Places Known For

short period


Södertälje

), Nässjö, Alvesta, Hässleholm, Lund (Lund Central Station) and Malmö. Trains that continue to Copenhagen also call at Copenhagen Airport and Copenhagen Central Station. For a short period during 2010-2011, there was one daily train to from Odense. *Stockholm (Stockholm Central Station)–Karlstad, calling at Södertälje Syd (Södertälje), Katrineholm, Hallsberg, Degerfors, Kristinehamn and Karlstad * Stockholm Central Station Stockholm

–Malmö, with some trains continuing to Copenhagen, calling at Flemingsberg or Södertälje Syd (Södertälje), Katrineholm (only a few trains), Norrköping, Linköping, Mjölby (sometimes), Nässjö, Alvesta, Hässleholm, Lund (Lund Central Station) and Malmö. Trains that continue to Copenhagen also call at Copenhagen Airport and Copenhagen Central Station. For a short period during 2010-2011, there was one daily train to from Odense. * Stockholm


Lajjun

a total of 55 villages, including Haifa, Jenin, and Baysan. The Cultural Landscape of the Tell Jenin Region. Leiden University Open Access, p.29, p.32. After a short period in which the Tarabays were in a state of rebellion, tensions suddenly died down and the Ottomans appointed Ali ibn Tarabay as the governor of Lajjun in 1559. His son Assaf Tarabay ruled Lajjun from 1571

By the 18th-century, Lajjun was replaced by Jenin as the administrative capital of the ''sanjak'' which now included the Sanjak of Ajlun. By the 19th-century it was renamed Sanjak Jenin, although Ajlun was separated from it. Doumani, 1995, p.39. Dhaher al-Omar, who became the effective ruler of the Galilee for a short period during the second half of the 18th-century, was reported to have used cannons against Lajjun in the course of his campaign between 1771-1773 to capture Nablus. Abu Dayya, 1986:51, cited in Khalidi, 1992, p.335 It is possible that this attack led to the village's decline in the years that followed. By that time, Lajjun's influence was diminished by the increasing strength of Acre's political power and Nablus's economic muscle. Edward Robinson (Edward Robinson (scholar)) visited in 1838, and noted that the ''khan'', which Maundrell commented on, was for the accommodation of the caravans passing on the great road between Egypt and Damascus which Lajjun comes over the hills from the western plain along the coast and enters that of Esdraelon. Robinson, p.328 f.f. When the British consul James Finn visited the area in the mid-19th century, he did not see a village. Finn 1868:229-30, also cited in Khalidi, p.335 The authors of the ''Survey of Western Palestine'' also noticed a ''khan'', however, south of the ruins of Lajjun in the early 1880s. ''Survey of Western Palestine'', 1882, II:64-66, cited in Khalidi, p.335. In the late 19th-century, Arabs from Umm al-Fahm migrated to al-Lajjun to make use of its farmland. Rami, S. al-Lajjun Jerusalemites. Khalidi, 1992, p.335 Gradually, they settled in the village, building their houses around the springs, especially next to the ''khan''. When the massive mound at nearby Tall al-Mutasallim (ancient Megiddo) was excavated by German archaeologists in 1903, some of the inhabitants of Lajjun reused stones from the ancient structure that had been unearthed to build new housing. Fisher (Clarence Stanley Fisher), 1929, ''The Excavation of Armageddon,'' p. 18, cited in Khalidi, 1992, p.335 British Mandate period thumb right A herd of camel (File:Schumacher6.jpg)s near a stream in Lajjun, 1908 More people moved to Lajjun during the British mandate (British Mandate for Palestine) period, particularly in the late thirties, due to the British crackdown on participants in the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. The tomb of Yusuf al-Hamdan, a local leader of the revolt, is located in the village. Lajjun's economy grew rapidly as a result of the influx of the additional population. Kana´na and Mahamid 1987:7-9. Cited in Khalidi, p.335 As the village expanded, it was divided into three quarters, one to the east, one to the west, and another known as Khirbat al-Khan. Each quarter was inhabited by one or more ''hamulas'' ("clans"); the al-Mahajina al-Tahta and al-Ghubariyya clans, the al-Jabbarin and al-Mahamid clans, and the al-Mahajina al-Fawqa clan. Kana´na and Mahamid 1987:44. Cited in Khalidi, p. 335 Lajjun had a school that was founded in 1937 and that had an enrollment of 83 in 1944. It was located in the quarter belonging to the al-Mahajina al-Fawqa clan, that is, in Khirbat al-Khan. In 1943 one of the large landowners in the village financed the construction of a mosque, built of white stone, in the al-Ghubariyya (eastern) quarter. Another mosque was also established in the al-Mahamid quarter during the same period, and was financed by the residents themselves. There was a small market place in the village, as well as six grain mills (powered by the numerous springs and wadis in the vicinity), and a health center. The various quarters of Lajjun had many shops. A bus company was established in Lajjun by a villager from Umm al-Fahm; the bus line served Umm al-Fahm, Haifa, and a number of villages, such as Zir'in. In 1937, the line had seven buses. Subsequently, the company was licensed to serve Jenin also, and acquired the name of "al-Lajjun Bus Company". Kana´na and Mahamid 1987:48-49. Cited in Khalidi, p. 335 1948 War Lajjun was allotted to the Arab state in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan. The village was defended by the Arab Liberation Army (ALA). It was first assaulted by the Haganah on April 13, during the battle around kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek. ALA commander Fawzi al-Qawuqji claimed Jewish forces ("Haganah") had attempted to reach the crossroads at Lajjun in an outflanking operation, but the attack failed. The ''New York Times'' reported that twelve Arabs were killed and fifteen wounded during that Haganah offensive. Schmidt, Dana Adams. British Repudiate Palestine Charge; Deny Obstructing U.N. Unit - Violence Flares as Big Evacuation Convoy Starts ''New York Times''. 1948-04-14. The New York Times Company. Palmach units of the Haganah raided and blew up most of Lajjun on the night of April 15–16. Morris, 2004, p.232. On April 17, it was occupied by the Haganah. According to the newspaper, Lajjun was the "most important place taken by the Jews, whose offensive has carried them through ten villages south and east of Mishmar Ha'emek." The report added that women and children had been removed from the village and that 27 buildings in the village were blown up by the Haganah. However, al-Qawuqji states that attacks resumed on May 6, when ALA positions in the area of Lajjun were attacked by Haganah forces. The ALA's Yarmouk Battalion and other ALA units drove back their forces, but two days later, the ALA commander reported that the Haganah was "trying to cut off the Lajjun area from Tulkarm in preparation of seizing Lajjun and Jenin..." Schmidt, Dana Adams. Jews press Arabs in Pitched Battle in North Palestine; Seize 10 Villages and 7 Guns in Mishmar Haemek Area - Repel Counter-Attacks UN Session Opens Today, Special Assembly to Gather at Flushing Meadow in Gloom - Zionist Rejects Truce Pitched Battle Rages in Palestine Jew Press Arabs in North Palestine ''New York Times''. 1948-04-16. The New York Times Company. On May 30, 1948, in the first stage of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Lajjun was captured by Israel's Golani Brigade in Operation Gideon. The capture was particularly important for the Israelis because of its strategic location at the entrance of the Wadi Ara, which thus, brought their forces closer to Jenin. Tal, 2004, p.232. During the second truce between Israel and the Arab coalition, in early September, a United Nations official fixed the permanent truce line in the area of Lajjun, according to press reports. A 500-yard strip was established on both sides of the line in which Arabs and Jews were allowed to harvest their crops. Lajjun was used as transit place by the Israel Defense Forces to transfer 1,400 Arab women, children and elderly from Ijzim, who then were sent on foot to Jenin. Morris, 2004, p.439. Walid Khalidi describes the remains of Lajjun: Only the white stone mosque, one village mill, the village health center, and a few partially destroyed houses remain on the site. The mosque has been converted into a carpentry workshop and one of the houses has been made into a chicken coop. The health center and grain mill are deserted, and the school is gone. The cemetery remains, but it is in a neglected state; the tomb of Yusuf al-Hamdan, a prominent nationalist who fell in the 1936 revolt, is clearly visible. The surrounding lands are planted with almond trees, wheat, and barley; they also contain animal sheds, a fodder plant, and a pump installed on the spring of 'Ayn al-Hajja. The site is tightly fenced in and entry is blocked. Khalidi, p. 336-337 Post-1948 Kibbutz Megiddo (Megiddo, Israel) was built on some of Lajjun's village lands. A few of the buildings from Lajjun still stand within the kibbutz grounds, including the mosque known as the "White" which was built in 1943. Today the building is a carpentry shop. Benvenisti, 2000, p. 319. Andrew Petersen, inspecting the place in 1993, noted that the principal extant buildings at the site are the ''khan'' and a bridge. The bridge, which crosses a major tributary of the Kishon River, is approximately Category:Arab villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War Category:District of Jenin Category:History of Palestine Ottoman era During the rule of the Ottoman Empire in Palestine (1517-1918), Jenin, Lajjun and the Carmel area, were for part of the 17th century ruled by Bedouin sheikhs, in this case the Turabay family. Chatty, 2006, p. 868. In the mid-18th century, Jenin was designated the administrative capital of a district that included Lajjun, Ajlun and Jabal Nablus. Doumani, 1995, p. 39. There are indications that the area comprising Jenin and Nablus remained functionally autonomous under Ottoman rule and that the empire struggled to collect taxes there. During the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt which extended into Syria and Palestine in 1799, a local official from Jenin wrote a poem enumerating and calling upon local Arab leaders to resist Bonaparte, without mentioning the Sultan or the need to protect the Ottoman empire. Quataert, 2005, p. 107. In the late 19th century, some members of the Jarrar family, who formed part of the ''mallakin'' (elite land-owning families) in Jenin, cooperated with merchants in Haifa to set up an export enterprise there. Tawfiq Jarrar was accorded the unique title, "son of the great" (''salil al-akabir'') in Haifa, in recognition of his family's status and his entrepreneurial efforts. Yazbak, 1998, p. 150. During the Ottoman era, Jenin was plagued by local warfare between members of the same clan. The Archeology of Warfare: Local Chiefdoms and Settlement Systems in the Jenin Region during the Ottoman Period Nablus area Yusuf Said Abu Durra, a Qassamite leader in the Jenin area, was born in Silat al-Harithiya and before becoming a rebel worked as a Gazoz vendor. Horne 2003, p. 224; 226; 228; 239–240. He was said to be a narrow-minded man who thrived on extortion and cruelty and thus became greatly feared. Yusuf Hamdan was Durra's more respected lieutenant and later a leader of his own unit; he was killed by an army patrol in 1939 and buried in Lajjun. Durra himself was apprehended by the Arab Legion in Transjordan on 25 July 1939 and subsequently hanged. thumb 250px Mosque built on Crusader ruins (File:Qalansuwa-531.jpg) From the ninth century and until the Crusader times, Qalansawe was a stop on the Cairo-Damascus road, between Lajjun and Ramla. Petersen, 2001, citing among others Hartmann, 1910, 675, 676 History Megiddo was a site of great importance in the ancient world. It guarded the western branch of a narrow pass and trade route (Via Maris) connecting Egypt and Assyria. Because of its strategic location, Megiddo was the site of several historical battles. The site was inhabited from approximately 7000 BC to 586 BC (the same time as the destruction of the First Israelite Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians, and subsequent fall of Israelite rule and exile). Since this time it has remained uninhabited, preserving ruins pre-dating 586 BC without settlements ever disturbing them. Instead, the town of Lajjun (not to be confused with the el-Lajjun archaeological site in Jordan) was built up near to the site, but without inhabiting or disturbing its remains. The Arab tribes that settled Jund Filastin were the Lakhm, Kindah, Qais, Amilah, Judham (Banu Judham) and the Kinanah (Banu Kinanah); at the time of the Arab conquest, the region had been inhabited mainly by Aramaic-speaking Monophysite Christian peasants. The population of the region did not become predominantly Muslim and Arab in identity until several centuries after the conquest. At its greatest extent, Jund Filastin extended from Rafah in the south to Lajjun in the north, and from the Mediterranean coast well to the east of the southern part of the Jordan River. The mountains of Edom, and the town of Zoar (Zoara) at the southeastern end of the Dead Sea were included in the district. However, the Galilee was excluded, being part of Jund al-Urdunn in the north.


Madurai Nayak dynasty

, and erected in their place an extensive double-walled fortress defended by 72 bastions; and he constructed channels from upper waters of the Vaigai river to supply the kingdom with water. Perhaps the Peranai and Chittanai dams owe their origins to him. Vishwanatha Nayakka ruled from 1535 to 1544, and was succeeded by Varathappa Nayakkar who ruled for a very short period of about a year. In 1545, Dumbicchi Nayakkan became the Governor, and after twenty months, he was succeeded by Vishwanatha

. An inscription in an old Perumal temple at Madura states that certain things were done during the rule of "Rama Raja Vitthala Deva Maha Rayar"; and based on the dates within the short period assigned, Nelson reasons that Vitthala Raja was none other than Rama Raya; and that the name Vitthala was assumed as an epithet by Rama Raya. Rama Raya ruled Madurai more or less directly until 1557–1558; after which the Madurai country was left in a state of chaos, anarchy and confusion. During this time


Jinotega

between 1927 and 1934 under Augusto C. Sandino and his troops (popularly known as "los bandoleros") against the American (United States) occupation (Military occupation) troops. Later, at the end of the 1970s, Jinotega was a place of bitter war between the troops of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the civilian rebel population. Somoza was defeated on July 19, 1979. After a short period of peace, civil war began again between government troops of the new Sandinista regime


PIDE

with ''Cantigas numa Língua Antiga'' was received as a triumph. Soon after, however, Amália suffered her first health troubles which caused her to be away from the stage for a short period again, and forced her to concentrate on performing especially in Portugal, though she still traveled abroad. Those problems were followed by a period of depression, and an introspection which led to the recording of two very personal albums: 'Gostava de Ser Quem Era' (1980) (literally 'I Wish I Were whom I Was')and 'Lágrima' (1983): all these songs were written by her own hand, since she used the poems she herself wrote. They were both successes, and in between she sang Frederico Valerio's songs again, in an album called 'Fado' (1982). The 1980s and 1990s brought her enthronement as a living legend. Her last all-new studio recording, ''Lágrima'', was released in 1983. It was followed by a series of previously lost or unreleased recordings, and the smash success of two greatest hits collections that sold over 200,000 copies combined. In 1970 the album ''Traz Outro Amigo Também'' (Bring Another Friend Too), recorded in London, in the Pye studios, was released. It is the first album without Rui Pato, forbbiden to travel by PIDE, the fascist political police. On 21 March the Portuguese press gave him an award for his "high quality work as singer and composer and for his decisive influence upon Portuguese popular music". He participated in an international festival in Cuba. At the end of 1971, the famous album ''Cantigas do Maio'' (Songs of May), recorded near Paris, in Château d'Hérouville studios, was released. The album is generally considered the best album of his career. His 1972 album is called ''Eu Vou Ser Como a Toupeira'' (I Will Be Like the Mole), and was recorded in Madrid, at Cellada studios. Craveirinha also wrote under the pseudonyms Mário Vieira, José Cravo, Jesuíno Cravo, J. Cravo, J.C., and Abílio Cossa. He was imprisoned in solitary confinement by the fascist Portuguese PIDE régime from 1965 to 1969 for his membership in a cell of FRELIMO, the leading movement for the liberation of Mozambique from Portuguese rule. When FRELIMO seized power in 1974, Craveirinha was freed from prison and appointed vice-director of the national press.


Sakib

Mandate, there occurred a withdrawal of most of its members because of infighting. The second time the government formed, it was headed by Muhammad Ali Al-Mughrabi, and lasted another short period, until the establishment of the Emirate of Transjordan. Jordan prime minister website: http: www.pm.gov.jo arabic index.php?page_type pages&part 1&page_id 124 The British Resident in Transjordan and the Financial Administration in the Emirate Transjordan 1921-1928. Journal of Politics and Law; Vol. 5, No. 4, (Canadian Center of Science and Education). 2012. ISSN 1913-9047 Martyrs Al-Ayasrah tribe in Sakib provided a large number of martyrs during the resistance of British Mandate (British Mandate of Jordan) & Israel Occupation of Palestine. Category:Populated places in the Jerash Governorate Category:Archaeological sites in Jordan Sakib & Souf was the seed for modern Jerash. For many centuries they were the center of the al-Meradh area during the Ottoman Empire. The Al-Meradh region was called this because it was the only region in the north of Jordan which resisted the southern Bedouin looting attacks that used to be launched by Bedouin tribes. They led a resistance alliance which finally succeeded in defeating the Bedouin. Also took the name cause they objected to the oppression of the Ottoman rule during the stages of his crime. Jerash actually re-inhabited by the local people of Sakib & Souf and the surrounding villages who are now the vast majority of the city population. It became a destination for many successive waves of foreign migrants. The first wave started during the second half of the nineteenth century when the Syrians (Demographics of Syria) (Shwam) and the Circassians camped nearby the old ruins. The new immigrants have been welcomed by the local people and settled down in the city. Later, Jerash also witnessed waves of Palestinian refugees who flow to the city in 1948 and 1967. However, recently the city of Jerash has been expanded to include many of the surrounding villages including Sakib, Souf, Dairelliat, Thougretasfour, Jaba, Aljbarat and Majar. Other important villages in the governate include: Kitteh, Nahlé, Burma, Mustabah, Jubba, Raimoun, Kufr Khall, Balila, and Qafqafa.


Soule

. thumb 310px Rock band Zamara's live performance (Image:Zarama.jpg)Beginning at the mid-60s, Imanol Larzabal led a solo career as a singer songwriter, featuring a deep voice as well as a socially committed and poetic subjects, with the collaboration of domestic and foreign poets and singers. He went through a short period in prison and came back from exile in 1977. Friend of his and son of emigrant Souletin parents, Niko Etxart came back to the Basque Country from Paris with brand-new ideas


Allgemeine SS

) (VOMI) an organization charged with settling ethnic Germans in the German Reich (Nazi Germany) from other parts of Europe.


Yevpatoria

wikipedia:Yevpatoria


Bansha

in retirement at Bansha Castle from 1905 until his death in 1910. He was born a few miles distant at 'Suirville', Ballyslatteen. He took part in many colonial campaigns in Canada and India, but mainly in Africa, including the Ashanti wars and the Zulu War under General Wolseley (Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley). He was made commander-in-chief of the British Army in South Africa in 1898 where he was also High Commissioner for a short period. His views on colonialism


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