Places Known For

scientific discovery


Baddeck, Nova Scotia

Laboratory Association' ''(1880), also known as the'' Volta Laboratory (Volta Laboratory and Bureau) ''and as the'' 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', ''and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison; "Letter from Mabel Hubbard Bell, February 27, 1880." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. N.B.: last line of the typed note refers to the future disposition of award funds:'' "... and thus the matter lay till the paper turned up. He intends putting the full amount into his Laboratory and Library";'' The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his'' 'proudest achievement','' the Photophone, the ''optical telephone'' which presaged fibre optical telecommunications (Fiber-optic communication), while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness. Following his successful invention of the telephone and being relatively wealthy, Bell acquired land near Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) in 1885, largely due to surroundings reminiscent of his early years in Scotland. He established a summer estate complete with research laboratories, working with deaf people—including Helen Keller—and continued to invent. Baddeck would be the site of his experiments with hydrofoil technologies as well as the Aerial Experiment Association, financed by his wife, which saw the first powered flight in the British Empire when the AEA ''Silver Dart'' (AEA Silver Dart) took off from the ice-covered waters of Bras d'Or Lake. Bell also built the forerunner to the iron lung and he experimented with breeding sheep. A March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils. Alexander Graham Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane a very significant achievement, and after reading the article began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. With his chief engineer Casey Baldwin (Frederick W. Baldwin), Bell began hydrofoil experiments in the summer of 1908. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models based on his designs, which led them to the development of hydrofoil watercraft. During Bell's world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in Italy, where they rode in his hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Bell's large laboratory at his Beinn Bhreagh (Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia) estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, they experimented with a number of designs, culminating in Bell's ''HD-4''. Using Renault engines, a top speed of 87 km h (54 mph) was achieved, accelerating rapidly, taking waves without difficulty, steering well and showing good stability. Bell's report to the United States Navy permitted him to obtain two 260 kW (350 horsepower) engines. On September 9, 1919 the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 114 km h (70.86 mph), a record which stood for two decades. A full-scale replica of Bell's HD-4 is viewable at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site (Alexander_Graham_Bell#Legacy_and_honors) museum in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. thumb right 250px The "Largest Ceilidh Fiddle in the World". Located at the Sydney waterfront. (Image:Sydney Fiddle.JPG) In recent decades, Cape Breton Island has become home to a significant tourism industry, with Sydney (as the island's largest urban centre) being a prime beneficiary. Until the early 2000s when its economy was tied to the steel industry, Sydney had been overlooked as a tourist destination, with the more centrally located scenic village of Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) being a preferred location for tourists transiting the Cabot Trail, however Sydney has recently witnessed a revival as a result of significant government investment in cruise ship facilities and a waterfront revitalization plan which has seen a boardwalk and marinas constructed, and the world's largest fiddle. This funding is part of the post-industrial adjustment package offered by the federal and provincial governments. Sydney's tourism draw is increasingly linked to its cultural asset as being the urban heart of Cape Breton Island. Its population is a diverse mixture of nationalities which contributes to various Scottish, Acadian, African Canadian and eastern European cultural events being held throughout the year. Sydney's accommodation sector is centrally located to attractions in Louisbourg (Louisbourg, Nova Scotia) (home of the Fortress of Louisbourg), Glace Bay (Glace Bay, Nova Scotia) (home of the Glace Bay Miners Museum), Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) (home of the Alexander Graham Bell Museum), as well as popular touring destinations such as the Cabot Trail, Cape Breton Highlands National Park, and Bras d'Or Lake. Construction of Highway 105 (Nova Scotia Highway 105) (the Trans-Canada Highway) between North Sydney (North Sydney, Nova Scotia) and the Canso Causeway in the 1960s resulted in the re-routing of most Cabot Trail tourism traffic. The Cabot Trail is now advertised with its start and end-point in Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia), bypassing the traditional western approach to the Cabot Trail through Judique (Judique, Nova Scotia), Port Hood, Inverness (Inverness, Nova Scotia) and Margaree Harbour (Margaree Harbour, Nova Scotia), and thus decreasing tourism traffic on the Ceilidh Trail. thumb Sunrise Valley, Cape North, Nova Scotia Cape North (File:CabotTrail in 2010.JPG) in 2010 *Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia), the gateway to the Cabot Trail and the location of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site *St. Ann's (St. Ann's, Nova Scotia), home of the world famous Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts thumb left Canada's first aircraft, the AEA Silver Dart (Image:AEA Silver Dart.jpg) The aviation age came to Canada on 23 February 1909, when Alexander Graham Bell's (Alexander Graham Bell) ''Silver Dart (AEA Silver Dart)'' took off from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia with J.D. McCurdy (John Alexander Douglas McCurdy) at the controls. This 1 2-mile flight was the first "controlled powered flight" (also the first flight of a "heavier than air craft") in Canada and the British Empire. Roberts 1959, p. 3. A longer flight of 20 miles was flown at Bras d'Or Lake on 10 March 1909. Roberts 1959, p. 5. The '''''Silver Dart''''' (or '''''Aerodrome #4''''') was a derivative of an early aircraft built by a Canadian U.S. team, which after many successful flights in Hammondsport, New York, earlier in 1909, was dismantled and shipped to Baddeck, Nova Scotia. It was flown off the ice of Baddeck Bay, a sub-basin of Bras d'Or Lake, on 23 February 1909, making it the first controlled powered flight in Canada. The aircraft was piloted by one of its designers, John McCurdy (John Alexander Douglas McCurdy). The original ''Silver Dart'' was designed and built by the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), formed under the guidance of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. From 1891, Bell had begun experiments at Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) and Hammondsport (Hammondsport, New York) to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. By 1908, the success of the AEA was seen in a series of ground-breaking designs, culminating in the ''Silver Dart''.By the time the ''Silver Dart'' was constructed in late 1908, it was the Aerial Experiment Association's fourth flying machine. One of its precursors, the ''June Bug'' (AEA June Bug), had already broken records. It won the ''Scientific American'' Trophy for making the first official one mile flight in North America. Weymouth (Weymouth, Nova Scotia) group7 Lists


Sichuan

has been reduced by over-cutting before its scientific discovery and protection in 1950. During the Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 BC), two revolutionary improvements in farming technology (Agricultural science) took place. One was the use of cast iron tools (History of ferrous metallurgy#Cast iron in China) and beasts of burden (Working animal) to pull plows, and the other was the large-scale harnessing of rivers and development of water conservation projects. The engineer


NASA

of sandbanks called Adam's bridge", NASA official Mark Hess had added. "NASA had been taking pictures of these shoals for years. Its images had never resulted in any scientific discovery in the area. It also clarified that, "The images reproduced on the websites may well be ours, but their interpretation is certainly not ours. ... Remote sensing images or photographs from orbit cannot provide direct information about the origin or age of a chain of islands, and certainly cannot determine whether humans were involved in producing any of the patterns seen." Most re-entry vehicles have been based on the blunt-nose (Riabouchinsky solid) reentry design pioneered by Theodore von Kármán. He demonstrated that a shock wave is forced to "detach" from a curved surface, forced out into a larger configuration that requires considerable energy to form. Energy expended in forming this shock wave is no longer available as heat, so this shaping can dramatically reduce the heat load on the spacecraft. Such a design has been the basis for almost every re-entry vehicle since, found on the blunt noses of the early ICBM warheads, the bottoms of the various NASA capsules, and the large nose of the Space Shuttle. Following the decision by NASA to retire the Space Shuttle in 2011, the European Space Agency launched a series of studies to determine the potential for evolutions and adaptations of the ATV. Following these studies the cargo return version (CARV) became a candidate for further development. The goal of this variant is to provide ESA with the capability to transport scientific data and cargo from the ISS to Earth. Beyond this, CARV could be enhanced to become a man-carrying spacecraft which would be launched by an adapted Ariane 5. Aside from appearances on the silver screen, ''Iguanodon'' has also been featured on the television documentary miniseries ''Walking with Dinosaurs'' (1999) produced by the BBC, and played a starring role in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (Arthur Conan Doyle)'s book, ''The Lost World (The Lost World (Conan Doyle novel))'' as well as featuring in an episode of the Discovery Channel documentary, Dinosaur Planet (Dinosaur Planet (TV series)). It also was present in Bob Bakker's ''Raptor Red'' (1995), as a ''Utahraptor'' prey item. A main belt (asteroid belt) asteroid, If this means complete power, as opposed to having to deal with the checks and balances (w:checks and balances) built into our federal government, this is some of what I'd do: I'd end abortion and all the precipitating factors leading to it (poverty, dysfunctional family dynamics, relaxed sexual mores, alcohol and drug addiction...). I'd mobilize a set of dramatic initiatives to, not just curb global warming (w:global warming), but to actually start to reverse it. I would unilaterally disarm our nuclear weapons. I'd stop the production of nuclear energy. (Anybody hear of Chernobyl (w:Chernobyl)?) I would grant amnesty and family reunification to illegal immigrants (w:Illegal Immigration in the United States). (During a talk at an immigration rally in Arizona several years ago, I said we walked through the slums of w:Juarez, Mexico Juarez , where violence is off the charts and many of the children are extremely hungry. If I was their parent, I'd do everything I could to get these children out of harms way and get them something to eat – even if it meant risking crossing the border illegally.) I would end the death penalty. Also in Arizona, I read a newspaper story about a death penalty protester who posed: “Why do we kill people who kill people to show that killing people is wrong?” Good question. I would increase, exponentially, American foreign aid (it is currently only 4% of the budget) to try to help stem world hunger much more – 24,000 people starve to death every day in the world – and to help realize Habitat for Humanity (w:Habitat for Humanity)'s goal of providing adequate housing, (“…for every person in the world.”) I would bring peace to urban war zones around the country. (In part of this effort, our family moved into a dangerous part of Cleveland, Ohio, to be part of the solution.) I would end w:homelessness homelessness . (We take homeless people into our home. And we will be doing the same in the West Wing (w:West Wing). I mean the Lincoln bedroom (w:Lincoln Bedroom) is free, as an example.) I would tremendously jack down and simplify the economy, shifting America back to much more of a local production for local consumption orientation, like it was in the “old days.” I would mobilize efforts for a tremendous come back of the small family farm and the practice of growing organically. This was once the backbone of our country, I told the newspaper Country Today in Wisconsin. And it should be again. I would get people to tighten their belts and pay off the w:National Debt National Debt so our children don't inherit it. During a talk at the University of Notre Dame (w:University of Notre Dame) recently, I said I would redirect the technical smarts at NASA (w:NASA) toward coming up with better water filtration systems, solar panel (w:solar panel)s, wind turbine (w:wind turbine)s..., as opposed to working on things like going to space destinations where we: can't breathe the air, there's no gravity and there's no food! “That might be, oh, a hint God doesn't want us there,” I said. I would give some of the land back to the Native Americans (w:Native Americans) so it's equitable, like it should have been from the beginning. And I would give the African Americans (w:African Americans) tangible reparations for past atrocities (w:Reparations for slavery) and the ongoing trans-generational problems slavery (w:slavery) caused. And, I would ensure – as impossible as this seems – that the Cleveland Browns (w:Cleveland Browns) had a winning season, soon... For a look at how I would actually try to make a lot of this happen, the Cleveland Browns notwithstanding, go to my rather extensive position papers at ''Atlantis'' lifted off in fair weather at 2:20 p.m. EDT (1820 UTC) from the w:Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral (w:Cape Canaveral), Florida. The launch was viewed by over 40,000 spectators at Kennedy, including a small group chosen by NASA (w:NASA) for a space "tweetup (w:Twitter)". Carrying six veteran astronauts and an assortment of parts for the International Space Station (w:International Space Station) (ISS), the shuttle took off without any delays. This mission, scheduled to take twelve days, is the aging shuttle's 32nd voyage into space of its 25-year career.


Brazil

(1914) describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition, co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. The book describes the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas, and exotic flora and fauna experienced during the adventure. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his

into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition, co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. The book describes the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas, and exotic flora and fauna experienced during the adventure. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he persuaded Roosevelt to commit

praised general relativity as the "greatest feat of human thinking about nature"; fellow laureate Paul Dirac was quoted saying it was "probably the greatest scientific discovery ever made". ref name


Germany

insistence upon the role of falsification in the philosophy of science was a reaction to the logical positivists. With the rise of Adolf Hitler and National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany and Austria, some members of the Vienna and Berlin Circles fled Germany, mainly to Britain and the USA, which helped to reinforce the dominance

empirical claims. These two constituted the entire universe of meaningful judgments; anything else was nonsense. The claims of ethics, aesthetics and theology were, accordingly, pseudo-statements, neither true nor false, simply meaningless nonsense. Karl Popper's insistence upon the role of falsification in the philosophy of science was a reaction to the logical positivists.

in plural) that made them basically city-states subject only to the emperor himself. While most of those have lost their political and economic importance by now their former wealth can still be seen in places like Rothenburg ob der Tauber and Nördlingen. Early modern Germany thumb Wartburg, Eisenach (File:Wartburg 06.jpg), founded in 1068. Martin Luther stayed at the castle for safety, 1521-1522. A period of religious reform and scientific discovery was marked by the 1517


Poland

The historic context for Article 116 was the eviction, following World War II, of an estimated 9 million ethnic Germans from other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Another 9 million Germans from former eastern German provinces (historical eastern Germany), over which Joseph Stalin and eastern neighbour states extended military hegemony in 1945, were expelled (expulsion of Germans after World War II) as well. These expellees and refugees (known as ''Heimatvertriebene'') were given refugee status and documents and resettled by Germany. Discussion of possible compensation (Federation of Expellees) is ongoing, however, this has been countered by possible claims for war compensation from Germany's Eastern neighbours, pertaining to both Germany's unconditional surrender and the series of population transfers formed under the instruments of Potsdam (Potsdam Conference). Some German expellees desire to resettle in their territories of birth, youth and early life, but legal procedures often make remigration difficult, even after Poland and the Czech Republic joined the European Union. 200px thumb left Spanish General Joaquín Blake y Joyes (File:Joaquin Blake.jpg) The fortifications were so impressive that, after an attack by a small force at Sobral (Sobral de Monte Agraço) on 14 October, a stalemate ensued. As Charles Oman wrote, "On that misty 14 October th morning, at Sobral, the Napoleonic tide attained its highest watermark, then it ebbed." The frontal zones of the lines having been subjected to a scorched earth policy, the French were eventually forced to withdraw due to sickness and lack of food and supplies. The British suffered a setback just the next day in the Battle of Fuengirola. On 15 October, a much smaller Polish (Poland) garrison held off British troops under Lord Blayney (Andrew Blayney, 11th Baron Blayney), who was subsequently taken captive and held by the French until 1814. Amazingly the French intelligence never knew that the fortifications were being built, only when their scouts reached the walls did they know. It’s also rumoured that even the British government never knew about it as well because all the funds that were used to build it was paid for by the Portuguese government and captured French equipment and supplies. In the summer of 1452, when Rumeli Hisari was completed and the threat had become imminent, Constantine wrote to the Pope, promising to implement the Union, which was declared valid by a half-hearted imperial court on Tuesday 12 December 1452. Although he was eager for an advantage, Pope Nicholas V did not have the influence the Byzantines thought he had over the Western Kings and Princes, some of whom were wary of increasing Papal control


Soviet Union

scientific discovery: the existence of a doughnut-shaped region of charged particle radiation trapped by Earth’s magnetic field. The '''Mikoyan MiG-27''' ( ) (NATO reporting name "'''Flogger-D J'''") is a variable-geometry (Variable-sweep wing) ground-attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan design bureau in the Soviet Union and later license-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the '''''Bahadur''''' ("Valiant"


France

289" Flanagan, p. 289 thumb left The Fabert School in Metz (File:Cloître_sainte_Constance_(lycée_Fabert_de_Metz).JPG), where Poncelet was fellow student. Poncelet was born in Metz, France, on July 1, 1788, the illegitimate (Legitimacy (law)) son of Claude Poncelet, a lawyer of the Parliament of Metz and wealthy landowner.


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