Places Known For

showing religious


Burkina Faso

capital Gao and the well-known city of Timbuktu. Its inclusion in the Nilo-Saharan family is controversial, however. Duality and bisexuality are also found in the shamans of Burkina Faso (Africa). References to this can be found in several works of Malidoma Somé, a writer who was born and initiated there. thumb 300px A map showing religious distribution in Africa. (Image:Religion distribution Africa crop.png) Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian (Christianity), while North Africa is predominantly Muslim (Islam). However, there are Muslim majorities in the Sahel and Sudan regions (Sudan (region)) and along the East African coast (Muslim majorities in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Somalia; comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in Chad, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Eritrea). Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 9780852299562 p. 306 Southern Africa is predominately Christian however. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid 1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. Traditional African religions can be broken into down linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages)-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun (West African Vodun), and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages) speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages)-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0815605226 Khoisan religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. '''Togo''', officially the '''Togolese Republic'''


Chad

publisher UNHCR date 2007-07-11 accessdate 2010-05-23 thumb 300px A map showing religious distribution in Africa. (Image:Religion distribution Africa crop.png) Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian (Christianity), while North Africa is predominantly Muslim (Islam). However, there are Muslim majorities in the Sahel and Sudan regions (Sudan (region)) and along the East African coast (Muslim majorities in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Somalia; comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in Chad, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Eritrea). Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 9780852299562 p. 306 Southern Africa is predominately Christian however. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid 1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. Traditional African religions can be broken into down linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages)-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun (West African Vodun), and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages) speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages)-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0815605226 Khoisan religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. Senegal has acted as a mediator between Sudan and Chad over the crisis in Darfur. WikiPedia:Chad Dmoz:Regional Africa Chad Commons:Category:Chad


Niger

Commons:Category:Niger Wikipedia:Niger Dmoz:Regional Africa Niger


Mali

Malik ibn Anas (died 795) Student of the imam Abu Hanifah's eldest student, Muhammad, Malik ibn Anas developed his ideas in Medina. His doctrine is recorded in the Muwatta (Muwatta Imam Malik) which has been adopted by most North African and West African countries like Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Mali, Nigeria and others except Egypt, Horn of Africa and Sudan. Also, the Maliki school of jurisprudence is the official state madhab of Kuwait, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. He was one of the teachers of Imam al-Shafi'i. One of greatest historical centers of Maliki teaching, especially during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries, is the Mosque of Uqba also known as the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia). Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Riad Nourallah, ''The future of Islam'', Routledge, 2002, page 199 Ira Marvin Lapidus, ''A history of Islamic societies'', Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 308 The flavor of the tea can also be altered by pouring it from different heights, resulting in varying degrees of oxidization (Redox). The art of high-altitude pouring is used principally by people in Northern Africa (e.g. Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania and Libya), but also in West Africa (e.g. Guinea, Mali, Senegal) and can positively alter the flavor of the tea, but it is more likely a technique to cool the beverage destined to be consumed immediately. In certain cultures the tea is given different names depending on the height it is poured from. In Mali, gunpowder tea is served in series of three, starting with the highest oxidization or strongest, unsweetened tea (cooked from fresh leaves), locally referred to as "bitter as death," followed by a second serving, where the same tea leaves are boiled again with some sugar added ("pleasant as life"), and a third one, where the same tea leaves are boiled for the third time with yet more sugar added ("sweet as love"). Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian custom, the "Grin," an informal social gathering that cuts across social and economic lines, starting in front of family compound gates in the afternoons and extending late into the night, and is widely popular in Bamako and other large urban areas. The flavor of the tea can also be altered by pouring it from different heights, resulting in varying degrees of oxidization (Redox). The art of high-altitude pouring is used principally by people in Northern Africa (e.g. Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania and Libya), but also in West Africa (e.g. Guinea, Mali, Senegal) and can positively alter the flavor of the tea, but it is more likely a technique to cool the beverage destined to be consumed immediately. In certain cultures the tea is given different names depending on the height it is poured from. In Mali, gunpowder tea is served in series of three, starting with the highest oxidization or strongest, unsweetened tea (cooked from fresh leaves), locally referred to as "bitter as death," followed by a second serving, where the same tea leaves are boiled again with some sugar added ("pleasant as life"), and a third one, where the same tea leaves are boiled for the third time with yet more sugar added ("sweet as love"). Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian custom, the "Grin," an informal social gathering that cuts across social and economic lines, starting in front of family compound gates in the afternoons and extending late into the night, and is widely popular in Bamako and other large urban areas. *Oceania: Timor-Leste, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Vanuatu *Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, DR Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho. Commerce is an important economic activity in Togo, and Lomé is an important regional trading center. Its port operates 24 hours a day, mainly transporting goods to the inland countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. The Trans–West African Coastal Highway crosses Togo, connecting it to Benin and Nigeria to the east, and Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire to the west. When construction in Liberia and Sierra Leone is finished, the highway will continue west to 7 other ECOWAS nations. A paved highway also connects Togo northwards to Burkina Faso and from there north-west to Mali and north-east to Niger. The UNCCD has '''194''' country Parties: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Provisionally referred to as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe The full lists are as follows: :'''List A''' (94 members): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China (People's Republic of China), Comoros, Congo (Republic of Congo), Côte d'Ivoire, DR Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), South Korea (Republic of Korea), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic), Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe. The US Air Force's first operational deployment of the Osprey sent four CV-22s to Mali in November 2008 in support of Exercise Flintlock. The CV-22s flew nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida with in-flight refueling. AFSOC declared that the 8th Special Operations Squadron reached Initial Operational Capability on 16 March 2009, with six of its planned nine CV-22s operational. Sirak, Michael. "Osprey Ready for Combat." ''Air Force Magazine,'' Volume 92, Issue 5, May 2009, pp. 11–12. Retrieved: 10 May 2009. The West African community is also very large, integrated by people from Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, and Guinea. They have introduced manding (Manding languages) jeli (Griot) music, mbalax and other styles. Mali (West Africa) * The Festival in the Desert takes place every year at Essakane, near Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africa and has achieved international status in spite of the difficulties of reaching its location. Festival in the Desert - Artist Detail Information ; BBC Four, "Festival in the Desert 2004", 5 November 2004. The Arabized Berber (Berber people) tribes controlled key oasis settlements of the Sahara and played an important role in the trans-Saharan slave trade (Arab slave trade). They already used to impose heavy taxation on any traffic through their lands, while also furnishing protection, supplies, and camels. When trans-Saharan trade intensified, they developed departure and arrival centers with slave depots and intermediary secure caravan stops. In these centers, they oversaw the traffic from sub-Saharan regions to Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Timbuktu (Mali) was a central crossroad to all four routes. Ouadane, Idjil (near Atar (Atar, Mauritania)), Azougui, Araouane, Taoudenni and later Tindouf were important stopping-places. Map on http: les.traitesnegrieres.free.fr At the same time the number of slaves kept in Western Sahara itself increased drastically. *The horse and slave trade between the western Sahara and Senegambia, Webb, J.L.A., Journal of African history, 1993, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 221-246, ISSN 0021-8537 *The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade by Elizabeth Savage (ed.), 1992 The Sahrawi tribes The modern ethnic group is thus an Arabized (Arabization) Berber people inhabiting the westernmost Sahara desert, in the area of modern Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria and most notably the Western Sahara, with some tribes traditionally migrating into northern Mali and Niger. As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a highly mixed heritage, combining Arab, Berber, and other influences, including black African ethnic and cultural characteristics. In pre-colonial times, the tribal areas of the Sahara desert was generally considered ''bled es-Siba'' or "the land of dissidence" by the authorities of the established Islamic states of North Africa, such as the Sultan of Morocco and the Deys of Algeria. The Islamic governments of the pre-colonial sub-Saharan empires of Mali and Songhai (Songhai Empire) appear to have had a similar relationship with these territories, which were at once the home of undisciplined raiding tribes and the main trade route for the Saharan caravan trade. Central governments had little control over the region, although some Hassaniya tribes would occasionally extended "''beya''" or allegiance to prestigious neighbouring rulers, to gain their political backing or, in some cases, as a religious ceremony. On November 6, 1975 Morocco launched the Green March into Western Sahara. About 350,000 unarmed Moroccans (Morocco) accompanied by the Moroccan Army armed with heavy weapons as SAM and others converged on the city of Tarfaya in southern Morocco and waited for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara. As a result of international pressure, Spain acceded to Moroccan demands, and entered bilateral negotiations. This led to the Madrid Agreement (Madrid Accords), a treaty that divided the territory between Morocco and Mauritania, in return for phosphate and fishing concessions to Spain. Spain and Morocco did not consult the Sahrawi population, and the Polisario violently opposed the treaty. The developments chance in the region until the 90's were strongly influenced by the power struggle of the Cold war. Algeria, Libya and Mali were allied to the Eastern bloc. Morocco was the only African country in the region that was allied to the West (Western world). - Mali Bamako - Some of his last work was the retelling in sequential art of novels and myth (Mythology)s, including ''Moby-Dick''. In 2002, at the age of 85, he published ''Sundiata'', based on the part-historical, part-mythical stories of a West African king, "The Lion of Mali". ''Fagin the Jew'' is an account of the life of Dickens' character Fagin, in which Eisner tries to get past the stereotyped portrait of Fagin in ''Oliver Twist''. His last graphic novel, ''The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion '', an account of the making of the anti-semitic hoax ''The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion'', was completed shortly before his death and published in 2005 . * 1591: Gazi Giray (List of Crimean khans) leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow. * 1591: In Mali, Moroccan (Morocco) forces of the Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur (Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi) led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire at the Battle of Tondibi. * 1592–1593: John Stow reports 10,675 plague (Black Death) deaths in London, a city of approximately 200,000 people. thumb 200px July 10 (File:Alex palace1.jpg): Fire at Alexandra Palace. * July 4 – Chad and Mali recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). * July 8 – A wave of strikes (Lublin 1980 strikes) begins in Lublin, Poland * June 19 – The Associated Broadcasting Company (now TV5) is founded in the Philippines. * June 20 – The short-lived Mali Federation, consisting of the Sudanese Republic (now the Republic of Mali (Mali)) and Senegal, gains independence from France. * June 23 – The Japanese prime minister, Nobusuke Kishi, announces his resignation. ** The countries of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela form OPEC. * September 22 – Mali, the sole remaining member of the "Mali Federation" following the withdrawal of Senegal one month earlier, declares its full independence as the ''Republic of Mali''. * September 26 – The leading candidates for President of the United States, Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, made the first televised debate. * March 26 ** In Mali, military officers led by Amadou Toumani Touré arrest President Moussa Traoré and suspend the constitution. ** Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay sign the Treaty of Asunción, establishing South Common Market (Mercosur its acronym in Spanish) * 1,228,400 km 2 -- Tibet Autonomous Region


Somalia

showing religious distribution in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian (Christianity), while North Africa is predominantly Muslim (Islam). However, there are Muslim majorities in the Sahel and Sudan regions (Sudan (region)) and along the East African coast (Muslim majorities in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Somalia; comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in Chad, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Eritrea). Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 9780852299562 p. 306 Southern Africa is predominately Christian however. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid 1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. Traditional African religions can be broken into down linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages)-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun (West African Vodun), and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages) speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages)-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0815605226 Khoisan religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. thumb 300px Reconstruction of the ''Ecumene (File:Herodotus world map-en.svg)'' (inhabited world) ancient map from Herodotus, c. 450 BC. Herodotus spoke of the Macrobians, an ancient people and kingdom postulated to have been located on the Somali peninsula The Geography of Herodotus: Illustrated from Modern Researches and Discoveries by James Talboys Wheeler pg 528 The British Critic, Quarterly Theological Review, And Ecclesiastical Record Volume 11 pg 434 during the first millennium BC. They are mentioned as being a nation of people that had mastered longevity with the average Macrobian living till the age of 120. They were said to be the ''"Tallest and Handsomest of all men"''. Wheeler pg 526 The Persian Emperor (List of kings of Persia) Cambyses II upon conquering Ancient Egypt sent ambassadors to Macrobia bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission, but instead the Macrobian ruler replied with a challenge for the Persian ruler in the form of an unstrung bow, that if the Persians could manage to string, they would have the right to invade his country, but until then they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire. Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia


Zimbabwe

procedures would make land available to Africans. In 1981 he urged Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front party to fight the seats reserved for European voters on the grounds that there was considerable support for him there. '''''Historical Atlas of the World''''' is a historical atlas that contains 108 color maps showing religious boundaries, countries, cities, buildings army movements and expeditions. It contains an index to place, peoples, historical


Nigeria

, where airports and even museums (due to finance problems) rely just as much on operating gift shops. thumb 300px A map showing religious distribution in Africa. (Image:Religion distribution Africa crop.png) Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian (Christianity), while North Africa is predominantly Muslim (Islam). However, there are Muslim majorities in the Sahel and Sudan regions (Sudan (region)) and along the East African coast (Muslim majorities in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Somalia; comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in Chad, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Eritrea). Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 9780852299562 p. 306 Southern Africa is predominately Christian however. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid 1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. Traditional African religions can be broken into down linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages)-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun (West African Vodun), and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages) speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages)-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0815605226 Khoisan religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. Change from right-hand to left-hand traffic Samoa was a German (Germany) colony until occupied by New Zealand at the beginning of the First World War, until September 2009 it maintained the German practice of driving on the right-hand side of the road. This practice had been in place for more than a century. Commons:Category:Nigeria Dmoz:Regional Africa Nigeria


Pakistan

d'Ami, "World Uniforms in Colour - Volume 2: Nations of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania, ISBN 85059 040 X . The Royal Canadian Mounted Police also wear a Red Serge jacket, based on a British military pattern tunic. '''''Historical Atlas of the World''''' is a historical atlas that contains 108 color maps showing religious boundaries, countries, cities, buildings army movements and expeditions. It contains an index to place, peoples, historical and military events


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017