of only seven federally recognized work colleges in the United States, '''WXOS''' (101.1 FM (FM broadcasting)) is a commercial radio station located in Creve Coeur, Missouri, broadcasting to the Greater St. Louis area. WXOS previously aired a hot AC (hot adult contemporary) rhythmic contemporary music format (as "MOViN 101.1"), but on October 10, 2008, it switched to an all Christmas music station (becoming the second after WRHS (WRHS (FM)) for 2008 (2008 in radio) for the United States) as a prelude to transitioning to all-sports (sports radio) on January 1, 2009. 14 St. Louis, Missouri (Greater St. Louis) (MO (Missouri)-IL (Illinois)) MSA 516,446 18.4
To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war (Francoism), Hitler (Adolf Hitler), Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. After a failed attempt to dislodge Black Army forces, Denikin shifted his campaign from the north to the south. The White Army's best cavalry troops, commanded by General Konstantin Mamontov and General Shkuro, were transferred from the northern front to the Gulyai-Polye region of Russia. Denikin's new strategy succeeded in driving out Makhno's forces from part of Ukraine, but at the cost of denuding forces opposing the Red Army. During October and November 1919, Denikin's troops were defeated in a series of battles by Red Army forces. His Caucasus regiments suffered the greatest losses, especially the Chechen cavalry and others, who died by the thousands. Toward the end of November, some of these troops mutinied, returning to their homes in the Caucasus. This in turn began a slow disintegration of Denikin's White Army. Some historians note that if the anarchist forces had not won a decisive victory at Peregonovka, blockading Denikin's lines of supply and denying the White Army supplies of food, ammunition, and artillery reinforcements, the White Army would probably have entered Moscow in December 1919. All through February, 1920 the Free Territory - Makhnovist region - was inundated with Red troops, including the 42nd Rifle Division and the Latvian (Latvian Riflemen) & Estonian Red Division (Estonian Red Riflemen) – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. V. N. Litvinov, An Unsolved Mystery - The "Diary of Makhno's Wife". After the souring and dissolution of Nestor Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine with Bolsheviks the captured Red commanders and commissars were similarly summarily executed. However, Makhno usually preferred to release the disarmed enlisted men that were captured, as "proletarian brothers", with a choice of joining his army or returning home, after all commanding officers were executed. This happened to an Estonian Red Army unit that surrendered to Makhno in 1920. Nestor Makhno Biography. Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear witness that Makhno really did release "in all four directions" captured Red Army soldiers. This is what happened at the beginning of February 1920, when the insurgents disarmed the 10,000-strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole (Huliaipole). A. Buysky, "The Red Army on the Internal Front", Gosizdat (1927), p. 52. To this it must be added that the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine included a choir of Estonian musicians. How Is Makhno’s Troop Organised? The problem was further compounded by the alienation of the Estonians by Anton Denikin's inflexible Russian chauvinism and their refusal to fight with Nikolai Yudenich. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? Peter Anderson (historian) Peter Anderson compares the tactics and resources of the two sides.
. The lighthouse is now owned by the Town of Fort Erie and is available for weekend tours in the summer. On August 7, 1927 the Peace Bridge was opened between Fort Erie and Buffalo. On January 1, 1932, Bridgeburg and Fort Erie amalgamated into a single town. The ruins of Fort Erie remained until they were rebuilt through a depression era "work program" project, as a tourist attraction. Work started in 1937, and the Fort was opened to the public in 1939. In 1970, the provincial government
was established with the passage of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 by the United States Congress and was largely shaped by Harry Hopkins, close adviser to President Roosevelt. The WPA was initially intended to be an extension of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration work program, which funded projects run by states and cities. Many were for infrastructure, such as bridges, roads and parks, but they also included archeological excavations of significant sites
, by 1941, the perception of discrimination against African Americans had changed to the point that the NAACP magazine ''Opportunity'' hailed the WPA, saying: It is to the eternal credit of the administrative officers of the WPA that discrimination on various projects because of race has been kept to a minimum and that in almost every community Negroes have been given a chance to participate in the work program. In the South, as might have been expected, this participation has been limited, and differential wages on the basis of race have been more or less effectively established; but in the northern communities, particularly in the urban centers, the Negro has been afforded his first real opportunity for employment in white-collar occupations. February, 1939, p. 34. in Howard 295 Women thumb right Hispanic women in Costilla, New Mexico, weaving rag rugs in 1939. (File:Women Working for the WPA.jpg) About 15% of the household heads on relief were women and youth programs were operated separately by the National Youth Administration (the NYA). The average worker was about 40 years old (about the same as the average family head on relief). WPA policies were consistent with the strong belief of the time that husbands and wives should not both be working (because the second person working would take one job away from some other breadwinner). A study of 2,000 female workers in Philadelphia showed that 90% were married, but wives were reported as living with their husbands in only 18 percent of the cases. Only 2 percent of the husbands had private employment. Of the 2000 women, all were responsible for one to five additional people in the household. Howard, ''The WPA and Federal Relief Policy'' p 283 In rural Missouri, 60% of the WPA-employed women were without husbands (12% were single; 25% widowed; and 23% divorced, separated or deserted). Thus, only 40% were married and living with their husbands, but 59% of the husbands were permanently disabled, 17% were temporarily disabled, 13% were too old to work, and remaining 10% were either unemployed or handicapped. Most of the women worked with sewing projects, where they were taught to use sewing machines and made clothing and bedding, as well as supplies for hospitals, orphanages, and adoption centers. Howard, p 283 Criticism The WPA had numerous critics, especially from the right. The strongest attacks were that it was the prelude for a national political machine on behalf of Roosevelt. Reformers secured the Hatch Act of 1939 that largely depoliticized the WPA. Alexander Keyssar, ''The right to vote: the contested history of democracy in the United States'' (2000) p 193 Others complained that far left elements played a major role, especially in the New York City unit (which was independent of the New York State unit). Representative Martin Dies, Jr. called the WPA a “seedbed for communists”. Nick Taylor, ''American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA, When FDR Put the Nation to Work'' (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 2. Representative J. Parnell Thomas of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) claimed in 1938 that divisions of the WPA were a “hotbed of Communists” and “one more link in the vast and unparalleled New Deal propaganda network.” Much of the criticism of the distribution of projects and funding allotment is a result of the view that the decisions were politically motivated. The South, as the poorest region of the United States, received 75 percent less in federal relief and public works funds per capita than the West. Critics would point to the fact that Roosevelt’s Democrats could be sure of voting support from the South, whereas the West was less of a sure thing; swing states took priority over the other states. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered", 70. There was a perception that WPA employees were not diligent workers, and that they had little incentive give up their busy work in favor of productive jobs. Employers said the "WPA is bad for people since it gives them poor work habits. They believe that even if a man is not an inefficient worker to begin with, he gets that way from being on WPA." Ginzberg, p. 447 Having been on the WPA made it harder for alumni to get a job because employers said they had "formed poor work habits" on the WPA. Wood, p. 61 A Senate committee reported that, "To some extent the complaint that WPA workers do poor work is not without foundation. ... Poor work habits and incorrect techniques are not remedied. Occasionally a supervisor or a foreman demands good work." ''Report of investigation of public relief in the District of Columbia (U.S. Senate)'', (1938) The WPA and its workers were ridiculed as being lazy. The organization's initials were said to stand for "We Poke Along" or "We Putter Along" or "We piddle around" or "Whistle, Piss and Argue." These were sarcastic references to WPA projects that sometimes slowed down deliberately because foremen had an incentive to keep going, rather than finish a project. David A. Taylor, ''Soul of a people: the WPA Writer's Project uncovers Depression America'' (2009) p 12 New Deal officials reportedly took measures to prevent political corruption. In particular President Roosevelt created a "division of progress investigation" to investigate complaints of malfeasance. Krugman, Paul, ''The Conscience of a Liberal'', W W Norton & Company, 2007 p.62 Evolution, Termination, and Legacy thumb U.S. entry into World War II (File:WPAMapMakersGoToWarNewOrleans1941.jpg) produced a sudden change of national needs and priorities. These WPA workers are assembling an air raid warning map for New Orleans within days of the attack on Pearl Harbor. When Harry Hopkins became the Secretary of Commerce, Colonel Francis Harrington became director of the project and the WPA was renamed from the “Works Progress Administration” to the “Works Projects Administration.” As the projects became more subject to the state, local sponsors were called on to provide 25% of project costs. As the projects slowly diminished due to lack of funding, they became more dedicated to work that related directly to the war effort: " The WPA diverted resources from domestic construction to overseas destruction.” Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996): 227. Unemployment ended with war production for World War II (United States home front during World War II), as millions of men joined the services, and cost-plus contracts made it attractive for companies to hire unemployed men and train them. With the mass-employment need essentially gone, Congress terminated the WPA in late 1943. Taylor, Nick. ''American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work'' (2008) In regarding the Work Progress Administration's legacy, Robert Leighninger asserts that “The agencies of Franklin D. Roosevelt administration had an enormous and largely unrecognized role in defining the public space we now use. In a short period of ten years, the Public Works Administration, the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps built facilities in practically every community in the country. Most are still providing service half a century later. It is time we recognized this legacy and attempted to comprehend its relationship to our contemporary situation.” Popular Culture Other references to the WPA in popular culture include: * "WPA Blues", a 1937 song by Casey Bill Weldon, also recorded by Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter: "Everybody's working in this town And it's worrying me night and day If that means working too Have to work for the WPA". * "W.P.A.", a 1939 song recorded by Louis Armstrong and The Mills Brothers: "Sleep while you work while you work rest while you play Lean on your shovel to pass the time away". * Harper Lee's 1960 novel, ''To Kill a Mockingbird'' noted a typical comment. Bob Ewell, the resident slacker of Maycomb County, is described as "the only person fired from the WPA for laziness." She also wrote: "If he held his mouth right, Mr. Cunningham could get a WPA job, but his land would go to ruin if he left it, and he was willing to go hungry to keep his land and vote as he pleased." * "I'm Still Here", a song from Stephen Sondheim's 1971 musical, ''Follies'': "I've slept in shanties, guest of the WPA, and I'm here." See also * American Guide Series * Civil Works Administration * Civilian Conservation Corps * Federal Art Project * Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation * Federal Project Number One * Hatch Act of 1939 * List of locks and dams of the Upper Mississippi River * List of Works Progress Administration artists * National Recovery Administration * New Deal * Public Works of Art Project * Section of Painting and Sculpture '''General:''' * Great Depression * Public works Notes plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.
ProgramNotes.aspx?id 47150 work Program Notes publisher San Francisco Symphony accessdate 22 November 2011 quote The San Francisco Symphony first performed Copland's organ symphony in January 1986...the soloist was Michael Murray. Critics hailed Murray's rare combination of technique, thoughtfulness, and musical feeling. He has made many recordings on the Telarc label,
Kalimantan, and conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah), and parts of Papua and West Papua
activities upon military discharge, was driven by his ambition to design a proper boys’ work program with the Toronto YMCA, attending various national boys conferences. In 1912, Statten became the Boys’ Work Secretary on the national YMCA executive. Borrowing from both Canadian (Canada) and American (United States) YMCA programs, and aspects of the Boy Scouts (Scouting), Statten established the "Canadian Standards Efficiency Training" program, a system of graded tests where boys passed from one level to the next. These standards were borrowed from the "four-fold" philosophy. Biography Born in Stratford, Ontario, Canada, to David Manning, a music teacher, and Darlene Manning. Set to self-produce her first album at the age of 16, she was discovered by Honeymoon Suite keyboardist Ray Coburn at a showcase at Lee's Palace in Toronto; after two live performances for EMI executives, the label signed Manning to a record deal. ** Anyone done a reverse DNS on these IPs? Could be PRC police. Klonimus (User:Klonimus) 02:36, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ** These map to Toronto, Ontario, odd as it seems. --ElTyrant (User:ElTyrant) 02:46, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ** Anyone done a reverse DNS on these IPs? Could be PRC police. Klonimus (User:Klonimus) 02:36, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ** These map to Toronto, Ontario, odd as it seems. --ElTyrant (User:ElTyrant) 02:46, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) alias Born Toronto, Ontario, Canada origin Life and career Born and based in Toronto, she began her career by performing at Society for Creative Anachronism historical re-creation events; she has been a medieval-era re-creator since 1993 and is known by the name 'Mistress Marian of Heatherdale' SCA - Ealdormere Order of Precedence within the group. She was elevated to the Order of the Laurel, the Society's highest award for achievement in the arts, in 2001. Marian of Heatherdale, Kingdom of Ealdormere - Order of the Laurel Her CD ''Call The Names'' is a compilation album of her oldest songs (originally released on cassette between 1995 and 1998), all of which present an idealized view of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, within the SCA context. Heather released another historical album in November 2002: ''This Endris Night'', with twelve reworkings of pre-1700AD Christmas carols. thumb right Holland Marsh Memorial plaque at the former city hall in Nieuwe Pekela (File:Holland Marsh Memorial in Pekela The Netherlands 01.JPG), The Netherlands The '''Holland Marsh''' is a wetland and agricultural area Commons:Category:Toronto WikiPedia:Toronto dmoz:Regional North America Canada Ontario Localities T Toronto
Survey (HABS) In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young NPS landscape architect. It was founded as a make-work program for architects, draftsmen and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D.C., the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's Cultural heritage architectural heritage
José Lima (w:José Lima), a former baseball (w:baseball) pitcher for Major League Baseball (w:Major League Baseball)'s Houston Astros (w:Houston Astros), Detroit Tigers (w:Detroit Tigers), Los Angeles Dodgers (w:Los Angeles Dodgers), New York Mets (w:New York Mets), and Kansas City Royals (w:Kansas City Royals) (all in the United States (w:United States)) died suddenly at his Los Angeles home this morning of a heart attack (w:heart attack). He was 37 years old. His death was confirmed by the Los Angeles Dodgers organization and his family.
as a means of continuing his physical fitness activities upon military discharge, was driven by his ambition to design a proper boys’ work program with the Toronto YMCA, attending various national boys conferences. In 1912, Statten became the Boys’ Work Secretary on the national YMCA executive. Borrowing from both Canadian (Canada) and American (United States) YMCA programs, and aspects of the Boy Scouts (Scouting), Statten established the "Canadian Standards Efficiency Training"