Places Known For

traditional wrestling


Igbuzo

resulted in their final settlement in not too distant Onitsha. This new group of settlers in Igbuzo might have become assimilated by the Umejei and Edini groups. Oral history Ibusa is a federation of two units known as “the Umejei and Ogboli settlements. According to the oral history of the town, Umejei Nwa Eze Isu (Prince Umejei of Isu) killed his opponent in a traditional wrestling bout, an act considered “Alu” (Abomination) in the land and punishable by death. However, his death was commuted by his father who was also Eze Isu) the king of Isu and he was encouraged to go on exile with a gourd prepared and given to him by his father. Umejei was emphatically instructed to settle wherever the pot dropped, he thus set-off with friends, relations and sympathizers who accompanied him. The gourd however dropped at the present site of Ani-Oshe in Omeze (Umueze) where he founded Igbuzo. The Ogboli factor has it that at Nshi (Nri) Odaigbo slept with one of his father’s wives but Eze Nshi commuted the mandatory death sentence to exile. His father, mother and younger brother, Edini voluntarily opted to accompany him. Odaigbo and Edini were given one pot each and charms by Eze Nshi with the instruction to settle wherever the pot fell and on crossing the River Niger, Edini’s pot fell at Ani-Nshi(Nri)Ogboli in Ibusa. Odaigbo’s pot was to fall at the present site of Ogwashi-Uku where he also settled. The groups (Umejei and Edini later became one and known as Ibusa) The Ogboli of Igbuzo are thus regarded as part of the larger Nri (Nshi) community. The two communities of Edini and Umejei aspects later became known as Ibusa. Buchi Emecheta in the Joys of Motherhood The Igbo and Anioma people of Delta state, regard and praise Ibusa as group of people who often refuse food in other to prosecute wars (Isu (Igbuzo) fu ogu ju nni). This statement authenticates the bravery of these people in wars. Ibusa historians are currently conducting researches on the history of wars fought by the Igbuzo people especially in the homes of their Isu kiths and kin in Nnewi, present Anambra State to determine whether any relationship exists between the two communities. Anglicization of name "Ibusa" is an Anglicisation of "Igbuzo" and or '''Ibuzo''' by the early British (United Kingdom) missionaries and visitors to the town as a result of difficulty in pronunciation. The Anglicization of the name of the town may have been effected in the 19th century following the Ekwumekwu Wars that the community led. "Ibusa" was considered more distinctive by the British, thus was adopted as the official name of the town and made to appear in all the official documents of the colonial government. The name "Igbuzo" - ''Igbo bi na uzor'', meaning "the Igbo (Igbo people) living along the way or road" - is, however, the native name of the town as used only by the natives today. The nickname of the town is however "Isu Na Mba Ogu" (Warriors from Isu), or colloquially Igbuzo-Isu (The Igbo-uzo(r) from Isu). Igbuzo is uniquely addressed with different names and even made noticeable with different spellings such as '''Ibusa''', '''Igbuzo''', '''Igbouzo''', '''Igbuzor''', '''Ibuzor''', '''Ibuza''' and '''Ibuzo'''. This is believed to have been necessitated by the strategic location of the town along the busy roads and the history of the settlement of the people. Ibusa today The federation of Ibusa is today constituted by ten Quarters or villages thus the common reference to the town as “Igbuzo ebi Ili” These ten Quarters are Umuekea, Umuodafe, Umuidinisagba, Umueze, Umuehea, Ogbeowele, Anyalabum (i.e. Ezukwu and Achalla-Igbuzo), Umuwagwu, Umuezeagwu and Ogboli. The Ibusa town is today basically a federation of two autonomous settlements with different origins, the Igbuzo settlement and the Ogboli settlement in what Prof. M. A. Onwuejeogwu has illustrated it as a friendship alliance which has developed into a complicated political union, a political union that has undergone many process which today constitute the unwritten constitution of Ibusa. It has also been historically noted that at the beginning, the Ibusa-Ogboli federal knit had its Diokpa because the settlements have different origins, so they have different ofo. Today, the entire Ibusa clan have a single Diokpa and ofor. In 1936, the Ibusa-Ogboli union was threatened owing to a dispute as both settlements threatened to suspend marriage, but this was soon resolved amicably as both groups have continued to live in oneness. Greetings in Ibusa are quite remarkable and usually follow a pattern of whether one is an indigene of an any particular quarter or not. In Umuekea Quarter, for instance, while a native is greeted with "Omogwu", a woman being married in that quarter is exclusively greeted with "Oliofe." Familiarity is therefore necessary before salutation is paid in the native way of the town. The native kinds of greeting stand out the Igbuzo people out and reminds the people of their history and tradition. Emeka Esogbue in his writings has advocated for more insightful researches aimed at actually determining the particular Isu town in Igbo (southeast) that Umejei originated from. This, he argues will enable the people ascertain their true kith and kin. Authorities of Igbo History and sometimes prominent sons and daughters of different Isu towns of the South-East have at one time or the other laid claims to several Isu communities as the place of origin of Prince Umejei, a co-founder of Ibusa. Prominent among these towns are Isu Awka in Anambra State, Isu Njaaba near Owerri in Imo State and probably Isu Anaocha in Anambra State. For administrations and the purpose of determining the successor to the Obuzor throne as defined by the famous Supreme Court ruling on Diokpa vs Obuzor, the various Quarters of Ibusa are classified into three categories, thus: *Otu Odogwu-Umueze and Anyallabum *Otu Uwolo-Ogboli, Umuwagwu, Umuidinisagba and Umuodafe *Otu Iyase-Umuehea, Ogbeowele, Umuezeagwu, and Umuekea. The Supreme Court later classified this War Lords as a ruling house for the determination of the Obuzor of the town. The Ibusa traditional life How the community people carried wars into Nnewi in defense of Isu and Nri (Nri-Igbo) people of the town considered their ancestral brothers and sisters until the coming of the British are well recorded by C. N. Ugochukwu. Igbuzo played a prominent role in Ekumeku War (1883–1914) an uprising directed against the British imperialism in Anioma, Southern region of Nigeria, and attempts by the Royal Niger Company to impose trade and taxation on the people of Anioma. Ibusa was to play a very prominent role in prosecuting the wars in favour of Anioma and was the first of such Anioma towns to engage the British in the war in 1898. Fearing what befell the great Benin Empire in 1897, Igbuzo fiercely came all out to defend itself and other Anioma towns against the British Royal Niger Company forces commanded by Major Festing. Ibusa was though subjugated after long standing battles but the British forces sustained casualties this led to the emergence of "Ibusa" in the Dictionary of the British parliament as what punitive measures to mete to the town was for weeks debated in Britain. ''Anioma Essence Magazine'', No. 1, Vol. 4, 2008. After the battles, the British in admiration of the stoutness of the town established St. Thomas’ College, the first Higher Institution of Learning in Delta state in 1928, which made Ibusa an important educational center from where missionary evangelism spread to other Anioma towns and communities and beyond. The establishment of St. Augustine's Catholic Church in 1898 by the French Missionaries was led by Father Cario Zappa. Culture Before the advent of Christianity in Ibusa, the Ibusa practiced Odinani but the people are now largely Christians (Catholics) but adherents of traditional religion still exists. It is therefore not uncommon to find the people placing high priority on observation of traditions during the funerals of their loved ones etc. The Eternal Sacred order of Cherubim and Seraphim,celestial church of christ, Winners Church, The Redeemed Christian Church of God, Christ Embassy, Ngozi Sabbath Mission, Deeper Life Bible Church, Christ Holy Church (Odozi Obodo), Christ Apostolic Church (CAC), The Apostolic Church are some of the numerous churches located in the town. The people place high cultural value on kola nut in discharging their traditional responsibilities. For instance, a visitor who rejects the acceptance of kolanut may have slighted his host. Kolanut is also used in observing traditional prayers and may be the first item used in welcoming guests at social gatherings before commencement of discussions. For many centuries, Oboshi, Atakpo, Oduche, Asiama streams remained major sources of water to the people but Oboshi and Atakpo stand out as streams venerated as deities. These two streams are venerated because of the powers with which they have protected not only the people but the whole town, according to the belief of the people. As a result, the people of Igbuzo as result forbid the eating of fishes from the Oboshi River. The Chief Priest of Oboshi is “Ohene”, popularly called Ohene-Mmili. The last of the Ohene, Ohene Ezedi, died on 7 January 2009. Ethnic identity Not a few Igbuzo indigene differ on the Igbo origin of the Igbuzo people. Recently, the Daily Sun newspaper in an interview series titled "Anioma cannot deny being Igbo. We will be irrelevant politically if we do" published on Wednesday, April 7, 2010 captured differing opinions of two political stalwarts from the community with regard to the issue of ethnic identity of the people of Igbuzo. Chief Mike Nduka Okwechime, the national President of Izu Anioma, had reportedly told a local publication: "We may speak a dialect of Igbo but we are not culturally and socially Igbos by Ohaneze's definition." In reaction Obi Modestus Nwaka, President of Ohaneze Ndigbo, Delta State stated that "Our origin has never been in doubt before and after the civil war" while referring to the appointment of Anioma-born Amb. Ralph Uwechue's leadership of Ohaneze Ndigbo. The Ibusa festivals The people of Ibusa celebrate several festivals such as Iwu, Ine, Ulor, Ekwensu but the Iwu festival, annually celebrated by the Umuadafe and Ogbeowelle Quarters of the town, is the most popular of them all. That of Umuadafe is celebrated annually in December (around the Christmas period) drawing the attention of numerous people from far and near to the town. The festival is aimed at cleansing and purifying the town as a whole and songs and to thank the Almighty God (Chukwu) for abundant harvest which the farmers of the town may have experienced all through the year. During this festival, traditional songs (Igbo music) are also composed to ridicule defaulters of the norms traditions of the society no matter their social standing in the town. Ohene (chief Priest) and Eze-Iwus are expected to perform some rituals of the cleansing of the town to properly take place. Evidences from Ibusa historians suggest that the Iwaji festival celebrated by the people of Ibusa may have been imported from the neighboring Anioma town of Okpanam, in Delta State, and the Ichu-Ulor (Ulor festival) celebrated by Ezukwu, Umuodafe, Umuekea, Umuidinaisagba, Ogbeowele and Umueze Quarters of the town from Aballa and Ndokwa communities respectively. Ifejioku is another annual festival often traditionally celebrated by indigenes. Uchu-Ulor in Ibusa is annually celebrated in August. The people have vast cultures and celebrations are unique but yet to be fully exploited by the state government. One of such events is the popular Iwu Festival being celebrated by Ogbeowele and Umuodafe respectively. The Iwu festival is held annually at the end of the farming period to thank God who made it possible for them to see the farming year run out. Iwu is believed to have been brought to Ibusa by Oyana of Adigwe family in of Umuwor Ogbeowele quarter of the town. The Ogwa (shhrine) where it was first celebrated can still be found by the entrance in Umuwor, Ogbeowele. Principal actors of the festival are three Eze Iwu and an Ohene. The event starts with four days of absolute silence when no noise is entertained or it attracts a penalty which ranges from kolanuts to a fine of a goat which in those days happens to be the highest fine. During this period, okanga dance from other quarters are diverted to another route, there is also no marriage as it also serves as period of Lent and purification of the land. Geography Geographically, "Ibusa is a dusty, hilly little town", bounded to the North-East by Asaba (Asaba, Nigeria) which hosts the capital of the State, and Ogwashi-Uku to the West, North-West by Azagba, to the North by Okpanam, East by Okwe, South-East by Oko, South by Aballa and South-West by Olodu. However, Igbuzo is obviously lacking in terms of land mass, thus congested with houses. Historians believe that the Ibusa were the first to settle around the Asaba-Igbuzo-Ogwashi-Uku axis hence the other name of the town, Ibuzor (Were you the first to settle?) Ibusa is located with close proximity to busy towns such as Asaba, Ogwashi-Uku, Ubulu-Uku, Ilah, Ebu, Oko, Issele-Asagba and Okpanam. Thus, it is considered one of the fastest growing and developing Anioma (Delta North) towns and villages. Education There are important educational institutions in Ibusa which include Federal Government Girls' College, St. Augustine's College and Ibusa Girls Secondary school, Umejei Primary School formerly Sacred Heart Primary School, Ibusa founded in 1908. Ibusa boasts of some of the oldest schools in the southern part of the country. The once St. Thomas' Teachers' training College located founded and located in the town in 1928 was the oldest higher institution in Delta State as a whole. Transport and trade The construction of an International Airport which will serve international purposes is currently going on in Asaba, Delta State, a town just about 6 miles from Ibusa and Ibusa will benefit immensely from the services of this transportation system, for now the town heavily relies on cabs (taxicab) and "okada (Okada (commercial motorcycle))" as mainstay of transportation. The major streets in Ibusa are Umejei Road, Kefas Road, Isieke High Street and Jerry Useni Road. The former houses almost all the banks in the town such as Union Bank of Nigeria Plc (List of banks#Commercial Banks 17), Bank PHB (List of banks#Commercial Banks 16), Umejei Micro-Finance Bank (List of banks#Microfinance Institutions 5) and NOPOV Micro-Finance Bank. Ibusa in politics Despite its many successes recorded in many aspects of national life, Ibusa is lagging behind in the area of politics. However, since 1960, Ibusa has produced four Ambassadors (Ambassador Unchuno (Late), Ignatius Olisemeka, Kehinde Olisemeka (late) and Okobi) while producing Senator Nosike Ikpo during the Second Republic who also was one of the founding leaders of Anioma Movement; a group pushing for the creation of Anioma State in then Bendel state alongside Late Chief Obi Obanua Nwaukor (The Odoziani 1 of Ibusa) and Late Chief W.U Ikolodo (Uwolo of Ibusa). Nonetheless, the town is beginning to record major successes in this area as Barr. Peter Onyeluka Nwoboshi an indigene of the town is the chairman of People's Democratic Party, Delta State chapter, Prof Patrick Utomi, the presidential flagbearer of African Democratic Congress also hails from I while Minority Leader of Delta State House of Assembly, Pat Ajudua is also a daughter of Igbuzo. Professor Fidelis Oditah, and Mr Peter Okocha also showed interest in the elections held in 2007, presenting their bids under different party platforms for the gubernatorial race of Delta State. Obi (Prof) Chike Onwuachi has also contested for the presidential election of the country.The 2011 gubernatorial elections in Nigeria saw the emergence of Paul Obanua the son of late Chief Obanua Nwaukor contesting under the platform of CDC for the office of the Governor Delta state. His candidacy was well received across the state. During the 2011 INEC registration exercise, Ibusa was reported as one of the towns with faulty DDC machines at some registration centers that could not be repaired by engineers but a supervisor with the Commission said that all hopes were not lost.


Sokoto

of the state are Muslims and Islamic religion provides them with a code of conduct and behavior. Their mode of dress is also of Islamic origin. Two major festivals namely, Eid-el-Fitri and Eid-el-Kabir are celebrated in the state every year. The former marks the end of the Ramadan fast, while the latter features the slaughtering of rams in commemoration of an act of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham). Traditional wrestling (Kokawa) and boxing (Dambe) are the two sports enjoyed by the Hausa while


Tetovo

in Tetovo. Highlanders from the villages of the Šar Mountains bought with them their traditional wrestling culture into the city and established wrestling clubs of the freestyle (Freestyle wrestling). Traditional wrestling (Oil wrestling) competitions are always held once a year at Popova Šapka in the Šar Mountain during the summer. Few volleyball teams are active in the volleyball league of Macedonia: Škendija, Bami Kor Medika, etc.) Demographics As of 2002, the city of Tetovo has 52,915 inhabitants and the ethnic composition was the following: Macedonian census, language and religion * Albanians - 28,897 (54.6%) * Macedonians (Macedonians (ethnic group)) - 18,555 (35.1%) * Roma (Romani people) - 2,352 (4.5%) * Turks (Turkish people) - 1,878 (3.6%) * Serbs - 587 (1.1%) * Bosniaks - 156 (0.3%) * others - 490 (0.9%) class "wikitable" + '''City of Tetovo population according to ethnic group 1948-2002 Censuses of population 1948 - 2002 ''' -bgcolor "#e0e0e0" ! rowspan "2" Ethnic group ! colspan "2" census 1948 ! colspan "2" census 1953 ! colspan "2" census 1961 ! colspan "2" census 1971 ! colspan "2" census 1981 ! colspan "2" census 1994 ! colspan "2" census 2002 -bgcolor "#e0e0e0" ! Number ! % ! Number ! % ! Number ! % ! Number ! % ! Number ! % ! Number ! % ! Number ! % - Macedonians (Macedonians (ethnic group)) align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 7,575 align "right" 37.5 align "right" 11,631 align "right" 45,9 align "right" 14,415 align "right" 40.3 align "right" 17,817 align "right" 38.3 align "right" 19,439 align "right" 38.6 align "right" 18,555 align "right" 35.1 - Albanians align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 7,155 align "right" 35.4 align "right" 6,435 align "right" 25.4 align "right" 15,388 align "right" 43.1 align "right" 21,741 align "right" 46.7 align "right" 25,128 align "right" 49.9 align "right" 28,897 align "right" 54.7 - Turks (Turkic peoples) align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 4,470 align "right" 22.1 align "right" 5,864 align "right" 23.1 align "right" 3,543 align "right" 9.9 align "right" 2,757 align "right" 5.9 align "right" 2,073 align "right" 4.1 align "right" 2.352 align "right" 3.6 - Romani (Romani language) align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 227 align "right" 1.1 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 823 align "right" 2.3 align "right" 1,709 align "right" 3.7 align "right" 2,260 align "right" 4.5 align "right" 2,352 align "right" 4.5 - Vlachs align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 11 align "right" 0.1 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 4 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 18 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 13 align "right" 0.0 - Serbs align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 481 align "right" 2.4 align "right" 839 align "right" 3.3 align "right" 920 align "right" 2.6 align "right" 877 align "right" 1.9 align "right" 830 align "right" 1.7 align "right" 587 align "right" 1.1 - Bosnians align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 0 align "right" 0.0 align "right" 156 align "right" 0.3 - Others align "right" .. align "right" .. align "right" 290 align "right" 1.4 align "right" 588 align "right" 2.3 align "right" 656 align "right" 1.8 align "right" 1,618 align "right" 3.5 align "right" 596 align "right" 1.2 align "right" 477 align "right" 0.9 -bgcolor "#e0e0e0" ! align "left" Total ! colspan "2" 17,132 ! colspan "2" 20,209 ! colspan "2" 25,357 ! colspan "2" 35,745 ! colspan "2" 46,523 ! colspan "2" 50,344 ! colspan "2" 52,915 - colspan "15" Notable people from Tetovo


Querétaro, Querétaro

stadium for the city team Libertadores and for traditional wrestling, volleyball and other sports. This venue has a capacity of 3000 people seated. The Auditorio Josefa Ortiz is the largest multipurpose venue in the city, it serve for tennis matches (Davis Cup), Tae Kwon Do, Table Tennis, and other sports, it has a capacity of 6000 seated in stadium formation. Other sport facilities in the city include: * Parque Querétaro 2000: Olympic pool, Tae Kwon Doo arena, gymnasium, Football field (soccer), Baseball field, Volleyball, Running Path, among other. * Parque Alfalfares: Basketball courses, Tennis courses, Semi Olympic Pool, Football field (soccer and American), Baseball and Volleyball * Estadio Municipal: Football (soccer) stadium with capacity for 1000 people seated. * Unidad Deportiva UAQ: state university sports unit, open to the public. * Unidad Deportiva IMSS: health care system sports unit, for special events and open to the public and workers of IMSS The municipality As municipal seat, the city of Querétaro is the governing authority for 504 named communities, two-thirds of which have populations under fifty people.(INEGI) These communities are divided into seven delegations: Centro Histórico, Félix Osores Sotomayor, Cayetano Rubio, Epigmenio González, Josefa Vergara y Hernández, Felipe Carrillo Puerto and Santa Rosa Jáuregui. The municipality borders the municipality of El Marqués, Huimilpan, Corregidora, Apaseo el Grande, in the state of Guanajuato. It has a territory of 759.9km2. The total population of the municipality (2010 est.) is 804 663, over 81% (651 777) of which live in the city proper. thumb 250px right Boroughs ''Delegaciones'' (File:Delegaciones de Queretaro.JPG) The municipality of Querétaro is divided into seven boroughs, called ''delegaciones'': * '''Centro Histórico''': it includes downtown and nearby areas, it is surrounded by the city's main thoroughfares (Blvd. Bernardo Quintana, 5 de Febrero Ave. and the Mexico City–Querétaro Highway). Most of the city's monuments are located here, including the UNESCO World Heritage Site designated areas, and the ''Cerro de las Campanas'' where Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg was executed. The northwestern corner is home to industrial establishments, mainly food related (Gerber (Gerber Products Company), Nestlé, Pilgrim's Pride). (pop. 230,000; area 18 km²) *'''Santa Rosa Jáuregui''': it consists mainly of rural areas, where the production of eggs, poultry and livestock are important. However, the borough includes larger towns such as Santa Rosa Jáuregui and Juriquilla. It is home to the largest water reservoir in the municipality, the ''Presa de Santa Catarina''. A relatively new state of the art industrial park has been built here (Samsung). (pop. 76,000) * '''Felix Osores Sotomayor''': most of the recent growth in the city has taken place here, the population growth rate estimated at 6%. The largest industrial area of Querétaro is located here, where lots of multinational companies have operations (Michelin, Philips). The beautiful neighborhood of Jurica is comprised in this borough. (pop. 145,000; area 40 km²) * '''Epigmenio González''': a mostly residential zone on hilly terrain. The former airport will become the third campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. (pop. 125,000; area 68 km²) * '''Josefa Vergara y Hernández''': on the slopes of the Cerro del Cimatario, its easternmost area is known as ''Centro Sur'', where the Stadium, Bus Station and City Hall are located. (pop. 200,000; area 33 km²) * '''Felipe Carrillo Puerto''': the western part consists mainly of rural areas, where the town of Tlacote is located, famous for its allegedly miraculous water springs. The eastern area is urban and integrated with the rest of the city, with industrial zones (Kellogg's) and military facilities. * '''Cayetano Rubio''': residential area, it includes the town of Hercules, a picturesque village-like area, nestled between steep slopes along the riverway of the Río Querétaro. The mayor of each borough, called ''delegado'', is appointed by the mayor of the city, although there have been attempts to make these posts popularly elected. thumb Josefa Municipal Auditorium (File:Auditorio josefa.jpg) The municipality has rolling hills, mountain ranges and flatlands. Most of the rolling hills cross the territory from south to north, paralleling the Querétaro-San Luis Potosí highway. Most plains are located in the north, and are of sedimentary soil with some protrusions of volcanic rock. Altitude varies from 1,900 to 2,460 meters above sea level with the highest elevations at mountains called El Buey, Pie de Gallo, El Patol, El Nabo, and El Paisano. The city proper is on a plain at 1,900 meters. There is only one river, the Querétaro River with carved the La Cañada. There are numerous streams, many of them seasonal, and fresh water springs near the mountain areas. The climate is temperate and semi-dry in which the summers can be hot, with high up to 36C in May and June. Freezing temperatures are possible in the winter. In most areas, various species of cacti can be seen such as the organ pipe (Stenocereus thurberi) and nopals, as well as the yucca. Trees adapted to dry climates include mesquite, willows and cypress, near streams and rivers. Animal life mostly consists of small mammals, deer, predatory birds and reptiles. In some areas, monarch butterflies (monarch (butterfly)) can be seen as well. Nature reserves in the municipality include the Peña Colorado, Tángano, Parque Ecologicao Joya-La Barreta and the El Cimatario National Park. Near the city is the Sierra Gorda de Querétaro, part of the Sierra Madre Oriental, was declared by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve. This protected area is very rugged terrain, filled with canyons, steep mountains, waterfalls and deep abysses with a total expansion of 24,803 hectares. The area contains 360 species of birds, 130 species of mammals, 71 of reptiles and twenty-three of amphibians. It also contains about thirty percent of the country's butterfly species including the endangered Humboldt, the Jaguar the Oso Negro and the Guacamaya. Plant species include 1,710 different species including endangered species and is considered to be one of the best-preserved forested areas in Mexico. The Missionary Route of Friar Junípero Serra passes through here as caves such as the Sótano del Barro are located here. At the beginning of the War of Independence, Aldama was a captain of the cavalry regiment of the Queen's militia. He attended the conspiratorial meetings for independence in Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro), organized by Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, despite having to travel from San Miguel el Grande (now San Miguel de Allende) in neighboring Guanajuato. * The constitution of Mexico (art. 44) and the Statute of Government of the Federal District clearly establish the synonymity of Mexico City and the Federal District (''La ciudad de México es el Distrito Federal''); that is, the city is organized as a ''federal'' territory (district); the district is coextensive with the city. When an address is written as "México, D.F.", that does not imply that México is a city within the Federal District, but the Federal District in itself. (See for example the similar case of Washington, D.C.). Boroughs of the Federal District are indeed boroughs of Mexico City. In other words, ''there is only one city in the Federal District'', Mexico City. The current naming convention implies that each borough in the Federal District is equivalent to a city within the constituent states. That is not so, as I will explain on the following point: * By using the current naming convention, we are inappropriately saying that the boroughs are second-level administrative divisions with full autonomy, like that of cities and or municipalities. They are not: unlike municipalities they do not have a council (ayuntamiento), nor a chairman (regidor) nor a board of trustees (síndicos). Moreover, boroughs do not have regulatory powers and are not even autonomous in providing municipal services, which are centralized in the Government of the Federal District, even if part of the administration (or application) may be delegated to the boroughs. While used for administrative purposes, boroughs of the Mexican Federal District more appropriately resemble the Boroughs of New York City (Borough (New York City)). Moreover, other cities in Mexico are also divided into boroughs (e.g. Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro), Tijuana, Cancún, etc.), in which case boroughs are divisions of ''cities'' (whether second or third-level) and should be treated as such. * In all official correspondence in Mexico, addresses are written as follows: ''Delegación Cuauhtémoc, México, D.F.'', thus implying that the boroughs are part of the city and ''do not supersede the city'' neither they conform a city themselves (as would be implied by saying ''Cuauhtémoc, D.F.''). - 9 Estadio La Corregidora 34,130 http: www.gallos-blancos.com Estadio.htm Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) Querétaro Querétaro FC - Airports Mexico City is served by Mexico City International Airport (IATA Airport Code: MEX). This airport is Latin America's busiest and largest in traffic, with regular (daily) flights to North America, mainland Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Asia, and with codeshare agreements spanning the entire globe, mainly thanks to the most important carrier based there, Aeroméxico (Skyteam). It is used by over 26 million passengers per year. http: www.aeropuertosmexico.com DF aptoDFes.htm Aeropuertos Mexico This traffic exceeds the current capacity of the airport, which has historically centralized the majority of air trafficked in the country. An alternative option is Lic. Adolfo López Mateos International Airport (IATA Airport Code: TLC) located in the nearby Toluca with about 4.5 million passengers transported in 2008. About 31 million people went through the city's airports in 2008. The government engaged in an extensive restructuring program that includes the new second adjacent terminal, which began operations in 2007, and the enlargement of four other airports — at the nearby cities of Toluca (Mateos Airport (Lic. Adolfo López Mateos International Airport)), Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) (Querétaro International Airport), Puebla (Puebla, Puebla) (Hermanos Serdán International Airport), and Cuernavaca — that, along with Mexico City's airport, comprise the ''Grupo Aeroportuario del Valle de México'', distributing traffic to different regions in Mexico. The city of Pachuca will also provide additional expansion to central Mexico's airport network. Mexico City's airport is the main hub for 11 of the 21 national airline companies (List of airlines of Mexico). - 15 May Capture of Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) by the forces of the Republic which led to the fall of the Second Mexican Empire (1867). - thumb right 250px TTC sales and technical center, Plymouth, Michigan (Image:Transmission Technologies Corporation headquarters building Plymouth Michigan.JPG) '''Transmission Technologies Corporation''' is an American manufacturer of automobile transmissions (transmission (mechanics)), best known for their TREMEC line of manual transmissions. The company has a sales and engineering office in Plymouth, Michigan, and production facilities in Querétaro, Querétaro Mexico, and Knoxville, Tennessee. Sometimes the district office's overprint included a number designating the suboffice for which the stamps were intended, and occasionally suboffices applied their own handstamps. Larger offices had several different designs of handstamp in use; Mexico City used five different devices to handstamp the stamps of 1856, each with a different appearance, while the districts of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco), Guanajuato (Guanajuato, Guanajuato), Puebla (Puebla, Puebla), Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro), and San Luis Potosí (San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí) each had three devices. In addition to the track, the construction of Tren Suburbano also benefited from like-new electrification infrastructure already in place along most of the route, part of National Railways of Mexico (Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México) (NdeM)'s Mexico City-Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) 25 kV 60 Hz mainline electrification completed in the 1990s but de-energized a few years later after NdeM was privatized (Rail transport in Mexico#Privatization). From Jalpan, General Tomás Mejía led military actions here against the Liberal government installed in the state of Querétaro and the country. He managed to take the main square of Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) in 1857. However, at the end of the Reform War, he was executed along with Maximilian I of Mexico . Today, Palacio has stores in Mexico City (10 stores, of which 3 are known as ''Outlets''), Monterrey (1 store), Puebla (Puebla, Puebla) (1 store), and Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco) (its newest store). The company owns an adequate lot in the city of Querétaro (Querétaro, Querétaro) as a possible future location and has begun construction on the store opening in Playa del Carmen in 2013. Plans for a new store in Guatemala City are currently in planning and construction, making this the first Palacio outside Mexico.


Burkina Faso

Forces and is composed of the following parties: Africa * '''Lutte Traditionnelle''', (fr. for ''Traditional Wrestling'') related styles of ''West African wrestling'', known as ''Laamb'' in Senegal, ''Boreh'' in The Gambia, ''Evala'' in Togo, and ''Lutte Traditionnelle'' in Niger and Burkina Faso. International competition takes place during the Jeux de la Francophonie and the newly organised :fr:Championnat d'Afrique de lutte traditionnelle Championnat


Niger

. Africa * '''Lutte Traditionnelle''', (fr. for ''Traditional Wrestling'') related styles of ''West African wrestling'', known as ''Laamb'' in Senegal, ''Boreh'' in The Gambia, ''Evala'' in Togo, and ''Lutte Traditionnelle'' in Niger and Burkina Faso. International competition takes place during the Jeux de la Francophonie and the newly organised Championnat d'Afrique de lutte traditionnelle (:fr:Championnat d'Afrique de lutte traditionnelle). U.S.S.R


Mali

at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Chitunda, Julio. "Ruiz looks to strengthen Mali roster ahead of Beijing". FIBA.com (13 March 2008). Retrieved 24 June 2008. Traditional wrestling (Lutte Traditionnelle) (''la lutte'') is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years. The game wari (Oware), a mancala variant, is a common pastime.<


Cambodia

sports such as volleyball, bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby union, golf, and baseball are gaining popularity. Volleyball is by far the most popular sport in the country. Native sports include traditional boat racing (Dragon boat), buffalo racing, Pradal Serey, Khmer traditional wrestling and Bokator. Cambodia first participated in the Olympics during the 1956 Summer Olympic Games (Cambodia at the 1956 Summer Olympics) sending equestrian (Equestrian at the Summer Olympics) riders

bokator, pradal serey (Khmer kick boxing), and Khmer traditional wrestling. Zenith-branded products are sold in North America, Germany, Thailand (to 1983), Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, India and Myanmar. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Ujjain was a major centre of mathematical and astronomical research. The famous mathematicians who worked there included: Brahmagupta, whose book ''Brahmasphutasiddhanta'' was responsible for spreading the use


France

National Museum , incorporating a zoo, a museum of vernacular architecture, a craft centre, and exhibits including dinosaur skeletons and the Tree of Ténéré. There are also American (USA), French (France) and Nigerien cultural centres, seven major market centers including the large Niamey Grand Market, a traditional wrestling arena and a horse track. Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, bought Cyprus from the Knights Templar and brought many noble men and other adventurers, from France, Jerusalem, Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch and Kingdom of Armenia (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia), to the island. Guy shared the land he had bought among them and Nicosia became capital off their kingdom. He imposed harsh feudal system and the vast majority of Cypriots were reduced to the status of serfs. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


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