Confederate Ireland

1652 event_start Irish Confederate Wars date_start event1 date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 date_event3 event4 date_event4 event_end Cromwellian conquest (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) date_end event_post Restoration (Restoration (Ireland)) date_post 1 May 1660 p1 Kingdom of Ireland flag_p1 Royal Standard of Ireland (1542–1801).svg s1 Commonwealth of England flag_s1

of Ireland Lord Lieutenant deputy1 Robert Sidney (Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester) (first) year_deputy1 1641 deputy2 Charles Fleetwood (last) year_deputy2 1652–1653 legislature General Assembly footnotes '''Confederate Ireland''' refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War (Irish Confederate Wars). During this time, two-thirds of Ireland

Kingdom of Montenegro

1918 event_start Proclamation date_start 28 August event_end Unification (Podgorica Assembly) with Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) date_end 28 November event_post Creation of Yugoslavia date_post 1 December 1918 event1 Balkan Wars date_event1 1912–1913 event2 Treaty of London (Treaty of London (1913)) date_event2

a Kingdom (Kingdom of Montenegro) and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania. In World War I in 1914 Montenegro sided with Serbia against the Central Powers, suffering a full scale defeat to Austria-Hungary in early 1916. In 1918 the Allies liberated Montenegro, which was subsequently merged with Serbia. * Banat, Bačka

of Yugoslavia . Between the two world wars, the population of Podgorica was about 13,000. thumb right 250px Map showing the borders of the Balkan states before and after both Balkan Wars. (Image:Balkans at 1913.jpg) The '''Balkan League''' ( ) was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, and directed

Duchy of Milan

in 1529. In 1535, Francesco died without heirs, the question of succession again arose, with both the emperor and the King of France claiming the duchy, leading to more wars. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from a part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese (Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma), centered on the city of Parma. The emperor held the duchy throughout, eventually investing it on his son

of the Confederation were determined by its relationship with its powerful neighbour, France. Nominally, the Confederation was under the control of the Holy Roman Empire. However, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War, the Confederation had become ''de facto'' independent. As the two continental powers and minor states such as the Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Savoy, and the Papal States competed and fought against each other, there were far-reaching political, economic

, and social consequences for the Confederation. It was during this time that the mercenary pension system (Swiss mercenaries) became a subject of disagreement. The religious factions of Zwingli’s time debated vociferously regarding the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars mainly for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities. Decades of fighting eventually saw Florence (Republic of Florence), Duchy of Milan Milan


(13th century), jurist and historian of al-Andalus * Brahim Dargouthi (born 1955) novelist Trivia thumb Filming location Tatooine#Mos_Espa Mos Espa (File:Tunisie Star Wars 2.JPG) (Star Wars) Tozeur was used as a filming location for the ''Star Wars'' saga and ''Raiders of The Lost Ark'' (specifically Sidi Bouhlel canyon outside the town and the salt-flats of nearby Nefta). Lucasfilm also built an entire set a few kilometers North-West of Tozeur in the middle

of the desert. This set acted as Mos Espa in ''Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace''. The buildings are still there and can be visited. ''The English Patient (The English Patient (film))'' (9 Oscars (Academy Award)) with Ralph Fiennes and Kristin Scott Thomas was partially filmed outside Tozeur. In May 1984 the Italian singers Alice (Alice (Italian singer)) and Franco Battiato represented Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest with the song " I treni di

* Arabic Atlas of Islamic History * Star Wars locations in Tunisia Category:Populated places in Tozeur Governorate Category:Oases of Tunisia Category:Communes of Tunisia * Timimoun, Algeria * Tozeur, Tunisia * Tuat, Algeria Aviation As of 2002, Tunisia had 30 airports

United Provinces of the Río de la Plata

of continents -- country Argentina era Napoleonic Wars status Confederation status_text empire government_type Republic !-- only fill in the start end event entry

of the war of independence, during the entire 1810-1831 period there were serious conflicts among ever-changing factions regarding the organization of the state and the political aims of the revolutionary governments. These conflicts involved coup d'états, mutinies, politically motivated trials, banishments and imprisonments and finally developed in an outright civil war (Argentine civil wars). File:Unitedprovincescirca1820.jpeg thumb left 600px United Provinces in the 1820s as understood

Portugal to its Brazilian dependences (Cisplatina) in 1821. Anarchy of the year XX

Province of Silesia

the Prussian King Frederick the Great had all conquered from the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy under Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century Silesian Wars. It furthermore included the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia around Görlitz and Lauban (Lubań), ceded to Prussia by the Kingdom of Saxony according to the resolutions of the Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna) in 1815. The province bordered on the Prussian heartland of Province of Brandenburg Brandenburg

Bohemian queen regnant, King Frederick the Great of Prussia had invaded Silesia, thereby starting the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). By the end of the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) in 1742, the Prussian forces had conquered almost all of the Habsburg crown land, while according to the peace treaties of Breslau (Treaty of Breslau) and Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1742)), only some smaller parts in the extreme southeast, like the Duchy of Teschen as well

as the southern parts of the duchies of Troppau (Duchy of Troppau) and Nysa (Duchy of Nysa), remained possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy as Austrian Silesia. Attempts by Maria Theresa to regain the crown land in the Second Silesian War (Silesian Wars) (1744–1745) failed and she ultimately had to relinquish her claims by the Treaty of Dresden. The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) once again confirmed Prussian control over most of Silesia, and due to its predominantly Protestantism

French colonial empire

was Vanuatu in 1980). In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire, extending over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between the two world wars, that is nearly 1 10th of the Earth's land area, with a population of 110 million people

on the eve of World War II (5% of the world's population at the time). Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire), the United Provinces (Dutch Empire), and later England (English overseas possessions), France began to establish colonies in North America (New France), the Caribbean, and India (French India) in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in both countries losing most

supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.

Duchy of Warsaw

of the French Empire (First French Empire), Personal union with the Kingdom of Saxony era Napoleonic Wars government_type Constitutional monarchy p1 New East Prussia flag_p1 Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg p2 South Prussia flag_p2 Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg p3 New Silesia

?id ETYsTuIaKkQC&pg PA8 year 2012 publisher Osprey Publishing pages 8–10 External links * Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw ** Text in Polish ** Text in German * Polish Army of the Napoleonic Wars * Napoleon

actions by Józef Wybicki in 1797. The Duchy of Warsaw, a small, semi-independent Polish state, was created in 1807 by Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I), following his defeat of Prussia. The Duchy's military forces, led by Józef Poniatowski (Józef Antoni Poniatowski), participated in numerous campaigns, including the Polish–Austrian War of 1809, the French invasion of Russia in 1812, and the German campaign (German campaign (Napoleonic Wars)) of 1813. ref name "Gierowski

Kingdom of Serbia

known as Yugoslavia-- event1 Serbo-Bulgarian War date_event1 14 November 1885 event2 Balkan Wars date_event2 1912–1913 event3 Treaty of London (Treaty of London (1913)) date_event3 30 May 1913 event4 Serbian Campaign (Serbian Campaign (World War I)) date_event4 1914–1918 event_post date_post p1

(1878) Treaty of Berlin was amended to accept the new status quo bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on the one hand and Russia and Serbia on the other. The annexation and reactions to the annexation were contributing causes of World War I. Balkan Wars and ensuing changes File:Serbian greater expansion 1913.png thumb Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913

. Serbia, victorious in two Balkan Wars, gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory. During the Balkan Wars of 1912, most of Kosovo was taken from the Ottoman Empire by Serbia while the region of Metohija (known as the Dukagjini Valley to ethnic-Albanians) was taken by Montenegro. Populations of ethnic Serbs and Albanians tended to shift following territorial conquests. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new

Kingdom of Prussia

; It was because of their power that they continuously tried to unify all the German states under their rule. After the Napoleonic wars the issue of unifying Germany into one country caused revolution throughout the German states each wanting their own constitution. Prussia tried once unsuccessfully to unify German states and end the fighting. The first was called the North German Confederation lasted from 1867-1871 and included many but not all of the German states

" In 1417, the Hohenzollern, knelt at the feet of the Luxemburg (Luxembourg (city)) Caesar and was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. No one could have imagined the impact this would have not only to the German states but Europe as a whole. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic (Baltic region) towns of German states including Prussia, suffered many setbacks in their economy. Carsten, F. L

neighbors led to feuds, wars, trade competition and invasions. However, the death of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, and allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper. It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not. Not only did it face partition from within but also

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