by its proximity to Lake Muskoka to which it is connected by 6 miles of the Muskoka River, and by the promise of abundant water power afforded by the great waterfall at the foot of the town. Early growth of the town occurred in proximity to the falls which powered the first factory. The arrival of the Grand Trunk Railway cemented the town's role as a transportation hub for the area. Modern settlement of the town began in the 1860s, beginning at first with a few log huts. The Muskoka colonization road had been completed to the first falls on the north branch of the Muskoka River by 1862. Entrepreneurs began to take advantage of the area's water power. With the advent of steamship service on Lake Muskoka a few years later, Bracebridge prospered as the main distribution centre for the region. http: www.heritagefdn.on.ca userfiles HTML nts_1_5496_1.html Ontario Heritage Trust Founding of Bracebridge By 1869, Bracebridge was a village with a population of 160 in the Township of Macaulay County, Victoria. It was established on the Muskoka River. There were stages in winter and boats in summer from Barrie to Washago. The average price of wild land was $2 to $5 an acre while improved land was $10 per acre. The province of Ontario gazetteer and directory. H. McEvoy Editor and Compiler, Toronto : Robertson & Cook, Publishers, 1869 By 1870 the village had a population of about 400, growing to reach a total of about 2,000 by the turn of the 20th century. The village was incorporated in 1875 and became a town under an Act of Parliament in 1889. In 1894 Bracebridge became the first town in Ontario to have its own hydro generating station. The municipal boundaries of Bracebridge also encompass the smaller communities of Clear Lake, Falkenburg (ghost town), Falkenburg Station, Fraserburg, Germania, Lakewood, Matthiasville, Monsell (ghost town), Purbrook, Rocksborough, Springdale Park, Stoneleigh, Uffington and Vankoughnet. Transportation thumb left 200px The Bracebridge Towne Express trolley, sponsored by Santa's Village, provides the town with local public transport. However, it only makes trips to Santa's Village on Sunday afternoons during the summer season. (Image:Bracebridge Town Express.jpg) The Bracebridge railway station (Bracebridge, Ontario railway station) no longer receives service as the Ontario Northland Northlander line was discontinued by the Ontario government. Bracebridge receives coach bus service departing from the Riverside Inn that takes passengers as far south as Toronto and as far North as North Bay. Bracebridge is the home and main hub of Muskoka Transport, a successful shipping and receiving company owned and operated by the Hammond family. Education Bracebridge is served by several elementary schools and two high schools: Bracebridge and Muskoka Lakes Secondary School, and Saint Dominic Catholic Secondary School. Public education is administered by the Trillium Lakelands District School Board, '''Liisa Savijarvi''' (born 29 December 1963 in Bracebridge, Ontario) was a Canadian (Canada) skier (Skiing). - Bracebridge (Bracebridge, Ontario) Don Coates -
;ref A Short History of Ontario, Dr. Ed Whitcomb, Natural Resources Canada, 2007 Kingston (Kingston, Ontario) (1780), St. Catharines (1787–89), Grimsby (Grimsby, Ontario) (1790), Niagara-on-the-Lake (1792) and Toronto (1793). By 1823, due in large part to its easily accessible water power located at the juncture of already existing historical trading routes, Ancaster had become Upper Canada's largest industrial and commercial center. Additionally, Ancaster had at that time attracted the 2nd largest populace (1,681) in Upper Canada trailing only Kingston (Kingston, Ontario) (population 2,500), http: www.kingstonhistoricalsociety.ca chronology.html but surpassing the populations of nearby Toronto (1,376) and Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario) (1,000). ANCASTER The Past, Present and Future, A Brief prepared by The Ancaster Township Historical Society 1972 After this initial period of prosperity beginning in the late 18th century, sudden significant water and rail transportation advancements of the early 19th century would soon better benefit Ancaster's neighbouring towns situated closer to the Lake Ontario waterfront. Stationary steam engines for industries were also being rapidly developed in the 19th century that would eventually make Ancaster's water powered industries less vital. As a result, after the 1820s, Ancaster's influence during the remainder of the 19th century would begin to wane. From the late 19th century Ancaster's population would remain static until 1946 when new subdivisions around the village were established. The population expanded further with the completion of the Hamilton-Ancaster section of Highway 403 (Highway 403 (Ontario)) in 1968 and the introduction of sewer systems in 1974. After 1970, its population essentially doubled from 15,000 residents to its present-day 33,000. Geography, economy and population Ancaster's geography has had a very significant affect on human settlement patterns throughout its prehistory and in the present day. A highly influential geographical formation has been the Niagara Escarpment consisting primarily of limestone formed from ancient fossilized sea organisms that spans from present day New York State through Ontario to Illinois. The escarpment itself created the water power that encouraged early European settlers to gravitate to the area in the late 1700s. However, this energy source would not have been accessible if the escarpment were not navigable. This long-meandering landform generally proved to be an inhospitable transportation barrier for thousands of years for past indigenous cultures. However, a natural break in this escarpment in the precise area that would become Ancaster village had for millennia created an opportunity for people to traverse up and down the escarpment providing a relatively easy navigable land transportation gateway from the head of the lake to the surrounding land on the escarpment and vice versa. Ancaster, A Glimpse into the Past, Ancaster Information Centre and Community Services. Andrew J.L. Barton, 1993 thumbnail right Ancaster Village circa 1927-32 (File:Ancaster Village circa 1927-35.jpg) Ancaster is the most westerly portion of the Golden Horseshoe conurbation of southern Ontario. It is generally considered to be an affluent bedroom community whose residents are typically professionals who work in downtown Hamilton, Brantford (Brantford, Ontario), Burlington (Burlington, Ontario), Oakville (Oakville, Ontario), Mississauga (Mississauga, Ontario) or Toronto (Toronto, Ontario). The former municipality had a population of 33,232 in the 2006 census, a considerable increase from the 2001 census figure of 27,485. Development in ''Olde Ancaster'', the historic village core, has been tightly controlled. Its current population growth and building boom occurs mainly on the east side of Highway 403 (Ontario Highway 403) in such typically suburban commercial developments as the Power Centre and residential developments such as the Meadowlands (Meadowlands, Hamilton). It has resided in the 905 area code (area code 905) since the latter's creation, and its telephone exchange prefixes are 648 and 304, majority being 648. History The creation of the Upper (Upper Canada) and Lower (Lower Canada) Canadian provinces (colonies) from the division of the Province of Quebec (1763-1791) colony by the Parliament of Great Britain's Constitutional Act of 1791 had a deciding influence on the timing of the founding of Ancaster. At its inception, Upper Canada was only sparsely settled (unlike the more established Lower Canada) and its land had not been officially surveyed to any great extent. Thus, there was an urgency by the then Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada John Graves Simcoe to survey this new and relatively barren province for establishing military roads and for preventing settlers from clearing and settling land not legally belonging to them. Predating Upper Canada, however, the earliest European settlers to arrive and clear land in the mid-18th century in what would eventually become Ancaster were mostly a wilderness society made up of American farmers travelling north searching for arable land http: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca en article upper-canada #top and to a lesser extent French speaking (French language in Canada) fur traders (North American Fur Trade) and British (United Kingdom) immigrants travelling southward. Also arriving into this area again travelling north in substantial numbers around 1787 with the incentive of inexpensive land grants were the United Empire Loyalists still loyal to the British crown who were fleeing from the United States after the 1776 American War of Independence. Britain's promise of free land brought many people from the new republic to the south and east, who did not exhibit the same loyalty to the crown as the Loyalists. This would eventually lead to series of defections, accusations and treasonous acts during the War of 1812 that precipitated the largest mass hangings in Canadian history, the so-called Bloody Assizes whose trial took place in Ancaster in 1814. When Upper Canada was invaded by the United States during the War of 1812 its occupants were primarily of American ancestry. However, after the war the province would have a noticeably more British centered influence. http: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca en article upper-canada Britain expected its colonies to purchase all essential finished goods needed for day-to-day living from the mother country in exchange for raw materials such as fur and lumber. However, this 'arrangement' naturally proved to be very inefficient and impractical in practice so waterwheels, mills and factories soon hurriedly evolved in favourable towns in Upper Canada that had abundant water power, fertile soil, and good transportation access such as Ancaster that could then provide the new settlers with a good measure of self-sufficiency. A History of the Canadian People, WM. Stewart Wallace, The Copp Clark Company, Limited, Toronto: 1930 In general terms, the mindset of typical Upper Canada settlers could be described as new arrivals that ''"evinced any amount of dislike of the Americans but something less than love of the Mother country. The early English settlers were independent cattle, they had emigrated; not to perpetuate a mould but to escape from it. They scattered far and wide; they would seem to have selected their lands rather like rummagers at a bargain sale, by feel or look. The Loyalists were more gregarious; they thickened wherever there was good soil or waterwheel sites"''. The Incompleat Canadian, An Approach to Social History, G.R. Stevens, 1965 In an age before steam power, the wilderness that would become Ancaster had an early economic advantage due to the fact that it existed amidst a natural break in the Niagara Escarpment. Thus even its relatively minor water resources were valuable because they were easily accessible. Just as vital an influence in Ancaster's rapid development was the fact that it already had access to two very important prehistoric First Nations roads. The first European settlers to set foot in this region would have encountered the Iroquois Trail and the Mohawk Trail (Mohawk Road (Hamilton, Ontario)) intersecting precisely in the area that would eventually become Ancaster Village. This aboriginal Iroquois trail had become the most important transportation route in Upper Canada. It meandered down the escarpment from the future Ancaster into what would eventually become Hamilton, Ontario towards present day Lewiston, New York, eventually linking up with similar aboriginal trails in New York. In the other direction the Iroquois trail led from present day Ancaster to what would eventually become the town of Brantford, Ontario (Brantford) whereupon the trail then branched off into the Detroit Path and the Long Point trail. By 1770, the 80 kilometre Mohawk Trail was essentially the escarpment accompaniment of the lakeside Iroquois trail. The Mohawk Trail ran parallel to the Iroquois trail and originated and diverged from the Iroquois trail in present day Queenston, Ontario until finally ending and reconnecting to the Iroquois Trail in present day Ancaster at what is now known as the intersection of Rousseaux and Wilson Street. The two trails actually interconnected in four locations along the Mohawk Trail's 80 kilometre route when favourable escarpment conditions permitted. By 1785, the Iroquois Trail passing through present day Ancaster had been widened to accommodate horse and buggy traffic. Another influential road that intersected the Mohawk Trail very close to Ancaster Village was the Twenty Mile road that followed the Twenty Mile Creek up to present day Smithville, Ontario and beyond. The Origin And Development Of The Road Network Of The Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, 1770-1851. Andrew F. Burghardt McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario Lastly, Ancaster also had fertile soil and abundant fresh water which encouraged pioneer settlers to arrive in this region to clear the land and plant crops for subsistence agriculture. thumb right Ancaster, 1910 (File:English church, Ancaster, Ontario, Canada (1910).jpg) Ancaster was established formally in 1792, but the area now referred to as Ancaster Village had been referred to informally by local villagers by the more colourful name of Wilson's Mills. This was in reference to millwright James Wilson who along with his affluent fur trader, entrepreneur and business partner Richard Beasley (Richard Beasley (politician)) were the primary founders of Ancaster village. With Beasley’s financial backing, Wilson built a gristmill in 1791 and a sawmill in 1792 that would be the only mills west of Grimsby for many years. In order to attract workers to his mills, Wilson needed to provide the social amenities and commercial framework for an area of land which in that period was an isolated frontier forest with accessible water power situated precisely at the juncture of already well-established pre-historical indigenous transportation trails. In that period the area was populated with just a smattering of First Nations aboriginal peoples and wilderness farmers. Again, with Beasley's financial assistance, Wilson managed to generate the impetus for a community by constructing a general store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery and a tavern all within walking distance of his mills. As a result Wilson's newly arrived employees began to build their homes in close proximity to their place of work. http: www.herontrips.com Wilson.html and thus the necessary factors were in place for the community of Wilson's Mills to thrive. Wilson's primary residence was also used as a school, a magistrate's court and a cooperage. Ancaster, A Glimpse into the Past — Ancaster Information Centre and Community Services 1993, Andrew J.L. Barton To this day, the main street that winds through the historical Ancaster Village that once was a section of the original aboriginal Iroquois Trail still bears the legacy of Wilson's name. By 1793 an area of land that contained Wilson's Mills was finally surveyed and officially came to be known as Ancaster Township as chosen by John Graves Simcoe. Simcoe was apparently inspired in the name choice by Peregrine Bertie (Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven), the 3rd Duke of Ancaster (Ancaster, Lincolnshire) and Kesteven. Thus, Wilson's Mills was indirectly renamed Ancaster (Ancaster, Lincolnshire) after an ancient village and former Roman town (Roman Britain) that stills exists in the district of Lincolnshire, England. In 1794, Wilson sold his half share of the grist-mill and sawmill business to Montreal born fur trader, interpreter, businessman, militia officer and office holder Jean Rousseaux 'St. John' who already had a home and general store on Wilson Street. Rousseaux's Ancaster general store experienced frequent trading with Joseph Brant's (Joseph Brant) Mohawks (Mohawk people) and other Iroquois people from the Six Nations confederacy located at the Grand River (Grand River (Ontario)). Rousseaux would eventually buy out Beasley's remaining share of the mills in 1797. Rousseaux had also been Governor Simcoe's official native and French interpreter and was also a close confidante and advisor to native leader Joseph Brant. http: www.biographi.ca en bio rousseaux_st_john_john_baptist_5E.html James Wilson at this point moved away and the local villagers by 1795 gradually began referring to the community of Wilson's Mills as Ancaster Village. Curiously, the detailed whereabouts or activities of James Wilson after his departure are not well documented. There is evidence that Wilson was born before 1755, had a wife and three children but his burial location is unknown. Ancaster's Heritage - A History of Ancaster Township - Published by the Ancaster Historical Society 1973 Page 13 - referenced from http: www.ourroots.ca With the profits from this business transaction Rousseaux built the Union Hotel in 1797 on Wilson Street, which is now remembered as the location of the Bloody Assize (Bloody Assize (1814)) trials in 1814 during the War of 1812. By building his hotel on Wilson Street, Rousseaux reversed the then trend of building exclusively on the Mohawk trail. Ancaster's Heritage - A History of Ancaster Township - Published by the Ancaster Historical Society 1973 Page 30 - referenced from http: www.ourroots.ca In 1794-1797, Rousseaux also added a general store, brewery and distillery as well as hiring Ancaster's first school teacher. His other accomplishments being the first assessor, tax collector, magistrate and the Township's first Lieutenant Colonel of Militia. Rousseaux also became a considerable land owner and assisted significantly with native relations, was able to bridge French and English cultures successfully and was instrumental in the early development of Ancaster and old York. Rousseaux eventually resold the mills to the Union Mill Company in 1802 and they ultimately were destroyed by fire in 1812. However the mills brief 20 years of service (1791-1812) had provided the initial catalyst for the economic and social development of Ancaster Township. Rousseaux died of pleurisy at Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake) during the war of 1812. In 1798, the Hatt (Richard Hatt) brothers Richard and Samuel from Dundas established their Red Mill downstream below Ancaster Falls at the base of the so-called "devil's elbow". They also widened the original native trail into what would be eventually known as the Old Ancaster-Dundas Road in order to provide better commercial access. In 1799, William Vanderlip built a hotel that in 1844 was sold to Adam Duff which gave birth to the nickname 'Duff's Corners' for describing the well-known intersection on Highway 53 (Ontario Highway 53). By 1800, native mail couriers had been established between Montreal and Detroit with Ancaster appointed as the branching point for Queenston. In 1805, the Hatt brothers bought a majority of the village site from James Wilson and proceeded to subdivide it into streets and building lots. By 1810 the population of Ancaster had steadily risen to 400 residents yet in just 7 years by 1817 its populace would more than double to 1,037. In that same year Robert Gourlay carefully documented that Ancaster had 162 houses, 4 gristmills, 5 sawmills, 1 carding machine (Carding), 1 fulling mill (Fulling), 5 doctors, 1 Episcopalian minister, and 1 Methodist meeting house. In 1820, Job Lodor acquired the Union Mill Company and rejuvenated Ancaster's industrial base. By 1823, the first post office was established. In 1824, the Ancaster Union Church was built. By 1825, Ancaster had constructed a public reading room with papers from Niagara, York and New York. A foundry making plough shears was established in 1825 by William Wiard. In 1826, Jacob Gabel started a tannery; Robert Douglas started a brewery and John Galt established Ancaster as his headquarters for the Canada Company. 1827 marked the year that inaugurated the publication of George Gurnett's (George Gurnett) Gore Gazette and the Ancaster, Hamilton, Dundas and Flamborough (Flamborough, Ontario) Advertiser. By 1835, Job Lodor was the only person in Upper Canada who managed to obtain banking privileges and thus the Gore Bank was established in the village in 1836. Also in 1836, the population of Ancaster would reach 2,664. In 1837 a group of Red Coated Soldiers appeared in the village to announce the MacKenzie and Papineau rebellions. By 1840 Ancaster had 5 hotels. In 1844, Dr. Richardson opened his practice in the village. Eyre Thuresson founded a threshing machine factory in 1846, a stone mill in 1862, another card mill upstream in 1863 and reorganized the Cane Knitting Factory in 1865. In 1847, N. and E. Wiard re-opened the McLauglin foundry to make ploughs. Harris and Alonzo Egleston arrived in 1832 and began working at William Wiard's foundry and eventually bought him out. The Egleston's then proceeded to expand their own business empire which included building a foundry in 1843 employing 25 people and rebuilding a gristmill in 1863 at the present day location of the Old Ancaster Mill on the old Dundas Road. This Egleston mill was the 4th Ancaster mill and the third to be rebuilt at this current location. Wilson's original mills burnt down in 1812. Upon rebuilding, Wilson's mills were relocated from this original site at Wilson and Rousseaux Street a little further downstream and rebuilt in stone at the present Old Ancaster Mill location on Old Dundas Road. Again, at the same location, a second mill burnt down in 1818 as well as a third mill that was damaged by fire in 1854. Wilson's original 1791-1792 mill foundations still exist 75 yards upstream from the Wilson and Rousseaux Street intersection but are hidden with vegetation. The much restored and modified remnants of Egleston's 1854 mill now operates as a restaurant and banquet hall. The Barracks of 1812 still stand as a reminder of the war of 1812. By May 1866, the first public telephone was set up in Gurnett's store but was disconnected from lack of use. By 1869, Ancaster was a Village in the Township of Ancaster County Wentworth with a population of 500. Mr. K. Thuresson turned out card clothing (Carding). The Ancaster Knitting Company employed over 100 in the manufacture of knitted goods. Messrs. H & A Egleston manufactured agricultural implements, cotton and woolen machinery. Mr. A Egleston employed 20 in woolen and cloth mills. The province of Ontario gazetteer and directory. H. McEvoy Editor and Compiler, Toronto : Robertson & Cook, Publishers, 1869 In 1871 the still existing and currently well maintained Ancaster Township Hall opened at a cost of $2,400. Additional examples of Victorian architecture are also located on Wilson Street, amongst them the Richardson residence, which was built in 1872 as a wedding present for Dr. Henry Richardson and his new bride Sarah Egleston. Other similar structures includes St. John's Church 1869, the Gurnett home 1826, Gurnett General Store 1826, Hammill house 1860, the Egleston house, Job Lodor's home 1820, Rousseau Hotel 1832 and the Thuresson home 1872 to name just a few. The oldest building in Ancaster is the Tisdale house at 314 Wilson Street which was built circa 1806 and whose current function is a police museum. The traveling expedition of Edison's magical phonograph (Edison Records) was exhibited in the Township Hall in 1878. In 1891, John Heslop was murdered in his home on Mineral Springs Road and the murder case remains unsolved to this day. After 1900, affluent Hamilton industrialists began purchasing farm land close to Ancaster village for building estates. By 1946, housing subdivisions began to be established around the village and thus began the post-World War II population expansion that continues to this present day with the current housing construction in the Meadowlands (Meadowlands, Hamilton) subdivision. Ancaster's dominant position in the region as an influential industrial, commercial and farming community throughout the late 18th and early 19th centuries would soon be short-lived due to sudden modern transportation advancements in its neighbouring towns. Soon nearby Dundas (Dundas, Ontario) and a small farm settlement close to the lakefront that by 1833 would be established as the town of Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario) would soon become more influential mainly because of the successful completion of the following three transportation projects: the completion of the Burlington Canal in 1832 that connected Burlington Bay (Hamilton Harbour) to Lake Ontario, the completion of the Desjardins Canal in 1837 that enabled lake vessels to enter nearby Dundas (Dundas, Ontario) through Hamilton Harbour and the completion in 1855 of The Great Western Railway (Great Western Railway (Ontario)) connection to Hamilton (and eventually Dundas) enabled Hamilton, which already had flourishing and expanding ports, to become the prominent urban and commercial settlement in the region. Another factor in Ancaster's gradual economic decline was that stationary steam engines by the 1840s had begun powering industries thus locating industries adjacent to water power was less vital. In fact by this period even Ancaster had started to introduce steam power to its factories however it was no longer able to compete economically with Hamilton's natural shipping harbour and railway. Ancaster's Heritage - A History of Ancaster Township 1973 - Published by the Ancaster Historical Society Page 3 - referenced from http: www.ourroots.ca A final contributing factor to Hamilton's dominance was the fact it was chosen to be the administrative center for the new Gore District in 1816 and was voted to be the county town instead of Ancaster. Ancaster had been the leading candidate in 1812 to be the county town and a petition had been signed with 200 signatures to further strengthen that proposal. The petitioners had argued that Ancaster's advantages were its flourishing Union Mills and other industries combined with its elegant setting which they believed would make it the most suitable candidate for building a new county courthouse. However the war of 1812 had interrupted this original selection process and by 1816 the promising village of Hamilton was chosen instead even though Ancaster at that time was still the most influential village in Western Upper Canada. http: ourroots.ca page.aspx?id 889391&qryID 4edd6fd5-f85b-4198-8475-ae7fe4071c39 Ancaster's Heritage Page 31 Ancaster Historical Society 1973 In the latter half of the 19th century Ancaster became an unimposing gristmill hamlet and police village. Ancaster's many derelict burnt down or abandoned factories such as the gutted three story Ancaster carriage factory littered its surroundings in that era like modern ruins that shouted at a former glory. The economic reality was that these former Ancaster factories would be rebuilt elsewhere. Ancaster would not have access to a modern transportation system until the Brantford and Hamilton Electric Railway intersected Ancaster Village in 1907 thus making fresh milk and other perishable foods, general supplies and mail easily deliverable on a daily basis for the first time. The arrival of the B&H radial line corresponded with the inevitable process of change that Ancaster was undergoing that is clearly recognizable today from that of a former prominent industrial and highly influential self-sufficient village to its current status as a bedroom community of Hamilton. Interestingly, the evidence for this radial train is still easily visible in Ancaster village by a well maintained gravel path behind St. John's Anglican Church on Wilson Street. Walkers and cyclists can still follow this old radial line path down the escarpment (behind Meadowlands shopping centre) to the Hamilton Chedoke Golf Course. The radial line was dismantled in 1931 as a condition of sale from the Cataract Company. With the advent of competition from the automobile and bus companies in North America at the turn of the 20th century, generally only publicly owned streetcar companies had the financial means to survive into the 1950s. At the end of the 19th century, the townsfolk of Ancaster were certainly conscious that their town had once been a glowing star in Upper Canada that had quickly lost its luster during the Victorian age despite its second successful wave of industrialization in the 1820s. In 1897, local author Alma Dick-Lauder writing about Ancaster in the Hamilton Spectator using the colourful language of that time lamented that, ''"So who can say that new life may not once more flow to the aged village, now high and dry on old time's sand banks, bringing back her bright meridian bloom and vigour of 70 years ago? Fanned by the breath of electricity to spring like a Phoenix from her bed of ashes-ashes, understand, being principally the matter choking up the old place with a fire record unequalled since the days of Sodom, making her an object of terror to her friend, derision to her foes and a hoo-doo to the guileless insurance agent. It is rather melancholy, on a summer's day, to stand on the high bridge and watch the waters slouching by like a gang of crystal dwarfs out of a job, idling and playing and painting the 'beautiful, waving hair of the dead' grass green among the fallen ruins, which a few years ago were instinct with the hum of industry, pouring forth at stated hours, with jangle of bells, a cheerful, clattering stream of bread winners, giving life and animation to the scene, in contrast to the occasional man who now meets the casual glance up street in the sunny noon hours"''. Pen and Pencil Sketches of Wentworth Landmarks, The Spectator Printing Company 1897 Alma Dick-Lauder was referring to the fact that by 1897, although Ancaster Township had a population of 4,000, the solitary industry that remained was Egleston's gristmill. The 'fire record' Alma refers to was the burning of the following: John J. Ryckman's store in 1841, St. Johns Church in 1868, The Ancaster Knitting Factory in 1875, the Morris S. Lowrey Hotel in 1881, Egleston's foundry in 1883, Thuresson's Foundry in 1884 and finally the Ancaster Carriage Factory in 1885. By Alma's expression the 'meridian bloom of 70 years ago' she was referring to the fact that in 1820 Job Lodor had purchased the Union Mills and in so doing had instantly transformed Ancaster's industrial center to the point where it was once again, albeit temporarily, the unrivalled commercial and industrial hub of the Gore district. At the time of Alma's 1897 newspaper article, Ancaster had gone from having three schools in 1835 to just one remaining school but had managed to develop cultural institutions such as an orchestra, a literary society and an enclosed curling rink. Job Lodor as well as many other prominent as well as lesser known early Ancaster settlers left behind sometimes still legible tombstones and grave markers in the cemeteries belonging to St. John's Anglican and St. Andrew's Presbyterian Churches located on Wilson Street. According to Dick-Lauder's late 19th century description of Job Lodor, ''"Somewhere about the year of grace 1820, the 'man-of-the-time' came and took up his abode in the village where he henceforth lived and where he died and is buried, after having contributed much to the advancement of Ancaster in many ways. This enterprising pioneer was named Job Loder, and he was the builder and owner of all the mills and water privileges of the whole place for many years, running grist mills, saw mill, carding and woolen mills all along the stream on the site of the present ruins. Mr Loder also had a general store close to his house in the village, where he did a running business, giving constant employment to four clerks. Finally the old gentlemen made so much money that he didn't know what to do with it, so he sold out his mills and water privileges to a person named Mr. Russell"''. Pen and Pencil Sketches of Wentworth Landmarks, The Spectator Printing Company 1897 Alma Dick Lauder Page 10 In the same period in 1897, Lauder chronicled what would have been in that era a typical but now lost experience of travelling up the escarpment to Ancaster on horse and buggy which she fancifully described, ''"It is a royal progress, that gradual ascent to Ancaster, and even the nobodies must turn their head in right royal fashion from side to side to greet the 'woodsey smell' of the mossy fern carpet spread over the rocks there in the shade to catch a breath from 'the far off greenhouses of God' to look deep into the rocky gorge where the bridge crosses over a real Hieland stream foaming down in haste after rains, round boulders and over hollow to join fortunes with the Yuba (nickname of Ancaster's main stream) hastening from its work above at Ancaster. Just here the road begins to crawl and so do the horses, giving time to enjoy all the beauteous vale of the fountains, which lies revealed, perhaps in level beams of evening, to the never satisfied eye. Presumably it was good luck and water privileges, more that inherent good taste, which led the earliest forefathers of the hamlet to form a nucleus at Ancaster, but it is hard to imagine, looking back from the turn of the mountain, how they could possibly have made a better selection ... It would appear also that there has always been an unusual percentage of good looks amongst the Ancastrians in days gone by, as well as today"''. Pen and Pencil Sketches of Wentworth Landmarks, The Spectator Printing Company 1897 Alma Dick Lauder Page 14-15 Fiddler's Green road was apparently not named after a place or person but rather an activity. It turns out that by the late 19th century, Fiddler's Green was Ancaster's tawdry and hence very popular entertainment center once located in precisely the area between present day Ravina Court and Douglas Street. In more recent times this area was a busy hive of activity every Monday as the Ancaster Auction barn was active there until as recently as 1985. During auction Mondays, it was not an uncommon site to see farmers tackling runaway piglets or rounding up stray calves on surrounding house properties. However even during this latter period when this land was used as an auction for hogs and cattle, the remnants of an old race track on the premises was still easily visible. However, 100 years ago, this area was ''"a place where fiddlers would gather and perform at what was known as the Fiddler's Green Inn, a popular place for musicians to come and perform. The area was popular for horse racing and drinking, which in turn attracted more spectators, a common stop over or a communications point. As a great number of travelers visited the area, like any other port of call, the taverns and the inns sprang up"''. Ancaster, A Glimpse into the Past — Ancaster Information Centre and Community Services 1993, Andrew J.L. Barton The Ancaster Fair has been an annual agricultural and social event since 1850 except for 1937 when it was cancelled due to a case of infantile paralysis. Originally the fair was held at Wilson and Academy Streets in the Village core. In 1894 it moved to Wilson and Cameron Drive driving park where it remained until its centennial year in 1950 when it moved to Garner Road. After nearly 60 years at the Garner Road site, the Ancaster Fair in 2009 has moved to 630 Trinity Road. In 1976, an Ancaster Town Council vote reversed a long-standing policy that would finally allow Ancaster restaurants to apply for liquor licenses. Other than the LCBO and Brewers Retail outlets that were established in Ancaster in the 1950s, the village had up to that point been 'dry', presumably since Prohibition in Canada. Ancaster's earlier pioneers however experienced an entirely different social environment. Again according to Dick-Lauder writing in 1897, "Ancaster saw plenty of life during the rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada Rebellion), when it was quite a frequent thing for all the inns, five in number, and many of the private houses to be full over night of redcoats passing towards the west". During this period Ancaster Township was attached variously to Nassau District, Home District, York County (York County, Ontario) (West Riding) and Halton County (Halton County, Ontario). When Halton County and Wentworth County joined temporarily from 1850 to 1854, Ancaster remained permanently attached to Wentworth County (Wentworth County, Ontario), where it remains today in the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth thumb right 200px Ruins of the Hermitage. (File:The Hermitage - back.jpg) The Hermitage (The Hermitage (Hamilton, Ontario)) is a popular site in Ancaster. This historic house was once the property of Reverend George Sheed in 1830. Since then the house had changed ownership many times before burning to the ground in 1934. The last owner of The Hermitage was in fact local author Alma Dick-Lauder who has been referenced above. The fire that eventually consumed The Hermitage occurred directly from a party that she had been hosting. http: www.ghostwalks.com disappearinghistory dh_8_auchmar.html The shell of the old house and surrounding buildings can still be visited today. One of the main draws of this old property is the legend of the property being haunted. There are ghost tours run throughout the summer with the tour guides telling haunted stories of the land and the surrounding county. Haunted Hamilton - Local Hauntings - The Hermitage, Ancaster, Ontario Griffin House (Griffin House (Ancaster)) is a historic house associated with the Underground Railroad. Government When it became part of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth (Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Municipality, Ontario) in 1974, the Town of Ancaster absorbed the Township of Ancaster (including other hamlets like Jerseyville, Lynden and Alberton). The new town had two representatives on the regional council which totaled (with the Regional Chair) about 20 members. It was amalgamated with the nearby City of Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario) in 2001. The amalgamation was bitterly and unsuccessfully protested by its residents and those of adjacent communities (such as Dundas (Dundas, Ontario) and Flamborough (Flamborough, Ontario) and Glanbrook (Glanbrook, Ontario)), particularly since the Progressive Conservative (Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario) MPP (Member of Provincial Parliament (Ontario)) Toni Skarica government had promised in the last election that the amalgamation would not occur. Skarica resigned in protest, and a local Flamborough Mayor, Ted McMeekin, who led the fight in opposing the amalgamation, won the Liberal party nomination winning the by-election on an anti-amalgamation platform. Nonetheless, the amalgamation was not rescinded by the Harris government. The community is in the Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale federal electoral district (Electoral district (Canada)), represented by David Sweet of the Conservative Party of Canada, and in the Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (provincial electoral district)) provincial electoral district represented by Ted McMeekin of the Ontario Liberal Party. Following the redistribution of Electoral Seating in 2013, the town is now located in the newly created Federal Riding of Hamilton West-Ancaster-Dundas. This replaced the Ancaster - Dundas - Flamborough - Westdale Riding. Education Ancaster was part of the Wentworth County Board of Education since its inception, and was covered by the Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board when it was created in 1998. The town's only public institute of secondary education was Ancaster High School until 2005. Today, it is no longer classified as a vocational school, its official name is Ancaster High School. Other secondary schools in Ancaster are Bishop Tonnos Secondary School belonging to the Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board, and Hamilton District Christian High School, an independent Christian high school that moved to Ancaster in 1989. Public elementary schools in Ancaster include Fessenden, Rousseau, and C.H. Bray (kindergarten to Grade 6) and these students upon graduation generally end up going to Ancaster Senior Public School (grades 7 and 8) except for Ancaster Meadow public elementary students (kindergarten to grade 8). In the Catholic elementary school system, St. Ann's, St. Joachim's, Holy Name of Mary and Immaculate Conception students (kindergarten to grade 8) generally end up at Bishop Tonnos Secondary School. Post-secondary is only available at Redeemer University College, a Christian institution closely associated with the Christian Reformed Church (Christian Reformed Church in North America). It was incorporated in 1980 and began classes in Hamilton two years later. It built a campus in Ancaster in 1986 where it had its first graduating class. It had cooperative relations with McMaster University, which provided some instructors and some cross-listed courses. By 2000, it had acquired its present name and its graduates obtained Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees, instead of Bachelors of Christian Studies. The Ancaster Public Library, a branch of the Hamilton Public Library System, originated in 1955 as a member of the Library System of Ontario. It was eventually relocated to 300 Wilson Street East in 1967 as a Centennial project after several previous moves. The library was reopened on November 27, 2006 after an extensive project that involved extending the library to include the entire first floor of the building. Sports and Recreation The Hamilton Golf and Country Club was founded in 1894 and was originally sited beside the Hamilton Jockey Club (now Centre Mall), moving to Ancaster in 1916. It hosted the Canadian Open in 2003, 2006 and again in 2012. The Ancaster Rotary Centre is an addition to Morgan Firestone Arena and includes a full size fitness centre, workout complex and meeting rooms offering 10000 square feet of weights, cardio, group exercise and daycare. The complex is surrounded by the Robert E. Wade Park, Named after former mayor Bob Wade, Wal-Mart Canada's (w:Wal-Mart Canada) first three supercenters opened in Ancaster (w:Ancaster, Ontario), London (w:London, Ontario) and Stouffville, Ontario (w:Stouffville, Ontario).
of the largest suppliers of office products in the world. The availability of water power enabled Holyoke to support its own electric utility company and maintain it independently of America's major regional electric companies. The city was thus a rare unaffected area in the Northeast blackout of 1965, for example. Planned industrial community Holyoke was one of the first planned industrial communities in the United States. Holyoke features rectilinear street grids — a novelty in New England
, is one of the very few examples of neoclassical architecture in the city of Holyoke. It sits on Library Park, which was donated by the Holyoke Water Power Company in 1887. In 1870 the library was originally in a room in the old Appleton Street School. In 1876 it moved to a large central room on the main floor of City Hall. It remained there until it was determined that it had outgrown the space and a modern facility was required. In 1865, Whiting built his first mill followed by another in 1872. When the Whiting Paper Company was first formed. L.L. Brown of South Adams, Massachusetts was president and Whiting was agent and treasurer. Whiting later became president and his son, William Fairfield Whiting, became treasurer. Early years (1932–38) May was born in Holyoke, Massachusetts, but grew up in Clifton, New Jersey. Born Edward Joseph Mayoski, Mayo was the son of Polish immigrants who changed their name to Mayo.
in the township of Darlington, County Durham. It was a station of the Grand Trunk Railway. It was established on the north shore of Lake Ontario. It possessed a good harbour and there was extensive water power in the vicinity. The surrounding country was fertile. The province of Ontario gazetteer and directory. H. McEvoy Editor and Compiler, Toronto : Robertson & Cook, Publishers, 1869 The success of the Vanstone Mill, fueled by the machinery of the Crown's land grant program, led to the rapid expansion of the Bowmanville settlement in the early years of the 19th century. Under the generous yet discriminate eyes of wealthy local merchants such as John Simpson and Charles Bowman, small properties would often be sold to promote settlement and small business. The town soon developed a balanced economy; all the while gradually establishing itself as a moderate player in shipping, rail transport, metal works and common minor business (including tanneries, liveries, stables and everyday mercantile commodity exchange). By the time of Confederation (Confederation of Canada), Bowmanville was a vital, prosperous and growing town, home to a largely Scots (Scottish people)-Presbyterian community with all manner of farmers, working, and professional class making the town their home. With local economic stability and accessible, abundant land available for the construction of housing, the town soon sported several new churches, each designated to house both Free and Auld Kirk (Presbyterian Church in Canada), Anglican and Protestant congregations, including the Bible Christian Church, later to be a major stream of Canadian Methodism. At present, St. John's Anglican Church. St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, St. Paul's United Church (United Church of Canada) and the impressively ornate Trinity United Church (site of an old Auld Kirk church) still serve the community. All of these edifices, appropriately, lie on or are in close proximity to present-day Church Street. In the 19th century, in 1857, the Ontario Bank was founded in Bowmanville, with local resident John Simpson as its first president. The bank, while appearing to be a local enterprise, was primarily controlled by 16 Montreal businessmen. The Ontario bank eventually opened local branches including locations in Whitby, Oshawa, and Port Hope. In 1874, it was moved to Toronto, and would later become insolvent as a result of investing in speculative stocks in 1906. Humber, William."A Small Town On The Edge". Natural Heritage Natural History Inc.,1997, p19-21 The historic Ontario Bank building at the intersection of King and Temperance was demolished in 1971 Humber, William."A Small Town On The Edge".Natural Heritage Natural History Inc.,1997, p121 In 1884, Scottish immigrant John McKay opened the Cream of Barley Mill next to Soper Creek to manufacture a cereal of his own creation. "Cream of Barley" was shipped throughout the British Empire. Taws, Charles. "When Barley was King!" ''ClaringtonPromoter'', December 2012. Local business organized and modernized in the 20th century, with the Dominion Organ and Piano factory, Specialty Paper Company, the Bowmanville Foundry, and the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (1910) all providing steady work for Bowmanville's ever-growing working populations. Goodyear even went so far as to provide affordable housing for its employees, and present day Carlisle Ave. (built by magnanimous Goodyear president W.C. Carlisle) in the 1910s still stands as one of Ontario's best preserved examples of industrial housing. The land on which the Bowmanville Hospital was built was donated by J.W. Alexander, the owner of the then-prospering Dominion Organ and Piano factory. Formal education evolved in-step with Ryersonian philosophies of the day, and the advent of the Central Public School (1889) and the Bowmanville High School (1890), (both designed by Whitby architect A.A. Post) were the finishing touches to the town that was a model of then-Ontario Premier Oliver Mowat's philosophy of education, expansion and innovation for the citizens of the province. The 20th century saw a steady rise in the construction of area schools, with Vincent Massey P.S. (1955); Waverley P.S. (1978); Dr. Ross Tilley P.S. (1993); John M. James P.S. (1999) and Harold Longworth P.S. (2003) all accommodating gradual population increases and building developments in specific demographic areas of the town. The local school board was amalgamated with neighboring jurisdictions to form the Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board in 1997. As the town grew and prospered, so arrived Bowmanville's grand era of architectural building and refinement. Many excellently maintained specimens of Italianate, Gothic Revival, Colonial Brick and Queen Anne architecture remain in Bowmanville's older central neighborhoods. Much of Bowmanville's residential and commercial architectural heritage was either lost or threatened by demolition and modern development from 1950 to 1980, but a 25 year renaissance in appreciation and awareness (led largely by local historians and LACAC members) helped to preserve the precious remnants of days gone by. Bowmanville was incorporated as a village in 1852 and as a town in 1858. In 1974, the town was amalgamated with neighbouring Clarke Township (Clarke Township, Ontario) and Darlington Township (Darlington Township, Ontario) to form the '''Town of Newcastle''' as part of the municipal restructuring that created the Regional Municipality of Durham. The Town of Newcastle was renamed '''Municipality of Clarington''' in 1994. Subdivided housing developments first arrived in the 1950s, with a significant increase in housing development through the 1980s and 1990s. The population rose to about 10,000 in the 1970s, about 20,000 in the 1980s, about 25,000 in the 1990s and today is about 35,000. Transportation improvements in the 1980s included a widening of Highway 401 (first built through Bowmanville in 1952) to six lanes and of Highway 2 to 4 5 lanes. Many have referred to this as the "Lane Era" of Bowmanville. Prisoner of war camp Camp 30, the Lake Ontario Officers' Camp-Bowmanville, held captive German army officers from the Afrika Korps, fliers from the Luftwaffe and naval officers from the Kriegsmarine. Farms surrounded the camp that had been a delinquent boys' school prior to the war. In several accounts by former POWs, the prison was represented as very humane, in that the prisoners were well treated and well fed. Among the German officers transferred from England to Bowmanville was Korvettenkapitän Otto Kretschmer, who was the top U-boat ace of World War II. Kretschmer assumed the duties of the senior naval officer, sharing the command with the senior Luftwaffe officer Oberstleutnant Hans Hefele and the senior army officer General Leutnant Hans von Ravenstein. The Bowmanville boys' school had been quickly turned into a POW camp by surrounding the existing school buildings with a barbed wire fence. The facility, which had been designed to house 300 boys, was cramped and undersized for grown men. Two '''Darlington Provincial Park''' is a part of the Ontario Provincial Parks system. It is located just south of Highway 401 (Highway 401 (Ontario)) near the town of Courtice, between the cities of Bowmanville and Oshawa. A small park, the topography is dominated by gentle hills, a terminal moraine deposited by glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age. The park borders on the northern shore of Lake Ontario also encloses McLaughlin Bay. The Bay is shallow, and at some point in the 1990s was completely closed off from the lake by the action of the waves. The property bordering the park to the west is the home of General Motors Corporation's Canadian headquarters.
) is a steel truss cantilever bridge with approach viaducts constructed of prestressed concrete beams supporting a prestressed concrete deck paved with asphalt. The bridge crosses the Saint Lawrence River and Saint Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Montreal boroughs of Verdun (Verdun (Montreal)) and Le Sud-Ouest to Brossard on the South Shore (South Shore (Montreal)), Geography The district includes the borough (Boroughs of Montreal) of LaSalle (LaSalle, Quebec) and the Southwest borough's (Le Sud-Ouest) Ville-Émard and Côte-Saint-Paul neighbourhoods (List of neighbourhoods in Montreal). The neighbouring ridings are Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Lachine, Westmount—Ville-Marie, Jeanne-Le Ber, Brossard—La Prairie and Châteauguay—Saint-Constant. Northeast West ''Saint Lawrence River'' Victoria Bridge (Victoria Bridge (Montreal)) to: 25px (File:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Centre Saint-Lambert Centre 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) LaSalle (Montreal) North 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Northeast 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Verdun (Verdun (Montreal)) (Montreal) Location and description The borough of Verdun is located in the southeastern part of the Island of Montreal and also includes Nuns' Island (île des Sœurs). The part on the Island of Montreal is bounded to the southwest by LaSalle (LaSalle, Quebec), to the northwest by the borough of Le Sud-Ouest (Ville-Émard and Côte-Saint-Paul) and the Canal de l'Aqueduc), to the northeast by the Pointe-Saint-Charles (Le Sud-Ouest) and the Décarie Autoroute (Aut. 15) (Quebec Autoroute 15), and to the southeast by the St. Lawrence River. Centre 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Verdun (Montreal) North 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Northeast Southwest 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) LaSalle (LaSalle, Quebec) (Montreal) West 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Northwest '''Angrignon''' is a station (metro station) on the Green Line (Line 1 Green (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit) operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Angrignon Metro Station The station includes a large bus terminus for buses to southwest Montreal, the West Island (Dorval (Dorval, Quebec)), and South Western Quebec. '''Monk''' is a station (metro station) on the Green Line (Line 1 Green (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit) operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). The station is located in the Ville-Émard district of the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Monk Station '''Pointe-Saint-Charles''' (also known locally as simply '''The Point''') is a neighbourhood in the borough (Montreal borough) of Le Sud-Ouest in city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Today, this area is part of the borough (Montreal borough) of Le Sud-Ouest. It spans theoretically from the neighbourhood of Point St. Charles (Pointe-Saint-Charles) to the Old Port (Old Port of Montreal), and north to Notre-Dame Street. Currently, it holds the stables (the Griffintown Horse Palace, at the corner of Ottawa and Eleanor) for the horses that provide tours in carriages (calèche) around the Old Port. Many technological companies built office space in the area, and École de Technologie Supérieure (ÉTS) built its residence there. Very few residents still live in the area, and very little of the original architecture remains, however. Because of its location, some residential projects are taking shape, including Lowney Lofts, a multi-phase condominium project revitalizing a chocolate factory and the surrounding block. '''Jolicoeur''' is a station (metro station) on the Green Line (Line 1 Green (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit) operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the Côte-Saint-Paul district in the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada Jolicoeur Station . The station opened on September 3, 1978, as part of the extension of the Green Line westward to Angrignon (Angrignon (Montreal Metro)). '''Charlevoix''' is a station (metro station) on the Green Line (Line 1 Green (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit) operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the district of Pointe-Saint-Charles in the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada Charlevoix Station .The station opened on September 3, 1978, as part of the extension of the Green Line westward to Angrignon (Angrignon (Montreal Metro)). '''Lionel-Groulx''' is a station (metro station) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit) operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the Saint-Henri area of the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Lionel-Groulx Station It is a transfer station between the Green Line (Line 1 Green (Montreal Metro)) and Orange Line (Line 2 Orange (Montreal Metro)). '''Georges-Vanier''' is a station (metro station) on the Orange Line (Line 2 Orange (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit), operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the Little Burgundy area of the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Georges-Vanier Metro Station '''Place-Saint-Henri''' is a station (metro station) on the Orange Line (Line 2 Orange (Montreal Metro)) of the Montreal Metro rapid transit system (Rapid transit), operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). It is located in the Saint-Henri area of the borough of Le Sud-Ouest in Montreal, Quebec, Canada Place-Saint-Henri Metro Station . It is bordered by the city of Westmount (Westmount, Quebec) (along Atwater Street) to the west and the boroughs of Le Sud-Ouest (along the Ville-Marie Autoroute (Quebec Autoroute 720), Guy (Guy Street) and Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame Street) streets, and the Bonaventure Autoroute (Quebec Autoroute 10)) to the southwest, Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve (along the CP (Canadian Pacific Railway) rail lines) to the east, Le Plateau-Mont-Royal (along Sherbrooke (Sherbrooke Street), University (University Street) streets, and Pine (Pine Avenue) and Park (Park Avenue, Montreal) avenues) to the northeast, and Outremont (Outremont, Quebec) and Côte-des-Neiges—Notre-Dame-de-Grâce (along the border of Mount Royal Park) to the north. It is bounded on the south by the Saint Lawrence River. Southeast South 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Southwest Westmount (Westmount, Quebec) The irregularly shaped borough is bounded on the north by the borough of Mount Royal (Mount Royal, Quebec), on the east by Outremont, on the southeast by Ville-Marie (Ville-Marie (Montreal)) and Westmount (Westmount, Quebec), on the south by Le Sud-Ouest, and on the west by Côte Saint-Luc (Côte Saint-Luc, Quebec), Hampstead (Hampstead, Quebec), and Montreal West (Montreal West, Quebec). The Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is in the south east corner of the borough. East Westmount (Westmount, Quebec) Southeast 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) South Montreal West (Montreal West, Quebec) 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Lasalle (Lasalle, Quebec) (Montreal) Farther west, St. Jacques Street runs through the residential neighbourhoods of Little Burgundy, Saint-Henri, Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Lachine. Lionel-Groulx (Lionel-Groulx (Montreal Metro)) and Place-Saint-Henri (Place-Saint-Henri (Montreal Metro)) metro stations are located on St. Jacques in the Sud-Ouest (Le Sud-Ouest) borough; to the west, it gives access to Autoroute 20 (Quebec Autoroute 20) in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, where it passes through a largely industrial and large-surface commercial district at the top of the Falaise Saint-Jacques. The McGill University Health Centre superhospital will front Saint-Jacques in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. Northeast East 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Southeast 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) LaSalle (LaSalle, Quebec) (Montreal) ::::::The principle is as follows: ::::::1) Montreal boroughs are titled just borough name . e.g. Le Sud-Ouest, Ahuntsic-Cartierville, Outremont, Montreal North, Lachine. ::::::2) When we need disambiguation, we add (Montreal). e.g. Ville-Marie (Montreal), LaSalle (Montreal). It's not because people frequently write "LaSalle (Montreal)"; it's because we're calling it "LaSalle", just like all the other boroughs, and using the "(Montreal)" to disambiguate it. The borough is bordered to the northwest by the city of Dorval (Dorval, Quebec) to the northeast by Saint-Laurent (Saint-Laurent (Montreal)), to the east by Côte-Saint-Luc (Côte-Saint-Luc, Quebec), Montreal West (Montreal West, Quebec) and a narrow salient of Le Sud-Ouest, and to the south by LaSalle (LaSalle (Montreal)). Its western limit is the shore of Lac Saint-Louis and the Saint Lawrence River. Northeast Montreal West (Montreal West, Quebec) East 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) Le Sud-Ouest (Montreal) Southeast 25px (Image:Flag of Montreal.svg) LaSalle (LaSalle (Montreal)) (Montreal) '''Ville-Émard''' is a neighbourhood located in the Sud-Ouest (Le Sud-Ouest) borough of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and is the home of Angrignon Park. - Le Sud-Ouest Jacqueline Montpetit (inc.) MICU -
Category:Neighbourhoods in Montreal Category:Irish diaspora in Quebec Category:Le Sud-Ouest Category:Populated places on the Saint Lawrence River Occupation of Montreal begins Montgomery then led his troops north and occupied Saint Paul's Island (Nuns' Island) in the Saint Lawrence River on November 8, crossing to Pointe-Saint-Charles on the following day, where he was greeted as a liberator. Smith (1907), vol 1 (#SmithFourteen), p. 474 Montreal fell without any significant fighting on November 13, as Carleton, deciding that the city was indefensible (and having suffered significant militia desertion upon the news of the fall of St. Johns), withdrew. He barely escaped capture, as some Americans had crossed the river downstream of the city, and winds prevented his fleet from departing right away. When his fleet neared Sorel (Sorel, Quebec), it was approached by a boat carrying a truce flag. The boat carried a demand for surrender, claiming that gun batteries downstream would otherwise destroy the convoy. Based on uncertain knowledge of how real these batteries were, Carleton elected to sneak off the ship, after ordering the dumping of powder and ammunition if surrender was deemed necessary. (There were batteries in place, but not nearly as powerful as those claimed.) Stanley (#Stanley), pp. 67–70 On November 19, the British fleet surrendered; Carleton, disguised as a common man, Smith (1907), vol 1 (#SmithFourteen), pp. 487–490 made his way to Quebec City. The captured ships included prisoners that the British had taken; among these was Moses Hazen, a Massachusetts-born expatriate with property near Fort St. Johns whose poor treatment by the British turned him against them. Hazen, who had combat experience in the French and Indian War and went on to lead the 2nd Canadian Regiment throughout the war, joined Montgomery's army. Everest (#Everest), pp. 31–33 Over the last two decades, the canal has seen a large increase in residential and commercial development. In what was originally a very heavy industrial neighbourhood, Pointe-Saint-Charles and Saint-Henri have become very up and coming districts. House values have sky rocketed and many real estate developers have turned the century old industrial factories and warehouses, like that of Dominion Textiles (5524 Saint-Patrick, now Complexe Dompark) & Simmons Bedding Company (4710 St-Ambroise, now Complexe Canal Lachine) into prestigious loft buildings. Complexe Dompark recently celebrated its 100th anniversary and now houses more than 90 multimedia, fashion, publishing, and service industry-based companies in custom designed lofts. The area around the Atwater Market has become one of Montreal's most desirable residential areas for condo owners. Much of this is thanks to the continued effort to clean up the Canal. Geography The district includes the Borough of Verdun (Verdun, Quebec), along with the neighbourhoods of Saint-Henri, Little Burgundy, and Pointe-Saint-Charles and the eastern part of Côte-Saint-Paul, in the Southwest borough. It was named for Jeanne Le Ber, a religious recluse and craftswoman who lived in Pointe-Saint-Charles in the 18th century. The Irish would go on to settle permanently in the close-knit working-class neighbourhoods of Pointe-Saint-Charles, Griffintown and Goose Village, Montreal. With the help of Quebec's Catholic Church, they would establish their own churches, schools, and hospitals. St. Patrick's Basilica (St. Patrick's Basilica, Montreal) was founded in 1847 and served Montreal's English-speaking Catholics (English-speaking Quebecer) for over a century. Loyola College (Loyola College (Montreal)) was founded by the Jesuits to serve Montreal's mostly Irish English-speaking Catholic community in 1896. Saint Mary's Hospital was founded in the 1920s and continues to serve Montreal's present-day English-speaking population (English-speaking Quebecer). The St. Patrick's Day Parade in Montreal is one of the oldest in North America, dating back to 1824. It annually attracts crowds of over 600,000
It is the county seat. The city's population exceeded 20,000 as of 2005. Elk River, Minnesota (MN) Detailed Profile – relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex offenders U.S. Highways 10 (U.S. Route 10 in Minnesota) and 169 (U.S. Route 169 in Minnesota) and State Highway 101 (Minnesota State Highway 101) are three of the main routes in Elk River, and a station on the Northstar Commuter Rail line to downtown Minneapolis is located in the city. Elk River is located 33 miles northwest of Minneapolis; and 37 miles southeast of St. Cloud (St. Cloud, Minnesota). History The hardwood-forested hills in which Elk River is situated were pushed up by the last glacier that advanced across Minnesota. These hills are made up of coarse materials which is the reason gravel mining is so prevalent in Elk River, and also the reason much of the area is not considered good farmland. To the south of Elk River lies the prairie. This natural boundary between the prairie and woods was also a boundary between Indian nations. Two battles between the Dakota and Ojibwe took place where the Elk River meets the Mississippi in 1772 and 1773. Powered by rivers thumb right upright The Elk River Water Tower (File:2013-0326-ElkRiverWaterTower.jpg) was placed on the National Register of Historic Places (National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnesota#Sherburne County) in 2012. Zebulon Pike passed through the area on his 1805 exploration of the upper Mississippi River and named the Elk River after the herds of elk he saw in the area. David Fairbault built a trading post near the conjunction of the Elk and Mississippi Rivers in 1846, which he later sold to Pierre Bottineau. The two rivers and the Red River Trail, which passed nearby, made this area a good location for commerce. In 1851, Ard Godfrey, a native of Orono, Maine, saw the potential of the water power of the Elk River
water power attracted industry, including five lumber mills, two sash (window sash), blind (window shutter) and door factories, two brickyards (brickmaking), a foundry, a rake (Rake (tool)) factory, three gristmills, nearly a dozen carriage factories, a cheese factory, two corn (Maize) canning factories, two reaper machine factories, a spool (Bobbin) factory and a tannery (tanning).
1978 p 169 :
the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture."' The general absence of the use of water-power in Muslim papermaking is suggested by the habit of Muslim authors to call a production center not a "mill", but a "paper manufactory". ref
mill stones (Millstone) for paper". Since Ibn Battuta does not mention the use of water-power and such a number of water-mills would be grotesquely high, the passage is generally taken to refer to human or animal force (Horse mill). North Africa contains some of the largest auto-free areas in the world
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