Russian : Ста́рая Ру́сса, STAH-rah-yuh ROOH-suh) is a small, historic town in the centre of Novgorod Oblast, long famous domestically for its balneologic mineral waters resort, but much more famous among international travellers as Dostoyevsky's summer retreat, and the basis for the fictional town of Skotoprigonievsk in '''''The Brothers Karamazov'''''. Understand Staraya Russa is one of the oldest cities in Russia, founded in the tenth century as one of the principal cities of the then-powerful and wealthy trading nation of the Novgorod Republic. It gained greatly in prestige with the establishment of the Monastery of the Transfiguration in the twelfth century. Its salt works made it the regional leader in salt and brine production, driving its economy, and leading to the growth of the town to nearly 5,000 inhabitants by the fifteenth century, when it was incorporated along with Novgorod into the Princedom of Muscovy. Owing to its northwestern location, Staraya Russa has seen many battles. Well after its wooden walls had been burnt down and later replaced by stone fortifications, the town fought bloody battles against Swedish invaders for centuries, but the most devastating years of its history would come after the reign of Ivan the Terrible, during the Russian ''Time of Troubles'' in the early seventeenth century. Until the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty, the surrounding area was under the control of armed gangs and brigands, and the once-important city dwindled to a mere 38 people. Over time Staraya Russa recovered, but its fate as a town on the invasion route would come back to haunt it one last time in the twentieth century, when Hitler's forces invaded during WWII and virtually levelled the historic town. Despite the destruction throughout the years, though, many old wooden houses (including the Dostoevsky residence) and several important churches remain intact, and other institutions, like the balneologic resort, have been rebuilt. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the town's population is shrinking (along with the rest of rural Russia), and feels a sleepy backwater—actually, a great change of pace for travellers who have been spending most of their time in Saint Petersburg or Moscow. The residential areas near the rivers are quite peaceful, the locals are friendly and laid-back, and there is a lot to see with all the Dostoevsky sights. Better still, despite the Dostoevsky connection, the place is pretty much devoid of any international travellers outside of the high tourist season in summer, so you'll have the place to yourself. Get in thumb 451px (Image:Staraya Russa map.png) Transport connections to Staraya Russa are somewhat limited. The city is best visited as a side trip from Novgorod, or as a detour stopover on the way from Moscow (or Valday) to Pskov or Novgorod. By train * WikiPedia:Staraya Russa Commons:Category:Staraya Russa
— the region's third largest city is most notable for its grandiose Resurrection Cathedral, built to commemorate Russia's victory over Napoleon in 1812 * Balakhna — a small historic city with several noteworthy architectural monuments, including the 16th century Saint Nicholas Church * Bogorodsk — a small town with a pretty, well-preserved central square and cathedral, as well as several 19th century estates outside the town that have been converted into parks * Bolshoe Boldino — a historic village that served as the estate of one very famous A.S. Pushkin; the village now has several worthwhile museums dedicated to the poet and hosts the All-Russia Poetry Prize Festival each year on the first Sunday of June * Bor — you can see this city while looking across the Volga from Nizhny Novgorod's downtown. Center of ship-building and glass-making industry * Dzerzhinsk — the region's second largest city is one of the world's most polluted, due to its history as a major chemicals production site, and has life expectancies of less than 50 years for both men and women; the city was until very recently closed to foreigners, but is now open for those who wish to see its singular and towering hyperboloid Shukhov Tower on the banks of the Oka River * Kstovo — a small Soviet-era industrial city (petrochemicals), which grew out of on an old village of the same name. Kstovo is home to the World Sambo Academy; an important 18th-century church is in the adjacent village of Veliky Vrag * Gorodets — an 850 year old historic town, founded by Prine Yuriy Dolgorukiy, which unfortunately lost a number of churches to atheistic campaigns under the USSR, but fortunately retains some wonderful fairytale-like wooden houses. * Sarov — a small closed city, formerly a secret city known as Arzamas-16, which serves as a major center for Russia (and the USSR's) nuclear program, has rather European architecture since it was built by German POWs, and is located near the holy Sarova monastery; in reference to the US nuclear program at Los Alamos, researchers here fondly call the city "Los Arzamas" Other destinations * Kerzhensky Nature Reserve * Makaryevsky Monastery — a huge and beautiful monastery on the Volga River, which is easily reached by a summer 3 hour long hydrofoil from Nizhny Novgorod Understand Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is one of the most populous and economically important regions of the Volga Region, centered on its capital Nizhny Novgorod. Aside from the capital itself, the region is perhaps best known outside of Russia for its tradition of making painted, wooden matryoshka dolls. Less known, perhaps, are Khokhloma handicraft. Talk See Russian phrasebook. Get in The city of Nizhny Novgorod is one of the first major stops from Moscow on one of the main routes of the Trans-Siberian Railway (8 hour trip). Several trains form Moscow terminate in Nizhny Novgorod (two overnight trains and one or two faster day trains). Many others continue beyond, to Kirov, Perm, Yekaterinburg, and points east, up to Vladivostok and Beijing. Some of these trains also stop at a number of other stations as they cross the oblast, e.g. Dzerzhinsk before reaching the Nizhny, or Semenov beyond it. These trains usually leave from Moscow's Kursk Station or Yaroslavl Station. There is also a direct daily train to Nizhny Novgorod from Saint Petersburg, and, at least during the summer seasons, from a number of destinations on the Black Sea shore, such as Adler (for Sochi). Trains from Nizhny Novgorod also travel south, to from Saransk (Mordovia) and Kazan (via the Kanash junction in Chuvashia. Some cities in southern part of the oblast (Navashino, Arzamas, Sergach) are easily reachable by trains running on another route (Moscow-Kazan) of the Trans-Siberian system. They leave from Moscow's Kazan Station. Nizhny Novgorod's small and idiosyncratic Strigino airport has expensive direct flights to from Frankfurt on Lufthansa, as well as far cheaper domestic flights from major Russian cities—the flight from Moscow is as cheap as $35. Kaliningrad based KD Avia offers flights to Kaliningrad and then on to a number of Russian and international destinations. The airport is served by several city bus lines (in daytime only). One can take any of these buses to get to the nearest subway lines, and then take subway to wherever it goes. Nizhny Novgorod is frequently included as a stop on summer boat cruises on the Volga River. Get around Train The main train station in Nizhny Novgorod is the Moscow Station (''Московский Вокзал''), located in the Lower City (''Zarechnaya Chast'', i.e. across the Oka River from the old city center). Besides serving all of the long-distance trains, it is also sends commuter trains in 6 directions throughout much of the oblast: * west (the Moscow line), to Dzerzhinks, Seima (for Volodarsk) and points west toward Vladimir. * north-east (the Kirov line), to Semenov, Shakhunya etc. * south (the Arazamas line), to Arzamas, from where some continnue east toward Sergach. * north-west (the Zavolzhye branch), to Balakhna and Zavolzhye (for Gorodets). * south-west (the Metallist branch), to Bogorodsk and Metallist (for Pavlovo). Naturally, if you are going to a more remote city in the oblast (e.g. Arzamas or Lukoyanov in the south-east, or Shakhunya in the north), you can also buy a ticket for a long-distance train that passes through it. This will be much more expensive, though. There is also a little known terminal station of Myza, near Gagarin Avenue in the Upper City of Nizhny Novgorod (i.e., east of the Oka). Inconveniently located several miles south of the city center, it only sends a few trains a day to the Metallist branch and to the Zeletsino branch (south-east), for Kstovo. Southern part of the oblast is served by the Moscow-Kazan railway, with stations in Navashino, Arzamas, Sergach, etc. Bus There is no rail line due east of Nizhny Novgorod. Instead, one can take a bus along the M7 highway (the Kazan highway). Commuter buses for Kstovo and other destinations nearby go from the Sennaya bus station a few blocks east of Sennaya Square; to go further east, take a bus from the Main Bus Station (''Avtovokzal'') near Lyadov Square. One can also take a bus from the Main Bus Station to various points throughout the southern half of the oblast, e.g. Arzamas. Buses to the west (toward Moscow), northwest (Chkalovsk), and north (Bor) run mostly from a bus station near Nizhny Novgorod's Moscow Station. Boat In the summer, hydrofoil boats (colloquially known as ''Raketa'', after the first model of them) used to run from Nizhny Novgorod's River Terminal (''Rechnoy Vokzal'') down the Volga, to Rabotki, Makaryevo, and beyond. Unfortunately, by 2010, most of these services have been cancelled. Ferryboats from downtown Nizhny Novgorod run to Bor across the river (very frequent service). There is also much less frequent service (half a dozen trips a day) between Lyskovo and Marakyevo, providing easy access to Makaryev Monastery. Both systems transport passengers and vehicles. Aerial ropeway A unique installation for central Russia, an aerial ropeway spans the Volga, connecting Nizhny Novgorod with Bor. The scenic service is very frequent, although somewhat pricey for such a short distance (80 RUR, as of 2014). See Itineraries Do Eat Drink Stay safe Go next Russia's Golden Ring is nearby and its prominent attractions at Vladimir and Suzdal can be daytripped from Nizhny Novgorod by bus. The next major stops on the Trans-Siberian Railway are Vladimir to the west and Kirov to the east. commons:category:Nizhny Novgorod Oblast wikipedia:Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Loyalists in 1800, starting with Zacharias Burtch and Levi Luddington, Local History. City.woodstock.on.ca. Retrieved on 2013-07-24. and became a town in 1851. Since then, Woodstock has maintained steady growth, and is now one of the largest cities in Southwestern Ontario. As a small historic city, Woodstock is one of the few cities in Ontario to still have all of its original
-crh Sudaq ; to the east of Simferopol, the capital (Capital (political)) of Crimea. Today it is a popular resort, best known for its Genoese (Republic of Genoa) fortress, the best preserved on the northern shore of the Black Sea. *Lviv - Lviv International Airport
of the neighboring Schwäbische Alb to the east. To the west it borders to Bavaria and the meteor crater Nördlinger Ries. '''Giengen''' (full name: '''Giengen an der Brenz''') is a historic city in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is situated in the district of Heidenheim (Heidenheim (district)), north-east of Ulm, at the southern foot of the Swabian Alb. '''Pfullendorf''' is a small historic city in the district of Sigmaringen (Sigmaringen (district)) in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. '''Wangen im Allgäu''' is a historic city in southeast Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It lies north-east of Lake Constance in the Westallgäu. It is the second-largest city (Population: 27,157 in 2005) in the Ravensburg (Ravensburg (district)) district and is a nexus (wikt:nexus) for the surrounding communities. From 1938 to 1972, Wangen was the county seat of the Wangen rural district.
kulturhistorisches Bild''. Druckerei Appelhaus, 1928 The German Timber-Frame Road (''Deutsche Fachwerkstraße'') is a tourist route that links places containing picturesque half-timbered buildings. It is more than 2 000 km long and stretches across the states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Hesse, Thuringia, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. '''Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt''' was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia
cities in Latin America. Historic riches—its well preserved historic quarter has a good claim to be the original capital of Spanish colonial South America, as the capital of the vast New Kingdom of Granada, placed strategically close to mythical El Dorado. Artistic riches—the small historic quarter alone is home to dozens of experimental theaters, and diverse art galleries dot the most popular neighborhoods pressed against the dramatic Eastern Andes peaks. Culinary riches—its several dining
Colleges . It is located to the south of Carlow, Ireland (Republic of Ireland) on Kilkenny Road. It was the first such college announced and located in 1964. Mulcahy, D.G. (1981) Curriculum and Policy in Irish Post Primary Education, Institute of Public Administration, Dublin '''Ferns''' ( The bomb was found on the side of a road near the village of Forkhill (w:Forkhill) in County Armagh (w:County Armagh), Northern Ireland (w:Northern Ireland), close to the border with the Republic of Ireland (w:Republic of Ireland). It was defused by an expert bomb disposal team from the Irish Army (w:Irish Army). The explosives were home-made and weighed 600 lb (270 kg). It is believed that the bomb was planted there by dissident republicans. On Saturday, 67% of Irish (w:Republic of Ireland) voters favored the European Union's (w:European Union) (EU) Lisbon Treaty (w:Treaty of Lisbon) which now requires approval from the presidents of the Czech Republic (w:Czech Republic) and Poland (w:Poland) for ratification (w:ratification). A car, thought to have been used for the get-away, has been found burnt out just over the border in the Republic of Ireland (w:Republic of Ireland). Mr Kee and the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs Micheál Martin (w:Micheál Martin) have asked for any witnesses to contact the Gardai (w:Gardai) or the PSNI immediately.
status as a Free City and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria; it later changed hands in 1810 to the Kingdom of Württemberg. '''Bad Windsheim''' is a small historic city in Bavaria, Germany. It lies in the district Neustadt an der Aisch - Bad Windsheim, west of Nuremberg. '''Dinkelsbühl''' is a historic city in Bavaria, Germany and a former Free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Now it belongs to the district of Ansbach (Ansbach (district)), north of Aalen. In June 1941, Schulhoff was deported to the Wülzburg concentration camp, near Weißenburg (Weißenburg in Bayern), Bavaria. He died on 18 August 1942 from tuberculosis. Commons:Category:Bayern WikiPedia:Bavaria Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Bavaria