Places Known For

strong criticism

Socialist Republic of Serbia

in particular were almost completely purged of Albanians Zoran Kusovac, "Another Balkan Bloodbath? Part One". ''Jane's Intelligence Review'', February 1998. There were numerous reports of extrajudicial beatings, torture and killings, attracting strong criticism from human rights groups and other countries. Ivana Nizich, "Human Rights Abuses in Kosovo 1990-1992". Human Rights Watch, October 1992<

State Political Directorate

; 1885, Pavlograd - March 22, 1925) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service, the ''INO'' of the GPU (State Political Directorate), from 1921 until May 1922, when he was sent to head the GPU in the South Caucasus region where had been involved in the suppression of the 1924 August Uprising in the Georgian SSR. He died in a plane crash near Tiflis (Tbilisi) in unclear circumstances. Mogilevsky was born to Jewish parents in Pavlograd. In 1903 he joined the RSDRP, and in 1904 Mogilevsky was arrested. In 1906 he left Russia for Switzerland where Mogilevsky met Vladimir Lenin who recommended him to be admitted into Bolshevik section of the party. At the outbreak of the World War I he returned to Russia and was a soldier on the front. Mogilevsky participated in the 1917 October Revolution. During the Russian Civil War he was appointed to various positions in the GPU (State Political Directorate). Since May 1922 Mogilevsky headed the Caucausian GPU and was responsible for intelligence in Iran and Turkey. He participated in stifling the August Uprising in Georgian SSR. Mogilevsky was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner in 1924 for his outstanding activities in the suppression of the uprising


their independence from commercial interests. In 1967 he became Minister of Education (Ministry of Education and Research (Sweden)), and the following year, he was the target of strong criticism from left-wing students protesting against the government's plans for university reform. The protests culminated with the occupation of the Student Union Building in Stockholm; Palme came there and tried to confornt the students, urging


, 2002) a book which was the target of strong criticism. In an article about the Aldington ''v.'' Tolstoy libel case, the British historian and friend of Harold Macmillan Alistair Horne wrote that : "Trying to weave a way through the tangled cobweb of truths, half-truths, and downright inaccuracies woven by Tolstoy proved to be one of the longest and most arduous tasks I have ever undertaken as a writer". Following the end of Russia's participation


was completely destroyed by the Russian forces in January 1996 in reaction to the large-scale Chechen hostage taking in Kizlyar (Kizlyar-Pervomayskoye hostage crisis) in Dagestan (more than 2,000 hostages), bringing strong criticism from this hitherto loyal republic and escalating domestic dissatisfaction. The Don Cossacks of southern Russia, originally sympathetic to the Chechen cause commons:Ингушетия

Etruscan civilization

aviles katacinas'', "I am of Avile Katacina", with an Etruscan-Latin first name (Aulus) and a family name that is believed to be of Celtic ("Catacos") origin. thumb Persius (File:Aulus Persius Flaccus.jpeg) '''Persius''', in full '''Aulus Persius Flaccus''' (Volterra, 34–62), was a Roman (Ancient Rome) poet and satirist of Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origin. In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic (Stoicism) wisdom and a strong criticism for the abuses of his contemporaries. His works, which became very popular in the Middle Ages, were published after his death by his friend and mentor the stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus. Pre-Roman era Before its settlement by the Romans, the area was populated by other peoples; specifically, most recently to the Roman settlement, the region on the right bank of the Po River between the Trebbia River and the Taro River had been occupied by the Ananes or Anamari, a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls. History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.


State Rail Authority State Rail Authority and RailCorp (Rail Corporation New South Wales) were questioned in regards to safety, training, a politically motivated focus on punctuality, management and workplace culture, with strong criticism from Justice Peter McInerny in his inquiries into the accidents at Glenbrook (Glenbrook train disaster) and Waterfall (Waterfall train disaster). Special Commission of Inquiry into the Waterfall Rail Accident, Final Report, Volume I, January


of daylight saving time , Kyiv Post (September 20, 2011) After strong criticism from the mass media, on 18 October 2011 the Ukrainian parliament cancelled its previous decision. Wikipedia:Republic of Moldova Commons:Category:Moldova Dmoz:Regional Europe Moldova


release from prison in 1956, he settled in Beirut, Lebanon, where in 1957 he and Syro-Lebanese poet Yusuf al-Khal founded the magazine ''Majallat Shi'r'' ("Poetry Magazine") that met with strong criticism as they published experimental poetry. Moreh, Shmuel. Modern Arabic Poetry 1800-1970: The Development of its Forms and Themes under the Influence of Western Literature. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976: 278-280; 285; 288. ''Majallat Shi’r'' ceased publication in 1964, and Adonis did not rejoin the ''Shi’r'' editors when they resumed publication in 1967. In Lebanon, his intense nationalistic feelings, reflecting pan-Arabism focused on the Arab peoples as a nation, found their outlet in the Beiruti newspaper ''Lisan al-Hal'' and eventually in his founding of another literary periodical in 1968 titled ''Mawaqif'', in which he again published experimental poetry. Snir, Reuven. “Mysticism and Poetry in Arabic Literature”. Orientalia Suecana XLIII-XLIV (1994-5) 165-175. V. Sufi Terms in the Service of Social Values, 171-3. Adonis's poems continued to express the poet’s nationalistic views combined with his mystical outlook. With his use of Sufi terms (the technical meanings of which were implied rather than explicit), Adonis became a leading exponent of the Neo-Sufi trend in modern Arabic poetry. This trend took hold in the 1970s. - Berytus Beirut, Lebanon - At the beginning of the twentieth century, the people of Ma'alul were tenants of the Sursuq family of Beirut, absentee landlords who had acquired the village lands earlier. In 1931 the Sursuqs sold all but 2,000 dunams of Ma'alul's land to the Zionist Palestine Land Development Company. The remaining 2,000 dunums were insufficient to support the village's population, so at the request of the Mandate (British Mandate of Palestine) government, the company agreed to lease an additional 3,000 dunams to the villagers until 1927. The villagers had the option to buy this land before the lease expired. On 6 June 1982, following an assassination attempt against its ambassador in London by the Abu Nidal Organization (Abu Nidal), Israeli forces under direction of Defense Minister Ariel Sharon invaded southern Lebanon in their "Operation Peace for the Galilee". They eventually reached as far north as the capital Beirut in an attempt to drive the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) forces out of the country. In Operation Peace for Galilee, which later became known as the First Lebanon War, Golani's 51st Battalion fought in the vicinity of Nabatieh, and on June 6, 1982, the reconnaissance unit attacked the PLO-held Beaufort Castle (Battle of the Beaufort (1982)). The 12th Battalion was subordinated to the Barak Armored Brigade, with a planned thrust along the Lebanese coastal strip to Tyre. This force captured the villages Doha (Doha, Lebanon) and Kafr Sil on June 9–10, 1982, on the outskirts of Beirut. The brigade also took part in the Siege of Beirut, where its units were present until the end of the war in September 1982. Foreign correspondent Jennings was determined to build his journalism credentials abroad. In 1968, he established ABC's Middle East bureau in Beirut, Lebanon, the first American television news bureau in the Arab world. "Peter Jennings". ''ABC News''. Retrieved on November 30, 2006. The next year, he demonstrated his growing expertise in Middle Eastern affairs with ''Palestine: New State of Mind'', a well-received half-hour documentary for ABC's ''Now'' news program. As ABC's Beirut bureau chief, Jennings soon became familiar with the intricacies of the Arab-Israeli conflict, including the rise of the Palestinian (Palestinian people) Black September Organization (Black September (group)) during the early 1970s. He conducted the first American television interview with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat. While stationed in the Lebanese capital, Jennings dated Palestinian activist Hanan Ashrawi, who was then a graduate student in literature at the American University in Beirut. Fenyvesi, Charles (December 30, 1991 January 6, 1992). "Washington whispers". ''US News & World Report'' through ''LexisNexis Academic'', p. 34. Retrieved on November 30, 2006. Vickers calculated that it would need to sell 80 VC10s at about £1.75 million each to break even so, apart from BOAC's 25 another 55 remained to be sold. Vickers offered a smaller version (the VC11) to BEA (British European Airways) for routes like those to Athens and Beirut but this was rejected in favour of the Hawker Siddeley Trident. The prototype Standard, G-ARTA, rolled out of the Weybridge (Brooklands) factory on 15 April 1962. On 29 June, after two months of ground, engine and taxi tests, it flew to Wisley for further testing. Green,1964. p. 228. By the end of the year two more had been flown to Wisley. A serious problem with drag appeared: to cure it Küchemann (Dietrich Küchemann) wingtips and "beaver tail" engine nacelle fairings were added and tested. Along with a reworking of the basal rudder segment (its scythe shape replaced by an angular design with an endplate for greater control effectiveness), this lengthened testing. The certification programme included visits to Nairobi, Khartoum, Rome, Kano, Aden, Salisbury (Harare)(Harare) and Beirut. A VC10 flew across the Atlantic to Montreal on 8 February 1964. Ghana Airways ordered three VC10s in January 1961: two to be fitted with a cargo door, known as Type 1102s. The first was delivered in November 1964 and the second in May 1965: the third was cancelled. Ghana Airways leased one aircraft to Tayaran Assharq Alawsat (Middle East Airlines; MEA), destroyed at Beirut during an Israeli raid in December 1968. The other was retired from service in 1980. MEA also leased the prototype aircraft that Vickers had kept until 1965, leased from Freddie (later Sir) Laker (Sir Freddie Laker)'s charter airline. Jackson 1988, p.233. Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside of the Mediterranean basin, such as Lisbon, Casablanca, Cape Town, Adelaide, Perth (Perth, Western Australia), Los Angeles, San Francisco, Santiago de Chile (Santiago) and Tashkent. Early life Burke was born in Townsville, and entered the army as a national serviceman in 1969. In a 25-year career, he rose to become Commanding Officer of the Darwin (Darwin, Northern Territory)-based 2nd Cavalry Regiment. His army career included a posting with the United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation (United Nations Truce Supervision Organization) (UNTSO) peacekeeping in the Middle East in 1984-85 (in Beirut, Lebanon and the Sinai (Sinai Peninsula) peninsula in Egypt). The historical content and the religious and political messages present have received praise and condemnation, sentiments and perceptions. John Harlow of the ''Times Online'' wrote that Christianity is portrayed in an unfavorable light and the value of Christian belief is diminished, especially in the portrayal of Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. John Harlow, "Christian right goes to war with Ridley's crusaders" web:http: tol news world article384742.ece When journalist Robert Fisk watched the film in a Beirut cinema, he reported that the Muslim audience rose to their feet and applauded wildly during a scene in the film in which Saladin respectfully places a fallen cross (christian cross) back on top of a table after it had fallen during the three-day siege of the city. Robert Fisk, "Kingdom of Heaven: Why Ridley Scott's Story Of The Crusades Struck Such A Chord In A Lebanese Cinema" web: UNA-USA's Programs The Global Classrooms program brings Model UN to urban public schools across the US and an array of schools around the world. The program is currently in ten American cities; Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York City, San Juan (San Juan, Puerto Rico), Tampa Bay, and Washington, DC, and fourteen international cities; Beijing, Beirut, Berlin, Cantabria, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, London, Madrid, Mexico City, New Delhi, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Tel Aviv, and Tokyo. Global Classrooms Model UN By 1990, 2 Airbus A320 (Airbus A320 family) aircraft were added to its fleet. During 1993-1998, Tunisair began to expand its services across Europe by starting flights to Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, Bratislava, Lisbon, Linz, Salzburg, Graz, Moscow, Beirut and Stockholm. Only Beirut and Stockholm are served by regular scheduled flights, Lisbon is seasonal. The rest are served by charter flights. The Moscow flight has been discontinued, even in charter. thumb Boeing 747-200 (File:Kuwait Airways Boeing 747-200 Wallner.jpg) in 1990. The Kuwait Airways Company was formed in 1954 during a time of rapid prosperity (History_of_Kuwait#1920s-1940s) for its nation. Kuwait Airways initially served a limited network of Abadan, Beirut, Damascus and Jerusalem. In its second year the fledgling carrier was facing economic hardship, and the government of Kuwait took a 50% interest in the airline, subsequently doubling the company's capital. The government later increased its shareholding to 100%. With leased Lockheed L-1011 Tristar (Lockheed L-1011) and Boeing 737 aircraft joining the fleet, by 1976, Gulf Air had expanded its route network to include Amman, Amsterdam, Athens, Baghdad, Bombay, Bangkok, Beirut, Cairo, Colombo, Delhi, Dhaka, Hong Kong, Jeddah, Karachi, Khartoum, Larnaca, Manila, Paris, Ras al-Khaimah and San‘a’. The fleet comprised four Vickers VC10, three BAC One-Elevens, two Lockheed L-1011 Tristar 200 (Lockheed L-1011)s, and five Boeing 737–200 (Boeing 737)s. Two years later, the airline doubled the Tristar fleet by replacing the VC10s. Meanwhile, the airline increased the Boeing 737 fleet to nine and phased out the One-Elevens. '''Jounieh''' (Arabic (Arabic language) جونيه, or '''Junia''', جونية) is a coastal city about

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