A man from Písac (File:Andean Man.jpg) in traditional dress :''See also: Spanish phrasebook'' The official language of Peru is Spanish (Spanish phrasebook), as in many South-American countries. It's worth getting familiar with some basic Spanish words, as you'll need them to make your way around outside the main tourist centres. Although English is spoken by an increasing number of young people in Lima and to a limited extent in the most popular tourist spots, you'll find English far less commonly understood than you might expect in a country where tourism is such a big industry. Like in other Latin American countries, Peruvian Spanish replaces ''vosotros'' (and its 2nd-person plural conjugations) with ''ustedes'' (3rd-person plural). As an example: ''¿Cómo estás?'' becomes ''¿Cómo están?''. Also, South American Spanish likes diminutives (''gringuito'' is more affectionate than ''gringo''). Especially when you're making your own way around, learning some Quechua or Aymara may open doors, as indigenous people will highly appreciate your effort. Quecha is the language of the Incas and the first language for many indigenous in the countryside of the Sierra. Aymara was the language of the Tihuanacu culture. Though not recognized as an official language, it's widely spoken on the Altiplatano. In both cases however, people will generally speak English too. See thumb A llama overlooking Machu Picchu (File:Llama, peru, machu picchu.jpg) thumb The Condor, one of the many stunning figures of the Nazca lines (File:Nazca Lines - Condor.jpg) Forgotten temples in dense Amazon jungles, lost Inca cities, fabulous wildlife and extra-ordinary folklore. Peru holds all the stuff adventure movies are made of. Many of the best Inca sites are around the beautiful city of '''Cusco''', once the capital of the Inca Empire and now a World Heritage Site itself, as well as a bustling city. Book at least half a year in advance if you want to walk the famous 3 day hike '''Inca Trail''', which commonly starts at the 15th century Inca dwellings of '''Ollantaytambo'''. Your imagination must be on its A-game to see past the large crowds at the end destination, '''Machu Picchu''', but it's worth your trouble. Wait for the biggest crowds to leave, find a quiet spot away from the tourist hassle and contemplate your view of one of the most famous and spectacular archaeological sites in the world. The list of great Peruvian ruins from Pre-Columbian times is long, and not all of them are of Inca origin. A World Heritage Site, the ancient adobe capital '''Chan Chan (Trujillo_(Peru))''', built by the Chimú culture, was conquered in the 15th century. Other popular sites are the tombs of '''Sipán''', the ruined fortress of '''Kuelap''', the pre-Incan burial grounds of '''Sillustani''', and '''Caral''', the most ancient city in the Americas. Particularly well-known are the spectacular '''Nazca lines (Nazca)''', which you should see from the air, even if it'll take some haggling to get your ticket for the right price. Natural attractions Home to 84 out of the 104 recognized ecological zones in the world, Peru is incredibly rich in '''biological diversity'''. Benefiting from a broad array of landscapes and ecosystems, this country is a Valhalla for anyone who loves '''wildlife'''. It's condors, llama's and jaguars that Peru is famous for, but almost a third of the bird species in the world and no less than 4000 butterflies live here too. One of the best places to see all of this natural beauty is '''Manú National Park'''. This World Heritage Site boasts over 15000 plant species, a 1000 different birds and some 220 mammals, including pumas, Giant anteaters and many monkeys. Disputably called the "world's deepest canyon", the stunning '''Colca Canyon''' is Peru's third most-visited destination, just a stones-throw out of the beautiful city of '''Arequipa'''. Get close to the celebrated '''Andean Condors''' as they fly along the high canyon walls or buy a colourful handmade souvenir from one of the indigenous people that populate the picturesque Colca Valley. Of all the peaks in the Peruvian Andes, the 6768m Huascarán in '''Huascarán National Park''' is the highest of all. This 3000 km² World Heritage Site holds 663 glaciers, 296 lakes and 41 tributaries of three major rivers. The large city of '''Iquitos''' is a popular starting point to discover the mystic '''Amazon River''', one of the seven natural wonders of the world. It's also the capital city of the Charapa culture. Just a few other great picks out of the long list of protected areas in Peru are '''Pacaya-Samiria (Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve)''' National Reserve, '''Rio Abiseo (Rio Abiseo National Park)''' National Park and '''Cutervo (Cutervo National Park)''' National Park (with many caves). Folklore The diversity of '''Peru's people''' and cultures is reflected in a rich tradition of festivals, dance and music. In the Andes, the plaintive wail of the flute and beat of the drum accompany songs depicting indigenous life while dancers masked as devils and spirits are a marriage of pagan and Christian beliefs. In the jungle, ceremonial music and dance are a window into tribal life. And along the coast, a blend of elegant Spanish sounds and vibrant African rhythms reflect the Conquest and later slave labor of the New World. One of the shows you can not miss it is the Caballo de Paso Peruano in Lima and the north coast of Peru. The Concurso del Caballo de Paso Peruano is in april and it is a mix between the caballos and the dance called "marinera" which is the coastal cultural expression in Peru. Other highlights Make your way to the blue waters of '''Lake Titicaca''' for an enchanting, high altitude encounter with local peasant women wearing bowler hats and join in the celebrations of their ancient communities. '''Puno''' is a good place to start, also for a laid-back boat ride to the various islands and Altiplano towns on and around the lake, all with their own character and historic remains. If you're craving perfect beaches and a sunburn, head to the crowded sands and resorts of '''Máncora'''. Spend a day in one of the many excellent museums in '''Lima''' and dance until the morning in one of the cities popular clubs. Buy shamanistic herbs at the market of '''Chiclayo''' and see the dozens of tombs around it. Do Trekking is a great way to see the country. The most widely known route is the classic Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. Other popular routes include Cordillera Blanca, Colca Canyon, Ausangate Trek and Salcantay (also spelt Salkantay) Trek. Trek prices can vary considerably between companies, as can their respective porters' working conditions (no pack animals are allowed, hence equipment is carried by human porters). Although there is a minimum porter wage (42 Soles day, about US$15) and maximum load porters can carry (25 kg 55 lb), not all companies keep to their claims! Buy The currency of Peru is the ''nuevo sol'' ('''PEN'''), symbolised as S . As of 15 September 2013, USD1 PEN2.79 and €1 PEN3.61 and it has been one of the more stable currencies in South America over the last few years. Right now, 2015, USD1 PEN3.05. Coins are available in five, two and one sol, and in 50, 20, 10, 5 and 1 centimo. 5 and 1 centimo coins are not normally accepted outside of big supermarkets or banks, so avoid them (or bring them home for a collection or to give to friends). Notes are available in 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 soles denominations; 200 soles notes are uncommon and - just like large bills in other countries - will not be accepted in many places. ATMs are available in big cities, upmarket hotels, and touristic areas. With a Cirrus or Maestro sign on it, you can withdraw cash easily. The exchange rate is the same as credit cards but fees are much lower. Some banks charge a fee for getting cash from their ATM's, with BBVA Banco Continental reportedly charging excessive fees without telling you in advance. Make sure to carry sufficient cash when visiting smaller towns, as your credit card or traveler checks might not be accepted there. Credit cards and travelers checks are common. Although cash has a ca. 2% better change rate, you are strongly advised not to carry large amounts of cash on your journey. The Banco de Credito (BCP) gives good rates on traveler checks. Rates in change offices are often somewhat worse. It's always worth comparing them before changing your money. When changing your money in change offices, check their calculations. Most of them make calculations on the fly for the amount you want using an electronic calculator in plain view, even showing you the process step by step (unless they are brutally obvious, like changing tens or hundreds). If they ''don't'' show, keep the money in your pocket and find someone that does. Always keep in mind that counterfeiting is a big problem in Peru: make sure to get familiar with the money and do not hesitate to reject any note or coin (especially the 5 sol coins) that look suspicious, just like any Peruvian would do. In other words, if you want to look like a savvy foreigner, take 10 seconds to check any paper note you get, even at a bank. All bills have a watermark and security stripe, and the large number on the extreme right denoting the denomination of the bill will change from purple to green when viewed at an angle. Don't take any note that is ripped; you won't be able to use it anywhere else but a bank. If you are stuck with a counterfeit coin or note, if you try to use it at big stores they may want to confiscate it. Don't accept damaged ripped bills, since you will have to take them to a bank in order to change them into new ones before you can spend them. Be especially careful when exchanging money with money-changers on the street (a common way for counterfeit money to enter the money supply) or at the border (notably the one with Ecuador). Typically, small bills are very helpful to carry around. Change large bills into small ones as often as possible. If you only have 50 and 100 Soles notes on you, consider changing them at a bank. Local merchants and taxistas often claim to not have any change on them, forcing you to wait in public while they search for some (potentially dangerous) and sometimes with the hope that you'll grow impatient and let them keep the change. In Peru, it's not as common for US$ to be accepted in transactions as in other countries (such as Ecuador), but some nice, new 10 or 20 US dollar bills can be helpful in some situations. Often in small towns, local shops will change money for you. If so, it will be clearly marked. Costs If you're on a budget, you can get around well for USD50 a day. Basic hotels or hostels (''hospedajes'') are available everywhere, with dorm beds in youth hostels typically costing USD8-15. You'll find plenty of very cheap restaurants (USD0.50-1.50) but for slightly more (USD2 -3) you'll get an often much better lunch or dinner at better restaurants. Fancy restaurants are available in every city, with menus starting from US$20. Buses are a fairly cheap way to get around. A 10 hour bus ride in a normal bus (not "Royal Class" or something like that) will set you back about US$20. If you can afford it, the more luxurious seats go for about double the price but will make a great difference in terms of comfort. Avoid bus companies that allow travellers to get into the bus outside the official stations. They are often badly managed and can be dangerous, due both to unsafe practices or to highway robberies, which are unfortunately not uncommon. This should be heeded especially by female travellers on their own. Your hotel, hostel or a local tourist information booth can point you to the better options. Trains (except the ones for Machu Picchu, which are relatively expensive) run for similar fees. Don't forget to retain your exit fee of USD30.25 They do accept USD or Soles for the fee and be sure to pay the exit fee before you get in line for security checks or you'll get to wait again. Handicrafts Peru is famous for a lot of different, really nice and relatively cheap handicrafts. Keep in mind that buying handicrafts support traditional skills and helps many families to gain their modest income. Look for: *Pullovers, and a lot of other (alpaca-)woolen products in all the Sierra. Puno is maybe the cheapest place. *Wall carpets (''tejidos''). *Carvings on stone, wood and dried pumpkins. *Silver and gold jewellery. *typical music instruments like pan flutes (''zampoñas''), skin drums. *many other Do ''not'' accept any handicrafts that look like (or actually are) pre-columbian pottery or jewelry. It is illegal to trade them and there is the possibility not only of them being confiscated, but of being prosecuted for illegal trading, even if the actual artifacts are copies or fakes. Dealing with the police from the criminal side is messy and really unpleasant. '''Buyer beware:''' Watch out for fake (Bamba) Alpaca wool products many items sold to the unsuspecting gringo are actually synthetic or ordinary wool! That nice soft jumper in the market for USD8 or so is most certain to be acrylic. Even in places such as Puno there is no easy way to tell if it is made from Alpaca, sometimes it might have a small percentage of Alpaca mixed in with other fibres. Baby Alpaca is not from baby animals but the first shearing and the fibre is very soft and fine. Generally Alpaca fibre has a low lustre and a slightly greasy hand to it and is slow to recover from being stretched. Shop and compare. Bargaining Bargaining is very common. If you are not used to it, respect some rules. If you intend to buy something, first ask the price, even if you already know what it actually should cost. Then check whether everything is all right. (Does the pullover fit you? Do you really want to buy it? Is the expiration date on the cheese exceeded? etc.) If the price is OK, pay it. If not, it's your turn to say a lower price, but stay realistic. First get an idea about how much you would expect to pay. Then say a price about 20-30% lower. It's always good if you can give some reason for that. ''' Once you have said a price, you cannot give a lower one later'''. This would be regarded as a very impolite behavior. If you feel that you can't get your price, just say "''No, gracias.''" and begin to walk away. This is your last chance. If you are lucky, the seller will give you a last offer, if not, say "''No, gracias.''" again and go on walking. Realize that most of the products in touristy markets (i.e. the market in Pisac) '''will be sold''' in nearly every other market throughout your travels in Peru and South America, so try not to worry about never again finding that particular alpaca scarf. You have a way for bargaining without saying an exact price, and it's saying "''¿Nada menos?''", then you will be asking just if they can lower a bit the price. Keep in mind: Never begin to bargain if you don't really want to buy. General Notes Supermarkets can only be found in cities and are somewhat expensive. In every town, there is at least one market place or hall, except Lima that has a dense concentration of supermarkets, malls and department stores. In cities, there are different markets (or sections of one big market) for different articles. Stores with similar articles tend to be grouped in the same street. So, if you once know the appropriate street when looking for something special, it shouldn't be no more problem to find it quite soon. Giving '''tips''' in restaurants (at least when basic or middle-range) is not very common but 10% for good service is polite. In the cities, you will always find some '''beggars (Begging)''', either sitting on the streets, or doing a musical number on the buses. Many of them really need help, especially the elderly and handicapped. Usual donations are about PEN0.10-0.20 (USD0.03-0.06). This is not much, but some unskilled workers don't get much more than PEN10 for a hard working day. Whether you want to give money to child beggars or not is your decision. But consider that doing so may make it more attractive for parents to send their children begging in the street instead of sending them to school. Buy them food instead, they ''do'' need it. Eat thumb Chanfainita is one of Peru's many beef organ dishes, mostly made of lungs (File:Chanfainita-palto típico peruano.jpg) thumb Peruvian purple corn is the base for many dishes and drinks, including the popular purple sweet custard (mazamorra morada) (File:Peruvian corn.jpg) Peruvian cuisine is among the most varied in the world. Not only does the country grow a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it does so throughout the year. Peruvian geography offers at least 8 different climates (desert along the coast, steep and high mountains, the Amazon basin). In Lima, due to its history as an important Spanish colonial port, the dishes are a mixture of amerindian, Spaniard, African, Asian and even Italian influences that contribute to the ever changing '''platos criollos''' (creole dishes). Rice is the staple foodstuff, and expect many dishes to include rice, in the Siera it's corn and potatoes, and in the Jungle yuca. '''Meat''' is traditionally included in most Peruvian dishes. Chicken (''pollo''), pork, sheep and beef are common. Alpacas are actually kept for wool, not for meat. Mostly, you will find that alpaca meat is rather tough. An Andean delicacy is guinea pig (''cuy''). Peruvian cuisine includes dishes which use various organs, including '''anticuchos''', a kebab made from very marinated and spicy beef heart, and '''cau-cau''' (sounds like cow-cow), made from cow stomach served in a yellow sauce with potatoes. Anticuchos are a standard street stall food, but be careful with it. '''Fish''' can be found along the coast (of course), but also in the jungle area since the rivers supply fresh fish (but beware of contamination in the area known as high jungle or selva alta, where most of the cocaine is made and strong chemicals get dumped into rivers; mining is a minor source of pollution in this area). In the Sierra, trout (''truchas'') are bred in several places. A very common fish dish is ceviche, raw fish prepared by marination in lime juice. Popular variations of the dish can include shellfish, and even sea urchin. The exact recipe and mode of preparation of ceviche will vary from region to region. Definitely worth a try, especially in summer, but cleanliness and sanitation make all the difference. Use care when buying from street vendors and remember that it is often served spicy. Throughout Peru there is a wide variety of potato dishes (''papas'', not ''patatas'' as in Spain), the traditional Andean vegetable. Papa a la Huancaina is a tasty dish of potato slices and diced boiled egg topped with a thin, creamy yellow sauce, and usually includes a lettuce leaf and an olive or two. (A similar green sauce, called Ocopa, can be served over potatoes or yuca.) Papa rellena is mashed potato reformed into a potato-like shape, but with meat, vegetables, and other spicy filling in the middle. Aji de gallina is shredded chicken in a thick, spicy, cheese-based sauce over sliced potatoes, often with an olive and slice of hard-boiled egg. Causa is mashed potato layered with mayonnaise-based tuna or chicken salad mixed with hot peppers. Many Peruvian dishes can contain strong condiments and be heavy, so if you have a weak stomach, proceed with caution. Nowadays, the transport routes from the flat jungle areas are good enough to supply all the country with vegetables and fruits. Nevertheless, '''vegetables''' still have the status of a garnish for the meat. '''Vegetarian restaurants''' exist in all cities, but are relatively rare. In most areas, there is a rich offering of '''tropical fruits''' and fresh squeezed juices. The natives typically eat in small restaurants or Chinese eateries ("chifas"); a menu there costs 5-8 Soles and includes a soup, a choice of main dish, and a drink. If you count on international fast food chains, you will be disappointed. You find them almost nowhere except in the largest cities, and the prices are uniformly astronomical. Peruvians are quite proud of their desserts, especially in Lima. Try them with care, since they tend to be extremely sweet and loaded with sugars, eggs yolks and similar ingredients. Try '''mazamorra morada''', or purple custard, made from the same purple corn used for chicha morada drink; together with '''arroz con leche''' (rice with sweetened condensed milk) is called a combinado (combination). '''Picarones''' are a sort of donut, made from fried yams dough and served with '''chancaca''', a very sweet sugarcane syrup. And the sweetest dessert '''suspiro Limeño''' is perfect if you are in sore need of a high-calorie glucose shock. Drink The Pisco-Nasca area is famous for wine cultivating. Their more expensive vintages compare favorably against Chilean imports. Beer is nice, stronger than American brands but less full bodied than European ones. Most of Peruvian beers are made by Backus, currently owned by SAB Miller. When drinking at bars and or restaurants, be aware that Peruvian "Happy Hour" is a little different than in most countries. Prices for drinks will usually be posted on the walls and be a little cheaper than normal. The real differences is that you will be served '''2''' drinks, instead of one, for the listed price -- giving a new meaning to the term "half price." This can be a great way to save money (if you are traveling with a group) or to meet locals (if you are traveling alone). It can also lead you to get completely falling-down-drunk by accident, so be careful. * '''Caliente''' is a hot alcoholic drink served during celebrations in Andean towns such as Tarma. Its basically a herbal tea with white rum for that added kick. * '''Chicha de Jora''', A cheap traditional alcoholic drink made from corn that is fermented and rather high in alcohol content for a non-distilled beverage. Not normally available at formal restaurants and quite uncommon in Lima outside of residential areas. Places that sell chicha have a long stick with a brightly-colored plastic bag on it propped up outside their door. * '''Chicha morada''', not to be confused with the previous one, is a soft drink made from boiled purple corn, with sugar and spices added (not a soda). Quite refreshing, it is widely available and very recommendable. Normally Peruvian cuisine restaurants will have their freshly made supply as part of the menu; it is also available from street vendors or diners, but take care with the water. Bottled or canned chicha morada is made from concentrates and not as pleasant as freshly-boiled chicha. * '''Coca Tea''' or ''Mate de Coca'', a tea made from the leaves of the coca plant. It is legal to drink this tea in Peru. It is great for adjusting to the altitude or after a heavy meal. It may be found cold but normally is served hot. * You can find many places that serve fresh fruit drinks. Peru has a wide variety of fruits since its natural variety, so if you get a good "jugueria" you will have lots of options to choose from. * The Peruvian amazon cities offer some typical drinks too as: '''masato, chuchuhuasi, hidromiel''' and others. * '''Coffee'''. Peru is the world's largest producer of organic coffee. Ask for 'cafe pasado', the essence produced by pouring boiling hot water over fresh ground coffee from places like Chanchamayo. * All of Peru's wines are inexpensive. Tacama, Ocucaje and Santiago Queirolo branded wines are the most reliable. * '''Emoliente'''. Another popular drink in Peru, often sold in the streets by vendors for 50 centimos. Served hot, its flavor is best described as a thick, viscous tea, but surprisingly refreshing - depending on what herb and fruit extracts you choose to put into it, of course. Normally the vendor's mix will be good enough if you choose not to say anything, but you're free to select the mix yourself. Normally sold hot, is the usual after-party drink, as a "reconstituyente", but it can be drunk cold too. * Commons:Category:Peru

Saudi Arabia

SABIC has announced construction of a 30,000 tonnes per annum plant to produce acetic acid by ethane oxidation at Yanbu. This economic viability of this process may rely on the low cost of ethane near Saudi oil fields, and it may not be competitive with methanol carbonylation elsewhere in the world. The first Krispy Kreme store to open outside North America was in Penrith (Penrith, New South Wales), Australia, in Sydney. ref>

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