Fulani during the Fulani War in 1807. In 1903, the Emir, Abubakar dan Ibrahim, accepted British rule, which continued until Nigerian independence from Britain in 1960. During sub-Saharan trade, the city of Katsina was known to be one of the most vibrant and strong commercial centres, and was believed to be the strongest with the Hausa kingdoms in terms of commerce, trade and craft. The city's history of western-style education dates back to the early 1950s, when the first middle school in all of northern Nigeria was established. There are now several institutions of higher learning, including two universities: Umaru Musa Yar'adua University and the private Katsina University. The city of Katsina is also home to a famous 18th-century mosque featuring the Gobarau Minaret, a 50 foot tower made from mud and palm branches. Climate According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Katsina has a Semi-arid climate, abbreviated "Bsh" on climate maps. Climate Summary for Katsina
of the synagogue, believed to date from the middle of the 3rd century or early 4th century CE, reads: "Yosei son of Nahum built this. A blessing be upon him."
Although they were clearly preceded by the Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmaq people) and Acadian peoples, credit for the first permanent white settlement at Miramichi is often granted to Scottish settlers, led by William Davidson (William Davidson (lumberman)). William Davidson (a.k.a. John Godsman) and John Cort had obtained a large grant encompassing much of the Miramichi region in 1765, and promoted the area in both Scotland and New England as a new home to potential settlers. American Revolution and Battle at Miramichi (1779) At the beginning of the American Revolution the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet were supportive of the Americans against the British. They participated in the Maugerville Rebellion (Maugerville, New Brunswick) and the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776. Three years later, in June 1779, Mi’kmaq in the Miramichi attacked and plundered some of the British in the area. The following month, British Captain Augustus Harvey, in command of HMS ''Viper'', arrived in the area and battled with the Mi’kmaq. One Mi’kmaq was killed and 16 were taken prisoner to Quebec. The prisoners were eventually brought to Halifax, where they were later released upon signing an oath of allegiance to the British Crown on 28 July 1779. http: www.biographi.ca 009004-119.01-e.php?id_nbr 2486; Sessional papers, Volume 5 By Canada. Parliament July 2 – September 22, 1779; Wilfred Brenton Kerr. The Maritime Provinces of British North America and the American Revolution. p. 96 After the battle, Davidson temporarily found refuge along the Saint John River (Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)). A subsequent treaty signed 22 September 1779 ensured a more peaceful coexistence. Following the American Revolution some loyalist (Loyalist (American Revolution)) families moved to Miramichi. Davidson's original grant was revoked, and competition for the best lands escalated tensions between the early Scottish and new loyalist settlers. Great Miramichi Fire of 1825 See full article here (Miramichi Fire), a large forest fire that was one of worst in recorded history in North America. Devastated a number of communities in northern New Brunswick. Irish immigration (1815–1850) The Irish began arriving in Miramichi in numbers after 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic War and with a few exceptions ceased coming to the area before the great Irish famine of 1847. They came to the area voluntarily to better their lives. Contrary to prevailing belief, not all of them were Catholic though very few Protestants among them identified openly as Irish and most of their descendants in Miramichi do not do so even to this day. Most arrived form the ports of Belfast and Cork each of which had strong commercial ties with Miramichi. Like the Scots they came on timber ships as individuals or in small family groups and the average age upon arrival was twenty-four. There was some chain emigration whereby additional family members joined the emigrant later but this was minimal. The Miramichi River valley was not settled by large transplantations of Scottish clans or large scale movements of starving and evicted Irish. Though there are one or two interesting exceptions. In 1815 after trade had developed with Newfoundland, Miramichi was surprised and shaken by the arrival of the so-called "Two Boaters", perhaps as many as 2000. These were the Irish who had taken advantage of cheap fares to St.Johns in the spring and summer of 1815. They were mostly poor laborers and farmers and it seems that initially they settled mainly in the Chatham Douglastown area. With no prospect of obtaining a land grant jobs in the woods or in the mills were the only means of getting established. Most of them were able to get at least temporary employment upon arrival, but it was short lived. In 1819 a sharp decline in timber prices resulted in massive layoffs in Miramichi including most of the "Two Boat" Irish of the Chatham area. Following their grueling experience in St. Johns and now unemployed they became disenchanted by their new found misery so many miles from home. They began to create disturbances in the village of Chatham. Violent outrages were committed in broad daylight, property was stolen and in the worst cases houses and barns were burned to the ground. The people of the area soon dubbed then "those uncivilized immigrants from Ireland", whom local magistrates were powerless to control. But the Irish were not the only troublemakers along the river at that time. They were often mistakenly blamed for outrageous disturbances caused by unruly sailors idling about the port during the spring and summer months. These idle sailors whooped it up at Miramichi particularly on Sundays when the taverns were closed but often the Irish got the blame. In 1822 a detachment of the 78th regiment stationed in Fredericton was temporarily sent to Chatham to keep the peace. But it was not the soldiers of 78th regiment who quieted the Irish. It took an improved economy, jobs and new found opportunity to do the trick. The Looshtauk Tragedy (1847) Unlike the ports of Quebec, Saint John, St Andrews, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Charleston and New Orleans, Miramichi did not receive large numbers of destitute and starving Irish during the famine years. Fewer than four so-called coffin ships made it to Miramichi between 1844 and 1849 with less than three hundred people on board. They were ships plying to Quebec with sick and dying passengers, stricken with cholera and other diseases. They diverted to 'Miramichi in desperation and on arrival were quarantined at Middle Island where they were treated in appalling conditions. There was great fear of them and some Miramichers including the Irish referred to them as ``yellow mealers` believing all they had had to eat was corn. The arrival of the famine ship Looshtauk on June 2, 1847, was a major tragedy at Miramichi. She left Liverpool for Quebec with 462 passengers on board. During the first two weeks at sea more than 100 died of sickness and the majority of the crew contracted severe fever and were unfit for duty. With only a few able seamen available to man the ship and few other options, the captain headed to the nearest port - Miramichi. When news of the dire conditions on board became known she was forbidden by the port authorities to dock even at Middle Island. The captain could not get permission to land the sick and dying or to bury the dead for over six days in which further severe anguish and the loss of forty more lives occurred. The arrival of two more famine ships the Richard White and the Bolivar further exacerbated the problem. The authorities finally but reluctantly constructed temporary shelters on the island and allowed the sick passengers and crew to land. A further fifty or so people died in the makeshift facilities provided, including the young Chatham doctor John Vondy who volunteered to stay full-time to administer to the sick and dying and within a few days succumbed to the fever himself. The Irish in the 1870s and 1880s By the 1870s the Irish were well established in Miramichi and by this decade less than 20% of them were recent immigrants. In total they represented forty percent of the population of the region spread fairly evenly over the entire Miramichi watershed. Eighty percent were Catholic and only the upriver parish of Ludlow had a Protestant Irish majority. By the 1880s they controlled 15% of businesses and professions in the town of Chatham and probably the same number in Newcastle. However the majority were still listed as skilled and unskilled workers. Industry and politics (1765–1850) thumb 200px Rankin House, former home of Miramichi lumber baron (File:Rankin House.jpg) Alexander Rankin at Douglastown (IR Walker 1983) Although subsistence farming constituted one part of the new settlement's economy, the thin, acid soils of the Miramichi were not conducive to agriculture; thus, the lumber industry and Atlantic salmon fishery were the mainstays. A shipbuilding industry was established by Davidson in 1773, largely to facilitate overseas lumber exports, including masts for the British navy, and to provide winter employment for the men. Davidson's first ship, "Miramichi", was lost with her cargo off the Spanish coast. Miramichi benefited greatly from the Napoleonic wars and American independence, as Britain became dependent on its remaining North American colonies, including New Brunswick, for lumber. However, the Great Miramichi Fire of 1825, the advent of steel-hulled ships, and perhaps over-cutting of eastern white pine, would eventually contribute to a long-term decline in the area's economy. The Miramichi Fire burnt almost 1 4 of New Brunswick's forest, and consumed most of the buildings along the northern side of the river. Only 12 buildings remained in Newcastle. The towns of Newcastle and Chatham developed a long history of rivalry, including a small "war" fought between the communities ("the fighting election of 1843"). The 1843 election was fought on a political level between John T. Williston of Chatham (supported by local entrepreneur Joseph Cunard of Chatham, brother of Samuel Cunard) and John Ambrose Street of Newcastle (backed by the prominent lumber baron, Alexander Rankin of Douglastown). The Rankin and Cunard factions literally fought the election in the streets of Newcastle (Newcastle, New Brunswick) and Chatham (Chatham, New Brunswick) with sticks, stones, coal and other missiles. Railway (1875–1950) In 1875 the region's largest construction project in history was completed when the federal government's Intercolonial Railway (ICR) opened between Moncton and Campbellton (Campbellton, New Brunswick). The following year it would link Halifax (Halifax Regional Municipality) with Rivière-du-Loup and the Canadian railway network. One of the biggest geographic obstacles presented in the project was the crossing of the Miramichi River. Surveyors deemed the ideal location for bridging to be at the upper reaches of tidewater between Nelson (Nelson, New Brunswick) and Newcastle (Newcastle, New Brunswick), crossing the Southwest Miramichi (Southwest Miramichi River), then a short section of land at Derby, followed by the Northwest Miramichi (Northwest Miramichi River). The combined length of these bridges would be among the largest constructed to date in Canada (surpassed only by the Victoria Bridge (Victoria Bridge (Montreal)) in Montreal) and were the first
region:CA-ON_type:city_scale:50000 name Kenora format dec - *Portage la Prairie, Manitoba *Rat Portage (Kenora), Ontario *Seton Portage, British Columbia History The name ''Warroad'' seems to come from the practice of Indian tribes using the location, which is now the town, as a route to war upon each other. In the 20th century, the town had a strong commercial fishing industry, which gradually turned to sport fishing and tourism. For many years
the island against Antigonos. Ptolemy lost Cyprus to Demetrios Poliorketes in 306 and 294 BC, but after that it remained under Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic dynasty) rule till 58 BC. It was ruled by a governor from Egypt and sometimes formed a minor Ptolemaic kingdom during the power-struggles of the 2nd and 1st centuries. Strong commercial relationships with Athens and Alexandria, two of the most important commercial centres of antiquity, developed. Carthage Carthage was founded in 814 BC (810s BC) by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre (Tyre (Lebanon)), bringing with them the city-god (tutelary deity) Melqart. As recounted by Timaeus, FrGrH 566, fr. 60. Archaeological attestation for so early a date is still wanting, though recent discoveries in situ may point nearly as far back in time. Ancient Carthage was an informal hegemony of Phoenician city-states throughout North Africa and modern Spain from 575 BC until 146 BC. It was more or less under the control of the city-state of Carthage after the fall of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) to Babylonian forces. At the height of the city's influence, its empire included most of the western Mediterranean. The empire was in a constant state of struggle with the Roman Republic, which led to a series of conflicts known as the Punic Wars. After the third and final Punic War (Third Punic War), Carthage was destroyed then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the territory held by Carthage fell into Roman hands. Antiquity Acre is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites (List of cities by time of continuous habitation) in the region. For this reason, early Christian baptistries (Baptismal font) and tombs typically were shaped as octagons. The practice of octaves was first introduced under Constantine I, when the dedication festivities of the basilicas at Jerusalem and Tyre, Lebanon were observed for eight days. After these one-off occasions, annual liturgical feasts began to be dignified with an octave. The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)). This occurred in the fourth century and served as a period of time for the newly baptized to take a joyful retreat. "Octave", ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' Margaritus first appears as a leader of the fleet alongside Tancred, then just count of Lecce, which took Cephalonia and the Ionian Islands in 1185 and then harassed Isaac Comnenus (Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus)' Cyprus and captured many of his ships, taking them back to Sicily. In Autumn 1187, King William sent him with a fleet to the Holy Land, where, on 2 October, Saladin had captured Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (1187)). Margaritus, with 60 ships and 200 knights, patrolled the Palestine coast constantly, preventing Saladin from taking any of the vital seaports of the Latin crusader kingdom (Kingdom of Jerusalem). In July 1188, he arrived at Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) and forced Saladin to raise the siege of Krak des Chevaliers. Something similar happened at Marqab, Latakia, and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in the following year. On 11 November 1189, William died and his fleet returned. On 4 October 1190, Margaritus, the ''strategos'' Jordan du Pin, and many other nobles of Messina were forced to flee when Richard the Lion-Hearted, king of England, sacked the city and burnt it. Margaritus took little part thereafter in the Third Crusade. *It is metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians (w:Phoenicians) of Tyre (w:Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon (w:Sidon) obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles (w:British Isles). In Ezek (w:Book of Ezekiel) (27:12_ it is said to have been brought from Tarshish (w:Tarshish), which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa (w:Book of Isaiah) (1:25) the word so rendered is generally understood of lead (w:Pead), the alloy with which the silver had become mixed. The fire of the Babylonish Captivity (w:Babylonish Captivity) would be the means of purging out the idolatrous (w:Idolatrous) alloy that had corrupted the people. **In Bible Dictionary quoted in Dictionary in: "tin".
Provincial civil servants as well as the Saint John Law Society. The parent institution of the King's College Law School was King's College (University of King's College) which was located at that time in Windsor, Nova Scotia; Windsor, a port located on the Bay of Fundy, had developed strong commercial connections with Saint John during the 19th century. '''CHSJ-FM''' is a radio station at 94.1 MHz on the FM (FM radio) dial in Saint John, New Brunswick. The station plays country music under the '''Country 94''' branding. CHSJ is owned by Acadia Broadcasting, a subsidiary of Ocean Capital Investments. '''CJYC-FM''' is a Canadian radio station broadcasting from Saint John, New Brunswick at 98.9 MHz. It is owned and operated by the Maritime Broadcasting System. 98.9 Big John FM plays "EVERYTHING THAT ROCKS" and, was known as '''C98''' until August 2006. '''CIOK-FM''', better known as '''K100''', is an FM (Frequency Modulation) radio station broadcasting in the Greater Saint John (Saint John, New Brunswick) area of New Brunswick, Canada. The station currently carries a contemporary hit radio format programmed from sister station, CKCW-FM in Moncton. Prior to July 2009, it aired an Adult Contemporary format until changing to contemporary hit radio.
. Retrieved 10 September 2006. A History of American Football until 1889. Retrieved
accessdate 2008-10-16 first Andrew last Jacobs Approximately 60 persons had settled in the Manhattan area before the British take-over in 1664. How many Norwegians that settled in New Netherland (the area up the Hudson River to Fort Oranje (Fort Orange (New Netherland))—now Albany (Albany, New York)) is not known. The Netherlands (and especially Amsterdam and Hoorn) had strong commercial ties with the coastal lumber trade of Norway during the 17th century and many Norwegians emigrated to Amsterdam. Some of them settled in Dutch colonies, although never in large numbers. (For further reading, see for example J.H. Innes, ''New Amsterdam and its people''.) There were also Norwegian settlers in Pennsylvania in the first half of the 18th century, and in upstate New York in the latter half of the same century. Commons:Category:Manhattan, New York City WikiPedia:Manhattan Dmoz:Regional North America United States New York Localities N New York City Manhattan
. - Following the death of Alexander, the islands, and even Rhodes itself, were split up among the many generals who contended to succeed him. The islands formed strong commercial ties with the Ptolemies in Egypt, and together they formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance which controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC. Led by Rhodes, the islands developed into maritime, commercial and cultural centers: coins of Rhodes circulated almost everywhere in the Mediterranean, and the islands' schools of philosophy, literature and rhetoric were famous. The Colossus of Rhodes, built in 304 BC, perhaps best symbolized their wealth and power. Muslims occupied Jerusalem in the 7th Century (637 CE) under the second caliph, Umar Ibn al-Khattab who annexed it to the Islamic Arab Empire (Rashidun Caliphate). He granted its inhabitants an assurance treaty. After the siege of Jerusalem, Sophronius (Sophronius of Jerusalem) welcomed `Umar because, according to biblical prophecies allegedly known to the church (Christian Church) in Jerusalem, "a poor, but just and powerful man" will rise to be a protector and an ally to the Christian (Christian (word))s of Jerusalem. Sophronius believed that `Umar, a great warrior who led an austere life, was a fulfillment of this prophecy. In the account by the Patriarch of Alexandria, Eutychius (Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria), it is said that `Umar paid a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and sat in its courtyard. When the time for prayer arrived, however, he left the church and prayed outside the compound, in order to avoid having future generations of Muslims use his prayer there as a pretext for converting the church into a mosque. Eutychius adds that `Umar also wrote a decree which he handed to the Patriarch, in which he prohibited that Muslims gather in prayer at the site. The Holy Sepulchre - first destructions and reconstructions In 1099 Jerusalem was captured by the Western Christian army of the First Crusade and remained in their hands until recaptured by the Arab Muslims led by Saladin, on October 2, 1187. He summoned the Jews and permitted them to resettle in the city. In 1219 the walls of the city were razed by Mu'azzim Sultan of Damascus; in 1229, by treaty with Egypt, Jerusalem came into the hands of Frederick II of Germany (Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor). In 1239 he began to rebuild the walls; but they were again demolished by Da'ud, the emir of Kerak. In 1243 Jerusalem came again under the control of the Christians, and the walls were repaired. The Kharezmian Tatars took the city in 1244 and Sultan Malik al-Muattam razed the city walls, rendering it again defenseless and dealing a heavy blow to the city's status. 100px thumb Suleiman I 1530 (File:EmperorSuleiman.jpg) He crossed the sea on Michaelmas Day (Michaelmas) 1322; had traversed by way of Turkey (Asia Minor (Anatolia)), Armenia the Little (Cilicia) and the Great, Tartary, Persia (Persian Empire), Syria, Arabia (Arabian Peninsula), Egypt upper and lower, Libya, great part of Ethiopia, Chaldea, Amazonia (Amazons), India the Less, the Greater and the Middle, and many countries about India; had often been to Jerusalem, and had written in Romance as more generally understood than Latin. Representation of some genuine experience Even in that part of the book which might be supposed to represent some genuine experience there are the plainest traces that another work has been made use of, more or less - we might almost say as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight Wilhelm von Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord (Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord, Bishop of Auxerre). A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt that the latter has followed its thread, though digressing on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. We may indicate as examples Boidensele's account of Cyprus, of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and the coast of Palestine, of the journey from Gaza to Egypt, passages about Babylon of Egypt (Babylon Fortress), about Mecca, the general account of Egypt, the pyramids (Giza pyramid complex), some of the wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of paradise, i.e. plantains, the Red Sea, the convent on Sinai (Sinai Peninsula), the account of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, etc. * André Sogliuzzo is credited as Angel in ''X-Men Legends'', but is not seen. Angel was originally intended to be a playable character, but he was cut for unknown reasons. * Dave Wittenberg voices Angel in ''X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse''. Angel shows up as the scout for the different areas that are visited until he is captured by Apocalypse (Apocalypse (comics)) and turned into Archangel. After fighting him as Archangel, the player follows Apocalypse to Egypt for the game's climax. In stage 5, it is mentioned that his mind and body are changed by Mister Sinister's drugs. Though Professor X says that Angel will recover from the mind-control drugs, it is unknown if Angel will recover from the body-altering drugs and turn back to his natural form. Archangel has special dialogue with Jean Grey. * Angel has a cameo appearance in Magneto's ending in the video game ''Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds''. Warren joins Magneto and other mutants in Magneto's new space station, which was formerly the home of Galactus. He is seen wearing his costume from ''Uncanny X-Men'' #412. Between 1830 and 1835 he helped Mohammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt), founder of modern Egypt, to establish a Navy. Here Light met Rear Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, who served under him and succeeded him as captain of the ''Nile''. Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
single in three years, titled Do It to It. The single featured Sean P on guest vocals. The single was met to a positive critical reception, as well as a strong commercial reception. The single was met with a large amount of success in the US, charting on several Billboard (Billboard (magazine)) charts. The single became their first to reach the top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100, when it peaked at number 12. http: www.awcbee.com 2008 03 24 28 The single was also success on the Pop 100 chart, where it peaked at number 9, as well as the Hot R&B Hip Hop Songs chart, reaching a peak of number 10 on that chart. The single also was a major hit in New Zealand, peaking at number 3 on the official singles chart. It also reached the top 10 in Japan, reaching a peak of number 10 on the chart. The song also climbed to the top 40 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, peaking at number 30 and 34 respectively. The song also charted in countries such as Australia, peaking at number 67, Germany, peaking at number 87, and France, reaching a peak of number 48. Wikipedia:New Zealand Commons:Category:New Zealand Dmoz:Regional Oceania New Zealand