is at present inconsiderable, owing to the disturbed state of the surrounding country. By the time the explorer Heinrich Barth arrived in 1853 Sokoto was thinly inhabited and greatly dilapidated. Barth in 1857 estimated the population at only 20,000–22,000, but the market was still supplied and attended, and a thriving suburb outside the wall was more animated than Sokoto itself. Bovil aptly described Sokoto as a strong position, with steep escarpments from the east to the north-west and a small
of the Karelian Isthmus. Liepāja and Tallinn were the main naval bases of the Baltic Fleet prior to Operation Barbarossa. The Winter War and the occupation of the Baltic states had left the Red Banner Baltic fleet in a strong position. It was the largest navy on the Baltic Sea (two battleships, two light cruisers, 19 destroyers, 68 submarines, and a naval air arm comprising 709 aircraft) with bases all along the Baltic coast as well as in Hanko. In particular, the long and vulnerable southern coast of Finland was now exposed to the Soviet navy for its full length. The Finnish Navy had two branches, the old but well-maintained coastal fortifications built by the Russians before World War I (Peter the Great's Naval Fortress), and the actual navy, consisting of two coastal defence ships, five submarines and a number of smaller craft. The ''Kriegsmarine'' could provide only a small part of its naval force, as it was tied up in the battle of the Atlantic (Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945)). Germany's main concern in the Baltic sea was to protect the routes through the Archipelago Sea which supplied its war industry with vital iron ore imported from Sweden. thumb A TM-3-12 at the Museum of Railway Technology, Saint Petersburg, October 2007 (File:Железнодорожная артиллерийская установка ТМ-3-12 (5).jpg) Three railway guns were built, using guns from the sunken battleship ''Imperatritsa Mariya'' (Russian battleship Imperatritsa Mariya), which had been lost to a magazine explosion in Sevastopol harbor in October, 1916. They were used in the Soviet-Finnish war in 1939-1940. In June–December 1941 they took part in the defense of the Soviet naval base on Finland's Hanko peninsula (Hanko) (Rus. Gangut Гангут). They were disabled by Soviet seamen when the base was evacuated, and were later restored by Finnish specialists using guns from the withdrawn Russian battleship ''Imperator Aleksander III'' (Russian battleship Imperator Aleksander III). After the war these were handed over to the Soviet Union, and they were maintained in operational condition until 1991, and withdrawn in 1999. When withdrawn from service, they were the last battleship-caliber Obukhov pieces still operational in the world. Vessel allocations In late 2005, Superfast ferries removed one of the two ships operating the link between Zeebrugge and Rosyth, thus turning the daily link from Belgium to Scotland into one operated only every other day. Superfast IX joined the two ship operation between Hanko and Rostock to serve the growing demand in the Finland - Germany service. In April 2006, Superfast and Attica once more took the market by surprise by agreeing to sell the Superfast VII, Superfast VIII and Superfast IX ice-class ferries to Estonian operator ''Tallink'' for €310 million. Valio was founded in 1905 by 17 co-operative dairies. The original name of the company was ''Voivienti-osuusliike Valio r.l'', or "Butter Export Cooperative Valio". The company was originally based in Hanko and the most important market was England. For the construction period, Nord Stream AG created a logistic center in Gotland. Other interim stock yards are located in Mukran, in Kotka, in Hanko (Finland) and in Karlshamn (Sweden). In 1918 the Black Sea Fleet submarines "АG-21" - "АG-26" were taken over by the Ukrainian State Navy. In May 1918 the Finnish Navy salvaged (Finnish submarine AG 16) two of the Baltic fleet submarines scuttled off Hanko at the end of the Finnish Civil War, but was unable to refit them for service. Soviet negotiators had insisted that the troop transfer agreement (to Hanko) should not be published for parliamentary discussion or voting. This precedent made it easy for the Finnish government to keep a troop transfer agreement with the Germans (Transit of German troops through Scandinavia (WWII)) secret until the first German troops arrived at the port of Vaasa on September 21. The arrival of German troops produced much relief to the insecurity of average Finns, and was largely approved. Most contrary voices opposed more the way the agreement was negotiated than the transfer itself, although the Finnish people knew only the barest details of the agreements with the Third Reich. The presence of German troops was seen as a deterrent for further Soviet threats and a counterbalance to the Soviet troop transfer right. The German troop transfer agreement was augmented November 21 allowing the transfer of wounded, and soldiers on leave, via Turku. Germans arrived and established quarters, depots, and bases along the rail lines from Vaasa and Oulu to Ylitornio and Rovaniemi, and from there along the roads via Karesuvanto and Kilpisjärvi or Ivalo and Petsamo to Skibotn and Kirkenes in northern Norway. Also roadworks for improving winter road (between Karesuvanto and Skibotn) and totally new road (from Ivalo to Karasjok) were discussed, and later financed, by Germans. Finland feared that the Soviet Union would occupy Åland as soon as possible and use it to close naval routes from Finland to Sweden and Germany (together with Hanko base), so Operation Kilpapurjehdus (Sail Race) was launched in the early hours of June 22 to occupy Åland. Soviet bombers launched attacks against Finnish ships during the operation but no damage was inflicted. * Hobro IK, a Danish sports club from North Jutland * Hangö Idrottsklubb, a sports club from Hanko, Finland * Hikma Pharmaceuticals (London Stock Exchange listing code)
Kurfürst ) because of his military and political prowess. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist (Calvinism) faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia (Treaty of Westphalia) political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom (Kingdom of Prussia), achieved under his successor (Frederick I of Prussia). Foreign diplomacy During the Thirty Years' War, George William strove to maintain, with a minimal army, a delicate balance between the Protestant (Protestantism) and Catholic forces fighting throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Out of these meagre beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. In contrast to the religious disputes that distrupted the internal affairs of other European states, Brandenburg-Prussia benefited from the policy of religious tolerance adopted by Frederick William. With the help of French subsidies (subsidy), he built up an army to defend the country. In the Second Northern War, he was forced to accept Swedish vassalage for the Duchy of Prussia according to the terms of the Treaty of Königsberg (1656), The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
places and arresting of politicians in Helsinki the Senate decided to move the senators to Vaasa, where the White Guard (White Guard (Finland))s that supported the Senate had a strong position and the contacts to the west were good. The Senate of Finland began its work in Vaasa on February 1, 1918, and it had four members. The Senate held its sessions in the Town Hall. To express its gratitude to the town the senate gave Vaasa the right to add the cross of freedom, independent Finland's oldest mark of honour designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, to its coat of arms. The coat of arms is unusual not only in this respect, but also because of its non-standard shape and that decorations and a crown are included. Because of its role in the civil war, Vaasa became known as "The White City". A Statue of Freedom, depicting a victorious White soldier, was erected in the town square. Post-war history The language conditions in the city shifted in the 1930s, and the majority became Finnish-speaking. Therefore the primary name also changed from "Vasa" to "Vaasa", according to Finnish spelling. Post-war, Vaasa was industrialized, led by the electronics manufacturer Strömberg (Stromberg (company)), later merged into ABB (ABB Group). In 2013 the municipality of Vähäkyrö was merged into Vaasa. It is currently an exclave area of the city, since it is surrounded by other municipalities. University City Vaasa has three universities. The largest one is the University of Vaasa, which is located in the neighbourhood of Palosaari. Palosaari is a peninsula near the center of Vaasa, connected to it by bridges. The other two universities are Åbo Akademi, headquartered in Turku, and the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, or ''Hanken'', headquartered in Helsinki. Unique to Vaasa is the Finland-Swedish teachers training school, part of Åbo Akademi. The University of Helsinki also has a small unit, specialized in law studies, in the same premises as the University of Vaasa. The city has two universities of applied sciences: Vaasa University of Applied Sciences (former Vaasa Polytechnic) (Vaasa Ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Sciences), located right next to the University of Vaasa, and Novia University of Applied Sciences (former Swedish University of Applied Sciences). Economy WikiPedia:Vaasa commons:Vaasa
in Russia Though the Red Banner Baltic fleet (Baltic Fleet) started the war in a strong position, the naval mine warfare, aerial supremacy and rapid changes to the land forces forced Soviet Navy to evacuate its bases to Kronstadt and Leningrad. Evacuations from Tallinn (Soviet evacuation of Tallinn) and Hanko (Battle of Hanko (1941)) proved to be very costly operations. As the Soviet Navy withdrew to the eastern end of the Gulf of Finland it left the nearly the whole
ancient town at Pichvnari near the present day town of Kobuleti. In the 2nd century AD, Bathus was an important military base for Roman (Ancient Rome) legions. Apsaros was famous for its theatre. Near the town are the ruins of a fortress, mentioned as ''Sarapana'' by Strabo and ''Sarapanis'' by Procopius as a strong position on the road that led from Colchis to Iberia (Caucasian Iberia). **Encountered by Dante in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 141'''. * Circe: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Helios, god of the Sun, and sister of Aeetis, king of Colchis. She was an enchantress who lived near the Gulf of Gaeta, who turned the crew of '''Odysseus (#Ulysses)''' into pigs on their journey home from the '''Trojan war (#Troy)'''. But Odysseus, with the help of Hermes, forced her to release his men from her spell (Ovid, ''Met''. XIV, 435–40). She fell in love with Odysseus and he stayed with her for another year and in some accounts, she had a son Telegonus with Odysseus, who was to accidentally kill him. **It is said, by Ulysses (Odysseus), that she "beguiled" him. '''Inf. XXVI, 90–2'''. **One of a group of classical poets (see '''Homer (#Homer)''') encountered in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 89'''. * Hypsipyle: Queen of Lemnos, she was seduced and abandoned by '''Jason (#Jason)''' while in route to the Colchis with the Argonauts. **Pitied by '''Virgil (#Virgil)''' for Jason's actions. '''Inf. XVIII, 88–95'''. **One of two spendthrifts (the other called "Lano" is probably '''Arcolano of Siena (#Lano)''') whose punishment consists of being hunted by female hounds. '''Inf. XIII, 115–29'''. * Jason: Greek mythological (Greek mythology) hero who led the Argonauts to Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. **Found among the Seducers, for his seduction and abandonment of '''Hypsipyle (#Hypsipyle)''' and '''Medea (#Medea)'''. '''Inf. XVIII, 83–99'''. **How he became an apostle is contrasted with the '''Simoniacs (#Simony)'''. '''Inf. XIX, 94–6'''. * Medea: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, she helped '''Jason (#Jason)''' get the Golden Fleece, but was abandoned by him. She took revenge by killing their two children. **For her also is Jason punished. '''Inf. XVIII, 96'''. Importance of ancient civilizations Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian (Colchis) people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair" Herodotus, ''History'', Book II. Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof (Wolof language) language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. C Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia – Caucasian Iberia - Caucasian Iberians – Caucasus Airlines – Chalybes – Chanturia, Giorgi (Giorgi Chanturia) – Chiaberashvili, Zurab (Zurab Chiaberashvili) – Chiatura – Chibirov, Ludwig (Ludwig Chibirov) – Chiburdanidze, Maia (Maia Chiburdanidze) – Chikobava, Arnold (Arnold Chikobava) – Chikvaidze, Aleksandr (Aleksandr Chikvaidze) – Chilashvili, Levan (Levan Chilashvili) – Cholokashvili, Kakutsa (Kakutsa Cholokashvili) – Choloki River – Chuburkhindji – Coat of Arms of Georgia – Colchis - Colchians – Commonwealth of Independent States – Communist Party of Abkhazia – Communist Party of Georgia – Constantine I of Imereti – Culture of Georgia (Culture of Georgia (country)) '''Anicetus''' was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman (Roman Empire) uprising in Polemonia in 69. Formerly a freedman of King Polemon II of Pontus (Polemon (Cilicia)), Anicetus commanded the royal fleet until Pontus was converted into a Roman province under Emperor Nero in 63. During the civil war (Year of the four emperors#Vitellius to Vespasian) following Nero’s death, Anicetus sided with Vitellius and led a general insurrection against Vespasian in Pontus and Colchis 69. The rebels destroyed the Roman fleet (Roman Navy) (''Classis Pontica'') in a sudden attack on Trapezus and then turned to piracy using a type of boat known as ''camarae''. Pompey in Command On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia (Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)) but was defeated. As Tigranes the Great now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and thence make his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey now marched against Tigranes, whose kingdom and authority were now severely weakened. Tigranes then sued for peace and met with Pompey to plead a cessation of hostilities. The Armenian Kingdom now became an allied client state of Rome. Mythology In Hellenistic astrology, the sign of the ram was mythologically associated with the golden winged ram that rescued Phrixos and his sister Helle (Helle (mythology)) from the altar where they were to be offered as a sacrifice to Zeus. The golden ram carried them to the land of Colchis but on the way Helle fell into the sea and drowned. When Phrixos arrived at Colchis he sacrificed the ram to Zeus and presented the golden fleece to his father-in-law, the King of Colchis. The fleece was then hung upon a sacred oak and guarded by a dragon until rescued by Jason and the Argonauts. The myth recounts that Zeus was so moved by the ram's fate that he gave it the greatest honour of being moved to the heavens. Marilyn Reid, ''Mythical Star Signs'', p.15. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 9781847536235. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. In the 1st century BC, after his defeat by Pompey in 63 BC, Mithradates VI (Mithradates VI of Pontus), King of Pontus, fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, viceroy of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father. Mithradates had Machares killed, and took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithradates then ordered conscription and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces II, his younger son, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates' Pontic army. Mithradates withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide the same year. Pompey the Great buried Mithradates in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, the old capital of Pontus. thumb 200px ''Heracles and Ladon'', Roman relief plate, late era. (Image:Herakles Ladon Staatliche Antikensammlungen SL89.jpg) '''Ladon''' (Greek (Greek language): Λάδων; gen (Genitive case).: Λάδωνος) was the serpent-like dragon that twined and twisted around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides (Hesperides) and guarded the golden apples (Golden apple). He was overcome by Heracles. Fifteen long years later, Jason and the Argonauts passed by on their chthonic return journey from Colchis and heard the lament of "shining" Aigle (Aegle (mythology)), one of the three Hesperides, and viewed the still-twitching Ladon. ''Argonautica'', Book IV. , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."
Heights skirmished the next day , but held their ground. Fischer, pp. 102–107 Rather than attempting to dislodge Washington from his strong position a second time, Howe again opted for a flanking maneuver. Landing troops with some opposition (Battle of Pell's Point) in October in Westchester County, he sought once again to encircle (encirclement) Washington. To defend against this move, Washington withdrew most of his army to White Plains, New York White Plains
By about 08:30 the 1st Light Horse had entered Bureir and around an hour later the 2nd Light Horse was approaching Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein's Eighth Army headquarters at El Huleikat. Here Ottoman soldiers were discovered to be occupying a strong position on high ground north-west of the village; the brigade made a dismounted attack capturing 600 prisoners along with large amounts of supplies, materiel and an abandoned German field hospital. ref group "Note
;. We risk charges of war crimes, Peres tells Cabinet. By Paul Peachey. ''The Independent''. Published 7 March 2002. The main leaders during the initial period were Fu'ad Nassar, Fahmi al-Salfiti and Fa'iq Warrad. The party gained influence amongst urban intellectuals in Nablus and Jerusalem. In particular, the party developed a strong
position in the Salfit village outside of Nablus, from where many prominent JCP leaders hailed. Other areas in which the party was active were Ramallah, Bethlehem and amongst refugees near Jericho. The main party organ was ''al-Muqawamah ash-Shabiya'' (المقاومة الشعبية, 'People's Resistance'), a monthly publication. Early life Born '''Adel Gharib Nasrallah''' in Palestine, Nash left the country after Israeli soldiers gunned down his brother-in-law in the street for unknown reasons and narrowly missed him. His family are Orthodox Christian Palestinians from the city of Ramallah, just outside Jerusalem. Running north to south, the Judaean mountains encompass West and East Jerusalem, Hebron, Bethlehem and Ramallah. The range forms a natural division between the Shephelah coastal plains to the west and the Jordan Rift Valley to the east. The Judaean Mountains were heavily forested in antiquity. The hills are composed of terra rossa soils (Terra rossa (soil)) over hard limestones. !-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: thumb Samiha Khalil Commons:Category:Ramallah (Image:SamihaKhalil.jpg)