and sciences. During the reign of Alfonso II, Ferrara once again developed an opulent court with an impressive musical establishment, rivaled in Italy only by the adjacent city of Venice, and the traditional musical centers such as Rome, Florence and Milan. Composers such as Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Lodovico Agostini, and later Carlo Gesualdo, represented the avant-garde tendency of the composers there, writing for gifted virtuoso performers, including the famous ''concerto di donne'' — the three virtuoso female singers Laura Peverara, Anna Guarini, and Livia d'Arco. Vincenzo Galilei praised the work of Luzzaschi, and Girolamo Frescobaldi studied with him. In Italy some important sovereign ducal families were the Visconti (house of Visconti) and the Sforza, who ruled Milan (Duchy of Milan); the Capece Minutolo in Naples; the Savoia in Piemonte; the Medici of Florence; the Farnese (House of Farnese) of Parma and Piacenza (Duchy of Parma); the Cybo-Malaspina of Massa; the Gonzaga (House of Gonzaga) of Mantua (Duchy of Mantua); the Este of Modena (Duchy of Modena and Reggio) and Ferrara (Duchy of Ferrara). File:Italy 1796.png Map of Italy in AD 1796 File:Italy 1796.jpg Northern Italy in AD 1796. The duchies of Milan (Duchy of Milan), Mantua (Duchy of Mantua), and Modena and Reggio (Duchy of Modena and Reggio) were merged into the Cisalpine Republic, along with the Papal Legations (here labelled Papal States) and parts of Novara and the Venetian Republic. File:DuchyofModena19thCentury.png The Duchy of Modena and Reggio in the 19th century. Titles ''Joseph II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany (King of the Romans), King of Jerusalem, Hungary (King of Hungary), Bohemia (King of Bohemia), Dalmatia (History of Dalmatia), Croatia (History of Croatia), Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria), etc. etc. Archduke of Austria (List of rulers of Austria), Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine (List of rulers of Lorraine), Styria, Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), Carniola, Grand Duke of Tuscany (Grand Duchy of Tuscany), Grand Prince of Transylvania, Margrave of Moravia (March of Moravia), Duke of Brabant, Limburg (Duke of Limburg), Luxembourg, Gelderland (Guelders), Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia (Duchy of Silesia), Milan (Duchy of Milan), Mantua (Duchy of Mantua), Parma, Piacenza (Duchy of Parma), Guastalla (County of Guastalla), Auschwitz (Duchy of Oświęcim), Zator (Duchy of Zator), Calabria (Duke of Calabria), Bar (Counts and Dukes of Bar), Montferrat, Teschen, Prince of Swabia, Charleville, Princely Count of Habsburg (Habsburg, Switzerland), Flanders (Count of Flanders), Tyrol (County of Tyrol), Hennegau (County of Hainaut), Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire (Antwerp), Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia (March of Lusatia), Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny, Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zutphen (Count of Zutphen), Saarwerden (Sarrewerden), Salm, Falkenstein 22px (File:Gerae-tamga.svg) Crimean Khanate 25px (File:Flag of the Nogai people.png) Nogai Khanate (Nogai Horde) thumb 250px Details of Pisanello's frescoes in the "Hall of Pisanello". (File:Pisanello, torneo-battaglia di liuverzep 12.jpg) The '''''Palazzo Ducale di Mantova''''' ("Ducal Palace") is a group of buildings in Mantua, Lombardy, northern Italy, built between the 14th and the 17th century mainly by the noble family of Gonzaga (House of Gonzaga) as their royal residence in the capital of their Duchy (Duchy of Mantua). The buildings are connected by corridors and galleries and are enriched by inner courts and wide gardens. The complex includes some 500 rooms and occupies an area of c. 34,000 m². Although most famous for Mantegna (Andrea Mantegna)'s frescos in the Camera degli Sposi (Wedding Room), they have many other very significant architectural and painted elements.
is an ancient and rural population centre that preserves traditions and forms of social relationships like rondas, informal groups of neighbours and friends who come together during the village festival or at Christmas to sing, play music and dance in the street with guitars, lutes, cauldrons, mortars and pestles (Mortar and pestle), Anisette bottles and also zambombas (rustic drums) at Christmas. Traditional musical genres have been preserved especially rondeñas, Malagueñas
of Russia (a republic (Republic of Russia)). The largest ethnic group in the area are the Udmurts (Udmurt people), who have vibrant folk song traditions. Musical contests as well as ceremonial and ritual music are an important part of the '''music of Udmurtia'''. Every year since 1958 the capital Izhevsk has been hosting a traditional musical festival dedicated to the birthday of Tchaikovsky. '''Alexander Alexandrovich Volkov''' (Udmurt (Udmurt language) and
and warriors. The Soninke people are great travellers and Muslims, and have largely conserved their traditions. Art and culture The Bambaras used to transmit their knowledge by oral tradition, hence much of their art and culture is unknown. Ségou’s cultural heritage includes traditional musical instruments, wonderful griots, folkloric groups and the traditional masks and marionettes. The history of the Bambara state’s traditional religious practices are ambiguous. They practice animism
republic ). The largest ethnic group in the area are the Udmurts (Udmurt people), who have vibrant folk song traditions. Musical contests as well as ceremonial and ritual music are an important part of the '''music of Udmurtia'''. Every year since 1958 the capital Izhevsk has been hosting a traditional musical festival dedicated to the birthday of Tchaikovsky. The danger of terrorism is the main concern of many among Volkov's constituents, especially for the 600,000 residents
Sierra Gorda. This event is principally for children to promote the importance of conservation efforts. Huapango is the dominant traditional musical form, with two variations: huapango arribeño and huapango huasteco (son huasteco). The first is in process of disappearing because of migration of many rural residents and the urbanization of others. Huapango huasteco remains popular, especially in recent years with the emergence of youth trios dedicated to the music. It is most often played during traditional events such as religious feasts, Independence Day and the Christmas holidays. Many have become dependent on remittances sent from the United States from relatives. Many who work in the US return at the end of the year for the Christmas holidays. These people are called “norteños” (northerners) and are celebrated on 28 December called “El Día del Paisano” (Day of the Countryman). The festival has a number of events including the coronation of the Paisano queen, a mass, a pickup truck parade decorated with symbols of the US and the Sierra Gorda area and a charreada event called El Jalpense. At night there is a dance with live music. The event attracts about 5,000 people per year and covered by television. Originally, the event was purely for Jalpan, but it has grown to include participants from surrounding municipalities. In 2010, over one hundred pick up trucks participated in the annual parade for Día del Paisano. Their owners raffled off 1,850 US dollars in cash. In 2001, it was added to the International Networks of Man and Biosphere (Man and the Biosphere Programme) of UNESCO as the thirteenth Mexican reserve on the list, occupying first place in regards to ecodiversity. It is also recognized as a Área de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves (Area of Importance for the Conservation of Birds) by the Consejo Internacional para la Preservación de las Aves Mexicanas. The Spanish entered the heart of the Sierra Gorda early, with Nuño de Guzmán conquering the Oxitipa dominion, which encompassed Jalpan (Jalpan de Serra), Xilitla (Xilitla, San Luis Potosí), Tancoyol and Tilaco in 1527. However, during the early colonial period, the Querétaro Sierra Gorda would remain dangerous territory as the Chichimecas fought Spanish domination. with the first war between the Chichimeca Jonaz and the Spanish occurring in 1554. During the 16th and 17th century, the Spanish would surround this area on west, east and south, with military and missionary incursions into the interior. Spanish settlements were begun to the south of it, such as the Villa de Cadereyta in order to form a bulwark against the nomadic Chichimeca tribes. In the late 16th century, a number of forts were established in the area including El Jofre and Jalpan. The incursions were provoked not because of significant mineral deposits in northern Querétaro, but rather, the area laid on roads which led into mining areas such as Guanajuato and Zacatecas . thumb left San Francisco Mission in Tilaco (File:San Francisco del Valle de Tilaco.jpg) The mission in Jalpan (Jalpan de Serra) was established before the arrival of Junípero Serra in 1744, but Serra was in charge of building the mission complex that stands today from 1751 to 1758. It is dedicated to the Apostle James, the first evangelist. This complex is situation in the center of the modern town in front of the main plaza and formed by an atrium, cloister, pilgrim portal and church, with a chapel annex on the left side. The original atrium wall was lost, but reconstructed in the same style, with three portals and inverted arches. The main features of the ornate portal on the facade are Our Lady of the Pillar and the Virgin of Guadalupe, both with Mesoamerican connections, as well as a double headed eagle, meant to symbolize the blending of the two cultures.
larvae are also eaten. Escamoles and maguey larvae are often eaten mixed together. Goat meat is popular as it is relatively easy to raise in the harsh climate. The most representative dish of the area is “chivo tapiado”, which is goat meat accompany by wild vegetables in season, especially various types of cactus. In the river areas, a number of fish species and caught and grown including trout, tilapia, catfish and carp. History thumb Adobe facade (File:AdobeFacadePeñamiller.JPG) The name was originally Peñamellera, given by José de Escandón, as the mountain formation east of town reminded him of a similar formation in Asturias, Spain in the Peñamellera Baja. It was officially named Santa María de Peñamillera when the area became a sub prefecture of Tolimán (Tolimán, Querétaro). Eventually, the name morphed to what it is today. The municipality’s coat of arms represents the history and traditions of the area, especially those related to the founding of the Spanish town in 1748 and after. Since it was the 18th century, the sun figure has eighteen rays. Another motif is that of a colonizer subjugating an indigenous person to represent the conquest of the Chichimecas. As thirty seven families moved in to found the town, there are thirty seven marked tombs, and a tree represents the distribution of lands. Eight palms in a walnut tree branch represent the most important annual celebration, that of the Virgin of the Assumption on August 15. The parish church is represented, and the mass of foundation is represented by a cross at the top of the coat of arms. The area which is now Peñamiller has been inhabited for more than 2000 years, which is shown in part by the petroglyphs where have been found along the Extoraz River. More artwork painted or chiseled in rock formations are found in de Río Blanco, El Soyatal, El Mirador, El Puerto del Cobre, La Mesa de los Chilitos, La Cueva del Caballo, and La Cruz del Milagro. In the pre Classic period, the area was dominated by the Serrana Culture, the same culture that built the sites of Las Ranas and Toluquillo. From this culture there are remains such as ceramic figures found in La Plazuela, Camargo and Alto Bonito, which date from the 7th century. These objects show Toltec influence. There also have been pre Hispanic tools likely related to mining found in the area, especially around Soyatal. Mining mostly focused on the extraction of mercury and cinnabar, with the latter extensively commercialized from 800 to 900 CE. The Pames arrived in the 13th century and mostly settled in the area around San Miguel Palmas. The Chichimeca Jonaz arrived in the 14th century and mainly settled in Tembladera, El Portugués and the areas around the Extoraz River and the Cerro de Media Luna, in the east where the land is less arid. The first Spanish in the region were led by Nicolás de San Luis Montañez in the mid 16th century. Because of their battles with the Chichimecas, San Luis Montañez was named “Capitan of the Chichimecas.” The Pames did not offer much resistance to Spanish incursion but the Chichimeca Jonaz did
Archdiocese of Bangui . Boganda Museum (''Musée de Boganda'') has displays of traditional musical instruments, weapons, rural architectural features, ancient hunting tools, pottery, and also many religious antiques. It has a collection of bark cloth, the material used to cover Bokassa's bed
Technologies journal Asian Music year Autumn, 2002 - Winter, 2003 volume 34 issue 1 pages 43–65 url http: www.jstor.org stable 834421 accessdate March 31, 2012 Since then several other musical groups in Nepal have adopted the ''lok''-pop rock style producing dozens of albums every year. Another important part of cultural music of western Nepal, and hence Pokhara, is the ''Panché Baaja'' (Pancai baja) (पञ्चे बाजा), a traditional musical band performed generally during marriage
2009 The '''''pahu''''' or '''''pa'u''''' is a traditional musical instrument found in Polynesia: Hawaii, Tahiti, Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tokelau. Carved from a single log and covered on the playing end with a stretched sharkskin, the pahu is played with the palms and fingers of the hand. It is considered a sacred instrument and was generally kept in a temple (''heiau''), and used to accompany a repertoire of sacred songs called ''hula pahu'' ''ura p'au