, 549. In 1286 the Marinids built a casbah and mosque there. The first large scale building project took place in 1305 when the settlement was expanded by the Marinid king Abu Thabit. Ali ibn-abi-Zar' (1326) - Rawd Al-Kirtas (Histoire des souverains du Maghreb et annales de la ville de Fès. Traduction française Auguste Beaumier. Editions La Porte, Rabat, 1999, 325 p. He fortified the place and had it serve as a base for attacks on Ceuta, which had recently
in particular, until his retirement in March 1877, were characterised by large scale building projects in Chamba, with Reid fully revising the administrative and revenue departments of Chamba and reorganizing the state machinery to make development more efficient. Orderly new building complexes with "simple visual discipline with white plastered walls, lancer arch windows, cornices, sloping sheet roofs, wooden eaves and deep verandahs were planned and built". Road communications were dramatically improved, with the approach road to the town being diverted, to provide a way for vehicular traffic to enter from the western end of the chaugan. A cabled suspension bridge was built across the Ravi River in the lower outskirts of the town, and many important public welfare projects were started, and well as many temples, gates, gardens and churches between 1863 and 1910. Notable works built during the colonial period include the temples in the Jansali Bazar, Gandhi Gate (Curzon Gate), Shiva Temple, the Chaugans, the Police Lines, the Church of Scotland, the Shyam Singh Hospital (built in 1891), Chamba Library, the Post Office building, Bhuri Singh Museum, the State Forces barracks, and the administrative buildings of the British period. Today, architectural materials have evolved considerably since ancient times and reinforced concrete structures are rapidly changing the skyline of the town. Chaugan right thumb 250px Chaugan (File:Chaugan.jpg) at Chamba The Chaugan (a Sanskrit word meaning: “four sided”) is the nucleus of all activity in Chamba, surrounded by impressive administrative buildings and a shopping arcade built during the British period, with the old Akhand Chandi palace standing nearby. It has a terraced grass green, and is exceptionally large for a hill station, measuring Most of the other castes of Gaddis are thought to be descended from people who fled to the hills to escape the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's persecutions in the 17th century CE. right 300px thumb Dhauladhar from Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh Dharamsala (File:Montaro Dhauladhar (foto de Dharamsala).jpg) The '''Dhauladhar''' range (lit. The White Range) Singh (2000), p. 2. is a southern branch of the main Outer Himalayan chain of mountains. It rises spectacularly from the Indian plains to the north of Kangra (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh) and Mandi (Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India). Dharamsala (Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh), the headquarters of Kangra district, lies on its southern spur (Spur (mountain)) in above the Kangra Valley, which divides it from Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). Dhaula Dhar ''The Imperial Gazetteer of India'', v. 11, ''p. 287.'' Synopsis Manav (Akshaye Khanna) comes to visit India with his wealthy father Jagmohan Mehta (Amrish Puri), his aunt and uncle, and his father's employees. In Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh) he meets Mansi (Aishwarya Rai), the beautiful daughter of a spiritual singer named Tara Babu (Alok Nath); their families meet, and Jagmohan and Tara Babu become acquainted and friendly toward each other. Manav and Mansi fall in love, but when Jagmohan learns of this he packs the family up and moves them to their house in Mumbai, with the excuse that Mansi and her father are of low social status. However, he is nice to Tara Babu's face and invites him to come and stay with him and Mumbai if he, Tara Babu, ever happens to be travelling there. Mansi is distressed by Manav's departure but he assures her that he will not abandon her and that everything will be fine. She gives Manav his scarf which she modified, making it say "Manavsi", a mixture of their names. Dalhousie is a gateway to the ancient Chamba Hill State, now Chamba District of the state of Himachal Pradesh of India. This hill region is a repository of ancient Hindu culture, art, temples, and handicrafts preserved under the longest-running single dynasty since the mid-6th century. Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh) is the hub of this culture. Bharmour, the ancient capital of this kingdom, is home to the Gaddi and Gujjar tribes and has 84 ancient temples dating from the 7th–10th century AD. 200px thumb Nala (Image:Nala Damayanti.jpg)- Damayanti theme, from the Mahabharat in Pahari style '''Pahari painting''' (literal meaning a painting from the mountainous regions, ''pahar'' means a mountain in Hindi) is an umbrella term used for a form of Indian painting, originating from Himalayan Hill kingdoms of North India, during 17th-19th century. Notably Basohli, Mankot, Nurpur, Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), Kangra (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh), Guler (Haripur Guler), Mandi (Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India), and Garhwal (Garhwal Kingdom), and was done mostly in miniature forms. Hindu Hill Kingdoms ''V&A Museum''. Pahari ''Kamat''. During the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the war, the frontier of British India was extended to the Yamuna, and an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought the states under formal British protection. The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot (Faridkot State). Before 1846 the greater part of this territory was independent, the chiefs being subject to supervision from a political officer stationed at Umballa, and styled the agent of the Governor-General of India for the Cis-Sutlej states. A number of states were confiscated, or acquired by Britain under the Doctrine of Lapse. After the First Anglo-Sikh War the full administration of the territory became vested in this officer. In 1849 the Punjab was annexed to British India, when the Cis-Sutlej states commissionership, comprising the districts of Umballa, Ferozepore (Ferozepore District), Ludhiana (Ludhiana District), Thanesar (Thanesar District) and Simla (Simla District), was incorporated with the new Punjab Province (Punjab (British India)). The name continued to be applied to this division until 1862, when, owing to Ferozepore having been transferred to Lahore Division, and a part of Thanesar to Delhi Division, it ceased to be appropriate. The remaining tract became known as the Umballa Division. The princely states of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha were appointed a separate political agency in 1901. Excluding Bahawalpur, for which there was no political agent, and Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), the other states were grouped under the commissioners of Jullunder and Delhi, and the superintendent of the Simla Hill States. '''Pathankot''' (Punjabi (Punjabi language): ਪਠਾਨਕੋਟ) became 22nd district on 27 July 2011 and a municipal corporation in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Punjab (Punjab (India)). It was a part of the Nurpur princely state ruled by the Rajputs prior to 1849 AD. It is a meeting point of the three northern states (North India) of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Due to its ideal location, Pathankot serves as a travel hub for the three northerly states. Pathankot is the fifth largest city in the state of Punjab in terms of population. It is the last city in Punjab on the national highway that connects Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India. Situated in the foothills of Kangra and Dalhousie, with the river Chakki flowing close by, the city is often used as a rest-stop before heading into the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir, Dalhousie, Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), and Kangra (Kangra Valley), deep into the Himalayas.
be viewed at the temples themselves (most notably, the Hypogeum and Tarxien Temples), and at the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta. Malta is currently undergoing several large scale building projects including the construction of SmartCity Malta, the M-Towers and Pendergardens, while areas such as the Valletta Waterfront and Tigne Point are receiving renovation. The arrival in Malta of Caravaggio, who painted at least seven works during his 15-month
undergoing several large-scale building projects, including the construction of SmartCity Malta, the M-Towers and Pendergardens, while areas such as the Valletta Waterfront and Tigne Point are receiving renovation. The Roman period introduced highly decorative mosaic floors, marble colonnades and classical statuary, remnants of which are beautifully preserved and presented in the Roman Domus, a country villa just outside the walls of Mdina. The early Christian frescoes
. James (2005) p. 48 The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god Amun, whose growing cult was based in Karnak. They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The female pharaoh Hatshepsut used such propaganda to legitimize her claim to the throne. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
and Italy. In 1881 - President of the Shipbuilding Committee. In 1882 he was appointed Minister of the Russian Navy. Shestakov contributed a lot to rebirth of the Black Sea Fleet (1886) and strengthening the Baltic Fleet and Siberian Flotilla. He also introduced a new system of service for the naval officers and started a large-scale building of armored ships, as battleships and armored cruisers, such as Russian armoured cruiser Vladimir Monomakh, Russian armoured
historical model for centralized heat efficiency in a small scale building. '''Rural Press Limited''' was an Australian media company which owned approximately 170 newspaper and magazine titles, ''The Canberra Times'' being the most prominent. These were predominantly in rural Australia, though it also owned a number of agricultural publications in the United States and New Zealand. It also owned radio stations in regional South Australia and Queensland, a range