Places Known For


Nag Hammadi

it. Professor John D Turner believes that this double attack led to Sethianism fragmentation into numerous smaller groups (Audians, Borborites, Archontics and perhaps Phibionites, Stratiotici, and Secundians ). Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more puzzling

comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus

of Thomas", by Joseph Lumpkin isbn 9780976099260 author1 Lumpkin, Joseph B date 2005-02 The opening line claims it is the work of "Didymos Judas Thomas" – who has been identified with Thomas. This work was discovered in a Coptic (Coptic language) translation in 1945 at the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi, near the site of the monastery of Chenoboskion. Once the Coptic text was published, scholars recognized that an earlier Greek translation had been published


Yanqi, were controlled by the nomadic Xiongnu, but later came under the influence of the Han dynasty after its show of force when it attacked Dayuan (Fergana) in the late 2nd century BC.

. J. "China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci: 1583–1610". English translation by Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. (New York: Random House, Inc. 1953). This is an English translation of the Latin work, ''De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas'' based on Matteo Ricci's journals completed by Nicolas Trigault. Book Five, Chapter 12, "Cathay and China Proved to Be Identical", pp. 510-513. There is also

grape wine, and also to love music. It is some ten ''li'' north of a body of water, and has an abundance of fish, salt, and rushes. In the fourth year of the period Pao-ting, its king sent an envoy to present its renowned horses. ''Zhoushu'', translation by Roy Andrew Miller.


; is also a rough translation of the Hebrew (Hebrew language) first name Shlomo (שלמה), meaning Solomon. This translation coincided with the pre-existing Castilian Spanish Old Christian surname "Paz" described above, and was thus often assumed by Jewish-origin New Christians to obscure their Sephardi Jewish origin. In these cases, "Paz" is found among Spaniards and Hispanics of Sephardic Jewish lineage converted to Catholicism. ref name hanks >

, the Balkans in Southern Europe, and the Middle East, including Ottoman Palestine), as well as the Netherlands, England and elsewhere, where they could return to the religion. When the surname Paz is given a superficial transliteration into the Hebrew language (as פז), the surname in Hebrew is synonymous with "Gold" (Paz), although the literal word for gold is זהב (Zahav). However, a direct translation into Hebrew (as שלום) would render the surname as "Peace"

; (Shalom). The contextual translation renders it as Shlomo (שלמה, Solomon). Miño right thumb River Miño and Tui, Galicia (File:Tui Miño 060415 1.JPG) as seen from Valença (Valença, Portugal), Portugal The surname "Miño", conversely, has only one language origin. It is a Galician (Galicia, Spain) topographic surname adopted by, or imposed upon, a person originally from the banks of the Miño River, or several towns of the same name, traversing Galicia (Spain

Koumbi Saleh

of the inhabitants are of stone and acacia wood. The king has a palace and a number of domed dwellings all surrounded with an enclosure like a city wall. In the king's town, and not far from his courts of justice, is a mosque where Muslims who arrive in his court pray. Around the king's town are domed buildings and groves and thickets where the sorcerers of these people, men in charge of the religious cult, live. . A translation into French

chronicle, the ''Tarikh al-Sudan'' mentions that the Malian Empire came after the dynasty of Qayamagha which had its capital at the city of Ghana. In the French translation of the ''Tarikh al-fattash'' published in 1913, Octave Houdas and Maurice Delafosse include a footnote in which

. * . Volume 1 is the Arabic text, Volume 2 is a translation into French. Reprinted by Maisonneuve


Sixteenth century At some date Taghaza came under the control of the Songhai Empire which had its capital at the city of Gao on the Niger River across the Sahara. Al-Sadi in his ''Tarikh al-Sudan'' chronicles the efforts of the Moroccan rulers of the Saadi

, Volume 3. The original text of Pory's 1600 English translation together with an introduction and notes by the editor. * . First published in 1981 by Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-22422


BCE to 23 CE), to have had 1,200 households, 9,600 individuals and 2,000 people able to bear arms. It also mentions that it adjoined Shanshan and Qiemo (Charchan) to the south. Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. ''China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty'', p. 177. E. J. Brill, Leiden. In 61 CE, the Xiongnu led some 30,000 troops from 15 kingdoms

(2009), pp. 45; see also: 412-413. thumb 200px Tarim Basin in the 3rd century (Image:Tarimbecken 3. Jahrhundert.png) The 3rd century ''Weilüe'' records that Korla, Hoxud and Shanwang (Shanguo) were all dependencies of Karashahr. Hill, John E. 2004. ''The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe'' ( '': A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE.'' Draft annotated English translation. http

well into the 2nd century CE, Hill (2009), p. 3 and nn. and is recorded as a dependent kingdom of Shanshan in the 3rd century ''Weilüe''. Draft annotated translation of the ''Weilüe'' by John Hill Loulan was on the main route from Dunhuang to Korla, where it joined the so-called "northern route", and was also connected by a route southwest to the kingdom’s seat


groves and comparative cleanliness. Name Both the Arabic name ''Rašīd (Rashid (name))'' (meaning "guide") and the western name ''Rosetta'' or ''Rosette'' ("little rose" in Italian and French respectively) are corruptions (or folk etymologies (false etymology)) of a Coptic (Coptic language) toponym, ''Trashit''. Sir Richard Francis Burton, ''A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments'', Kamashastra Society, 1885, http

this fort. During the Seventh Crusade, Louis IX of France briefly occupied the town in 1249. Peter Jackson, ''The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254: Sources and Documents'', Volume 16 of Crusade Texts in Translation, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009, p. 72 Under the Mamelukes, the city became an important commercial center, and remained so throughout Ottoman rule (Ottoman Egypt), until the eventual resurgence

. The ability to decipher hieroglyphics facilitated the translation of hundreds of the texts and inscriptions that were previously indecipherable, giving insight into Egyptian culture that would have otherwise been lost to the ages. The stone was discovered on July 15, 1799 in the port town of Rosetta Rosetta, Egypt, and has been held in the British Museum since 1802. Stretching eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of the Nile is the spacious Abu Qir Bay (Khalīj Abū Qīr), where


12288967 In Astana, a contract written in Sogdian detailing the sale of a Sogdian girl to a Chinese man was discovered dated to 639 AD. Individual slaves were common among silk route houses; early documents recorded an increase in the selling of slaves in Turpan. Wu Zhen 2000 (p. 154 is a Chinese-language rendering based on Yoshida's Japanese translation of the Sogdian contract of 639). Twenty-one 7th-century marriage

worshipped the cross ". . Christianity is mentioned in the Turkic translation of Ghiyāth al-dīn's account published by Bellér-Hann, but not in the earlier Persian versions of his story. ref

to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE''. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. * Hill, John E. 2004. ''The Peoples of the West from the Weilue'' 魏略 ''by Yu Huan'' 魚豢'': A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE.'' Draft annotated English translation. A. F. P. and Michael Loewe Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. ''China in Central Asia


, because it is "perched on the top of a mountain, like a bird". Ariel Lewin, ''The Archaeology of Ancient Judea and Palestine,'' Getty Publications, 2005 p.80. Steve Mason (ed.) ''Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary. Judean war. Vol. 1B. 2,''BRILL 2008 p.1. Cf. Bavli (Talmud#Talmud Bavli .28Babylonian Talmud.29), Megillah, 6, 81. thumb right 200px Ancient Galilee (File:Ancient Galilee.jpg) After Herod's death in 4 BCE

.) ''Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary. Judean war. Vol. 1B. 2,''BRILL 2008 p.138. The meaning of 'autocrator' is not clear, and may denote either autonomy or reference to a Roman emperor. An ancient route linking Sepphoris to Legio, and further south to Samaria (Samaria (ancient city))-Sebastia (Sebastia, Nablus), is believed to have been paved by the Romans around this time. Richardson, 1996, p. 133. The new population was loyal

; A distinguished Biblical scholar, during the years 1922-27 Waterman was one of five members of the translation committee of the University of Chicago that produced "The Bible: An American Translation," sometimes called the “Chicago Bible.” From 1938-52 he was one of 31 scholars appointed by the National Council of Churches of Christ in America to the committee which produced the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, of which the New testament appeared in 1946 and the Old Testament

Aksu, Xinjiang

people able to bear arms. It is said to have produced copper, iron and orpiment. Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. ''China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty'', p. 162. E. J. Brill, Leiden. The territory of Gumo was roughly situated in the counties of Baicheng (Baicheng County) and Wensu and the city of Aksu of nowadays. http

for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. In the 7th, 8th, and early 9th centuries, control of the entire region was often contested by the Chinese Tang dynasty, the Tibetan Tufan Empire, and the Uyghur Empire; cities frequently changed hands. Tibet seized Aksu in 670, but Tang forces reconquered the region in 692. Tibet regained the Tarim Basin in the late 720s, and the Tang dynasty again annexed the region in the 740s. The Battle of Talas led

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