. It includes Loreto (Loreto, Baja California Sur), the historic first capital of all three Californias (Las Californias) (Baja California Sur, Baja California, and California), the town of Santa Rosalía (Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur) which is the site of a historic church designed by Gustave Eiffel. * June 3 - Transit of Venus is observed from many places in order to obtain data for measuring the distance from the Earth to the Sun. Those taking part included ** Jean
, and burnt two enemy gunboats in the harbor of Guaymas under heavy fire. He led the main line of ships that took Mazatlán on November 11, 1847, and on February 15, 1848, launched an amphibious assault on San José del Cabo that managed to strike three miles (5 km) inland and relieve a besieged squadron, despite heavy resistance. He was given command of the California naval blockade in the last months of the war and, after taking part in further land maneuvers, was ordered
of the Battle of Abu Klea. Henry Newbolt's poem "Vitaï Lampada" is often quoted as referring to Burnaby's death at Abu Klea; "The Gatling (Gatling gun)'s jammed and the Colonel's dead...", although it was a Gardner machine gun (Gardner gun) which jammed. http: www.britishbattles.com egypt-1882 abu-klea.htm In 1885, the ''2nd Battalion'' took part in the Suakin Expedition to the Sudan, taking part in the Battle of Hasheen, and gaining the battle honour Suakin 1885 for their part in the campaign The ''battalion'' returned home to the peace and quiet of the UK in late 1885 and took part in Queen Victoria (Victoria of the United Kingdom)'s Golden Jubilee Military Review in 1887. In 1895, the ''2nd Battalion'' of the ''regiment'' deployed to Dublin and returned to their barracks in London in 1897, with the ''1st Battalion'' deploying to Dublin that same year. In the 7th century an independent Muslim state emerged in the archipleago, but it was subsequently conquered by Yemen, then intermittently by the Kingdom of Medri-Bahri (Land of the Sea) 1517, when the Ottoman Turks conquered them and placed the islands under the rule of the Pasha at Suakin as part of the province of Habesh. War with Ethiopia Ismail dreamt of expanding his realm over the whole Nile including its diverse sources and over the whole African coast of the Red Sea. This, together with rumours about rich raw material and fertile soil, led Ismail to expansive policies directed against Ethiopia under the Emperor (Emperor of Ethiopia) Yohannes IV (Yohannes IV of Ethiopia). In 1865 the Ottoman Sublime Porte ceded the Ottoman Province of Habesh (with Massawa and Suakin at the Red Sea as the main cities of that province) to Ismail. This province, neighbor of Ethiopia, first consisted of a coastal strip only, but expanded subsequently inland into territory controlled by the Ethiopian ruler. Here Ismail occupied regions originally claimed by the Ottomans when they had established the province (eyaleti) of Habesh in the 16th century. New economically promising projects, like huge cotton plantations in the Barka (Barka River) delta, were started. In 1872 Bogos (with the city of Keren (Keren, Eritrea)) was annexed by the governor of the new "Province of Eastern Sudan and the Red Sea Coast", Werner Munzinger Pasha. In October 1875 Ismail's army occupied the adjacent highlands of Hamasien, which were then tributary to the Ethiopian Emperor. In November this army was virtually annihilated during the battle of Dogali near the Mareb River. In March 1876 Ismail's army again suffered a dramatic defeat after an attack by Yohannes's army at Gura' (Battle of Gura). Ismail's son Hassan was captured by the Ethiopians and only released after a large ransom. This was followed by a long cold war, only finishing in 1884 with the Anglo-Egyptian-Ethiopian Hewett Treaty, when Bogos was given back to Ethiopia. The Red Sea Province created by Ismail and his governor Munzinger Pasha was taken over by the Italians shortly thereafter and became the territorial basis for the Colonia Eritrea (proclaimed in 1890). The abdication of Emperor Susenyos (1632) deprived the Catholics of their protector; his successor, Fasilides (Fasilides of Ethiopia), first confined them once again at Fremona, then in 1634 Lobo and his companions were exiled from Ethiopia, who were exposed to robbery, assaults and other indignities by the local population before reaching the Ottoman (Ottoman Turks) Naib at Massawa. He sent them to his superior at Suakin, where the Pasha forced the party to pay a ransom before they could proceed to India. Despite settling for a ransom of 4300 patacas (which he borrowed from local Hindu merchants), at the last moment the Pasha insisted on keeping Patriarch Mendes and three other senior priests for further money. In company with Arabs from Fez (Fez, Morocco) and Tlemcen, they now went by way of El-Tor to Suakin and Aden, where, as it was now the monsoon, they parted, Covilhã proceeding to India and Paiva to Ethiopia the two companions agreeing to meet again in Cairo. Covilhã thus arrived at Cannanore (Kannur) and Calicut (History of Kozhikode), from where he retraced his steps to Goa and Hormuz (Ormus), the Red Sea and Cairo, making an excursion on his way down the East African coast to Sofala or the Island of the Moon (now known as Madagascar), which he was probably the first European to visit. Ibrahim Abboud was born October 26, 1900 at Mohammed-Gol, near the old port city of Suakin on the Red Sea. He trained as an engineer at the Gordon Memorial College and at the Military College in Khartoum. He received a commission in the Egyptian Army in 1918 and transferred to the Sudan Defence Force in 1925, after its creation separate from the Egyptian army (Military of Egypt). During World War II he served in Eritrea, in Ethiopia, with the Sudan Defense Force, and with the British army in North Africa. After the war, Abboud rose rapidly to commander of the Sudan Defense Force in 1949 and assistant commander in chief in 1954. With the declaration of independence for the Sudan in 1956, he was made commander in chief of the Sudanese military forces. Sudan Embassy in Canada After the Sudanese army staged a ''coup d'état'' in November 1958, overthrowing the civilian government of Abdullah Khalil, Gen. Abboud led the new military government. The regiment was reformed in 1858, keeping its old number and title, but losing precedence, being ranked after the 17th Lancers. It was immediately converted into a lancer regiment and titled '''5th (or Royal Irish) Regiment of Dragoons (Lancers)'''. In 1861, it was renamed the '''5th (or Royal Irish) Lancers''' and then the '''5th (Royal Irish) Lancers'''. The regiment served in India and a section served in Egypt in 1885, taking part in the battles at Suakin. It served with distinction in the Second Boer War from 1899 to 1902, gaining battle honours at Battle of Elandslaagte and The Defence of Ladysmith (Ladysmith, South Africa). War with Sudan When Muhammad Ahmad proclaimed himself the Mahdi, and incited Sudan into a long and violent revolt, his followers successfully either drove the Egyptian garrisons out of Sudan, or isolated them at Suakin and at various posts in the south. Yohannes agreed to British requests to allow these Egyptian soldiers to evacuate through his lands, with the understanding that the British Empire would then support his claims on important ports like Massawa on the Red Sea to import weapons and ammunition, in the event that Egypt was forced to withdraw from them. This was formalized in a treaty signed with the British at Adwa known as the Hewett treaty (William Nathan Wrighte Hewett). The immediate result was that the wrath of the Mahdiyah fell upon Ethiopia: Ras Alula defeated an invading Mahdist army at the Battle of Kufit on September 23, 1885. About the same time, Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) took control of the port of Massawa, frustrating Ethiopian hopes and angering Yohannes. Yohannes attempted to work out some kind of understanding with the Italians, so he could turn his attention to the more pressing problem of the Mahdists, although Ras Alula took it upon himself to attack Italian units that were on both sides of the ill-defined frontier between the two powers. Domestic problems increased when the Neguses of both Gojjam and Shewa rebelled against Yohannes, and the Emperor had to turn his attention from the encroaching Italians to deal with his rebellious vassals. Yohannes brutally crushed the Gojjame rebellion, but before he could turn his attention to Shewa news arrived that the Mahdist forces had sacked Gondar and burned its holy churches. He marched north from Gojjam to confront the armies of the Mahdi. Other commands included: the HMS ''Viper'' (HMS Viper (1854)), and the HMS ''Rinaldo'' (HMS Rinaldo (1860)) before his promotion to captain 24 November 1862, the HMS ''Basilisk'' (HMS Basilisk (1848)) (1865–1869), flag-captain to Sir Henry Kellett (1870–1872) and captain of the HMS ''Devastation'' (HMS Devastation (1871)) (1872–1873). He was Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of Africa Station (Cape of Good Hope Station), in charge of naval operations during the Third Anglo-Ashanti War (Anglo-Ashanti wars), from 1873. For his services during this conflict, on 31 March 1874 he was awarded made KCB. He commanded the HMS ''Achilles'' (HMS Achilles (1863)) from 1877 until he was drawn into service in the Mahdist War. In 1882 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station (East Indies Station). William Loney RN Following the British defeat at El Teb (Battle of El Teb), Hewett commanded the naval brigade which landed at Suakin 6 February 1884, and was appointed governor of Sudan 10 February by Baker Pasha (Valentine Baker). From May 1885 to July 1885 he was Junior Naval Lord (Fourth Sea Lord). The contingent arrived in Suakin on 29 March and were attached to a brigade that consisted of Scots, Grenadier and Coldstream Guards. They subsequently marched for Tamai in a large "square" formation made up of 10,000 men. Reaching the village, they burned huts and returned to Suakin: three Australians were wounded in minor fighting. Most of the contingent was then sent to work on a railway line that was being laid across the desert towards Berber (Berber, Sudan), on the Nile. The Australians were then assigned to guard duties, but soon a camel corps was raised and 50 men volunteered. They rode on a reconnaissance to Takdul on 6 May and were heavily involved in a skirmish during which more than 100 Arabs were killed or captured. On 15 May, they made one last sortie to bury the dead that were killed from the fighting of the previous March. The artillery were posted at Handoub and drilled for a month, but they soon rejoined the camp at Suakin. *Blenheim (Battle of Blenheim), Ramillies (Battle of Ramillies), Oudenarde (Battle of Oudenarde), Malplaquet (Battle of Malplaquet), Beaumont, Willems, Talavera (Battle of Talavera), Fuentes d'Onor, Salamanca (Battle of Salamanca), Vittoria (Battle of Vitoria), Nive (Battle of the Nive), Peninsula (Peninsular War), Waterloo (Battle of Waterloo), Bhurtpore, Ghuznee 1839 (Battle of Ghazni), Afghanistan 1839, Maharajpore, Aliwal (Battle of Aliwal), Sobraon (Battle of Sobraon), Suakin 1885 (Suakin), Relief of Kimberley, Paardeberg (Battle of Paardeberg), Siege of Ladysmith (Defence of Ladysmith), South Africa 1899-1902 (Second Boer War) thumb right Warren circa 1886 (File:Charles Warren by Elliott & Fry, c1886.png) In 1885, Warren stood for election to Parliament (Parliament of the United Kingdom) as an independent Liberal candidate in the Sheffield Hallam constituency (Sheffield Hallam (UK Parliament constituency)) with a radical manifesto. He lost by 690 votes, and was appointed commander at Suakin in 1886. A few weeks after he arrived, however, he was appointed Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis following Sir Edmund Henderson's (Edmund Henderson) resignation. Ancient authorities are vague on the location of Ptolemais, and the site remains unidentified. The ''Periplus'' describes it as 3000 stadia (Ancient Greek weights and measures) south of the Moskhophagoi, and 4000 stadia north of Adulis, inside the regions ruled by Zôskalês, the king of Aksum; Pliny the Elder (N.H. 6.168) notes that Ptolemais was close to Lake Monoleus. G.W.B. Huntingford notes that Ptolemais has been identified both with the locales of Arqiqo and Suakin some 150 miles aapart, and notes that Suakin lay at the end of an ancient caravan route that links it to Barbar on the Nile. However, Stanley M. Burstein argues for Trinkitat, where he states that "classical architectural fragments" have been found. Stanley M. Burstein, ''Agatharchides of Cnidus, On the Erythraean Sea'', p.144 n.2. (London: the Hakluyt Society, 1989). Military career He entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery on 27 July 1880. With the decline of the importance of the Midri Bahri in the 17th to 19th centuries, the province enjoyed a period of communal rule under councils of village elders, the so called ''shimagile'' who enforced traditional laws which had prevailed uniquely in the region alongside feudal authority since ancient times. With further detailed references see Wolbert Smidt: "Law: Traditional Law Books", in: ebd., 516-18. See also the article on the law of Ḥamasen: Wolbert Smidt: "Ḥəggi Habsəllus Gäräkəstos", in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2007, vol. 3 (He-N), p. 10f. The region appeared in European maps as 'The Republic of Hamasien'. In the late 19th century, Hamasien was briefly invaded and occupied by the Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV who granted control of the region to Ras Alula (Alula Engida). Ethiopian forces wrestled for control over the region with Ottomans initially and later with Italian colonialists. Following the death of Emperor Yohannes at the Battle of Gallabat, Hamasien was occupied by the Italians (Italy), who incorporated it into their colony of Eritrea and making one of its villages, Asmara, the capital of the colony, a status it retains today as the capital of the sovereign country of Eritrea. Haggai Erlich, ''Ras Alula and the Scramble for Africa'' (Lawrenceville: Red Sea,1996), chapters 11-13 The United Kingdom was upset by the disasters suffered by the Anglo-Egyptian forces contending with the Mahdist army in the Sudan (battle of El Obeid; 1st battle of El Teb). Fremantle was sent to the Sudan, temporarily serving as garrison commander at the port of Suakin until his relief by Major General Gerald Graham. thumb The front line in the Battle of Abu Klea (File:Abu Klea .jpg), (January, 1885), where (as at Tamai, 10 months earlier) the British infantry square was pierced by the Mahdist Fuzzy-Wuzzy rush. This almost photographic view serves to depict the self-control of the wounded British 'Tommy' reloading his Martini-Henry rifle, while his friend writhes on the ground, choking and hammering a dervish . The Mediterranean and the Mahdist War After the refit was complete, the ''Gannet'' was assigned to the Mediterranean as an anti-slaver. On 11 September 1888, she was ordered to relieve HMS ''Dolphin'' (HMS Dolphin (1882)) at the besieged port of Suakin, Sudan where she engaged anti-Anglo-Egyptian forces led by Osman Digna for nearly a month. After the battle, the ''Gannet'' was assigned to perform surveying work throughout the Mediterranean, and then hydrographic work in the Red Sea until she returned to Sheerness and was decommissioned on 16 March 1895. Balloons were first deployed by the British Army during the expeditions to Bechuanaland and Suakin in 1885. They were also deployed during the Second Boer War (1899–1902), where they were used in artillery observation with the Kimberley column and during the Siege of Ladysmith. He served in the Egyptian War including the actions at Kassassin and Tel el Kebir, as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General with the Indian contingent in 1882. He was Deputy Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster General for the Sudan expedition and was involved in actions at Suakin, Hasheen and Tamai in 1885. He was Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General for 2nd Brigade during the Hazara expedition in 1888. He was appointed Deputy Assistant Adjutant General, Intelligence, at Army Headquarters in 1890 and then became Brigade Major for the Royal Artillery at Aldershot from 1895 to 1896 when he became Military Attaché in Berlin.
48,200 85.0 7,900 14 600 1 bgcolor "#FFBBBB" '''56,705''' - 2005 De facto and De Jure Population by Adminstative Territorial Distribution and Sex Census in NKR, 2005. THE NATIONAL STATISTICAL SERVICE OF NAGORNO-KARABAKH REPUBLIC 49,848 99.7 2 0.0 136 0.3 bgcolor "#FFBBBB" '''49,986''' - 2012 ~100 bgcolor "#FFBBBB" '''53,400''' - File:Stepanakert Fountain During the Day.JPG thumb Fountains at the Shahumyan square During the Soviet era, there were no traditional churches in Stepanakert, although most of the population of the city were members of the Armenian Apostolic Church. The believers attended the church that is in the building of the House of Culture. There is also a church in the city that was built in the eighteenth century, but it is not operating. On September 15, 2006 the foundation stones of St. James Church in Stepanakert were laid. The church's benefactor, Vache Yepremian, from Los Angeles (Los Angeles, California), sponsored the construction of the church and on May 9, 2007, the church of St. James was consecrated in honor of the fifteenth anniversary of the capture of Shushi. Grigorian, Laura. "ST JAMES CHURCH WAS OPENED IN STEPANAKERT." ''Azat Artsakh''. May 10, 2007. Sport Football (Association football) is the most popular sport in Nagorno-Karabakh and the city has a well-built football stadium. Since the mid-1990s, football teams from Karabakh started taking part in some domestic competitions in the Republic of Armenia. Lernayin Artsakh (Lernayin Artsakh FC) is the football club that represents the city of Stepanakert. The Artsakh national football league was launched in 2009. The unrecognized Artsakh national football team (Nagorno-Karabakh national football team) was formed in 2012 and played their first competitive match against the unrecognized
the mountain people of Karabagh. It is also known as "'''Tatik yev Papik'''" (Տատիկ և Պապիկ) in Eastern Armenian. The sculpture is featured prominently on Nagorno-Karabakh's coat of arms (Coat of arms of Nagorno-Karabakh). Football (soccer) remains very popular in Nagorno-Karabakh. Stepanakert has a well-built football stadium. Starting in the 1990s, Karabakh teams started taking part in some Armenian leagues in the Republic of Armenia. There is also interest in other
, but the lake ultimately drained through a notch eroded in the northeast rim. The prehistoric lake attained a maximum depth of about 150 m (500 ft) and the upper surface reached an elevation of about 475 m (1560 ft), at which point it overtopped the low point of the caldera rim. Small, shallow remnants of the lake remained north of Cone D at an altitude of about 1075 feet: a small shallow lake located between the caldera rim and Cone D; a smaller lake (named Cone B Lake) farther north near the caldera's gate. After the 2008 eruption, the hydrogeology of the caldera was greatly changed with five separate sizable lakes now emplaced. In addition to the caldera lakes, Cone A, Cone E, Cone G and the new 2008 vent on Cone D contain small crater lakes. left 300px Okmok Caledra thumb (File:Okmok Caldera.png) prominence location Umnak, Alaska, USA (Alaska) range Aleutian Range ''Union'' spent the month of January 1956 participating in Operation "Cowealex" which called for a landing on Umnak Island in the Aleutians (Aleutian Islands). Rough weather necessitated changing the landing site to Unalaska Island in Makuskin Bay. The ship returned to San Diego on 9 February and conducted local operations. ''Union'' then left California en route to Pearl Harbor to participate in a landing exercise, "Hawrltlex 1-56" which concluded on 11 April. She arrived at San Diego on 23 April and spent the months until November taking part in local operations and undergoing upkeep. Late in August, ''Union'' made a brief trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, to represent the United States Navy in the Pacific National Exhibit. On 13 November 1956, the ship sailed for San Francisco and an overhaul at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point (Bayview-Hunters Point, San Francisco, California). History The airport was constructed during World War II as '''Fort Randall Army Airfield''' during the military buildup of Alaska in secret beginning in 1941. Disguised as civilian employees of the Blair Canning and Packing Company, Army personnel in civilian clothes were shipped to Cold Bay. Although construction began in December 1941, the airfield was ready for operation by March 1942. Because of the foresight of Alaska's military commanders, the new airfield, along with another new secret airfield Cape Field (Cape Field at Fort Glenn) at Umnak, was ready to contribute during the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1942. The airfield at Cold Bay would continue to contribute throughout the war.
tractors of all shapes, sizes, makes and models assembled in a local farmer’s field in preparation for the parade. Many tractor drivers were inspired to fight back against cancer by taking part in honour or memory of loved ones touched by cancer. Others made the event a family affair with husbands, wives, sons, daughters, brothers and sisters all behind the wheel in support of the cause. The concept for the event came from Ken Richards, a local prostate cancer survivor. To promote the event
in the defenses of the area around Babruysk. Radasłaŭ Astroŭski was born on 25 October 1887 in the town of Zapolle, Slutsk paviet, Minsk Guberniya. He studied at the Slutsk gymnasium, but was expelled for participating in the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 (Russian Revolution of 1905). In 1908 he was accepted to the mathematical faculty of Saint Petersburg University. In 1911, he was arrested for taking part in revolutionary riots and was imprisoned at Saint Petersburg
, Saudi Arabia Tabuk . By the end of the War, 72 successful TIALD missions had been flown. After the war, the Sqn continued its peacetime training role at RAF Honington as well as taking part in Operation Jural, the monitoring of a No-Fly Zone (Iraqi no-fly zones) in the South of Iraq below the 32nd parallel north. Ahead of Operation GRANBY (Operation Granby) in 1990 and the first Gulf War, the squadron deployed to Tabuk (Tabuk, Saudi Arabia) airbase. No. 16 was the lead
written by Mark Bittner. San Francisco journalist Bret Harte first wrote as "The Bohemian" in ''The Golden Era'' in 1861, with this persona taking part in many satirical doings, the lot published in his book ''Bohemian Papers'' in 1867. Harte wrote, "Bohemia has never been located geographically, but any clear day when the sun is going down, if you mount Telegraph Hill (Telegraph Hill, San Francisco), you shall see its pleasant valleys and cloud-capped hills
was established on the Kingdom. Genoa, which had supported the Aragonese, was granted free trading and export rights in the Kingdom of Sicily. Genoese bankers also profited from loans to the new nobility of Sicily. Corsica was formally annexed in 1347. Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, Volume 7, page 201 Benbow fought against France during the Nine Years War, serving on and later commanding several English vessels and taking part in the battles of Battle of Beachy