north of the Bvumba Mountains and south of the Imbeza Valley. Christmas Pass is a mountain pass that leads into the city from the west. The pass was so named by some of the colonial pioneers who camped at the foot of the pass on Christmas Day 1890. Mutare is home to the Mutare Museum, the Utopia House Museum dedicated to Kingsley Fairbridge, the National Gallery of Zimbabwe, Murahwa Hill, known for its rock paintings and Iron Age village, Cross Kopje with a memorial to Zimbabweans and Mozambicans killed in World War I and a nature reserve Cecil Kopje and Tigers Kloof. The Mutare Boys' High Chapel was constructed in honour of former Old boys who perished in World War II, situated on a hilly knoll at Mutare Boys High (then Umtali Boys High). Mutare is served by rail with daily passenger and freight links to the towns of Nyazura, Rusape and Harare. There are two small aerodromes; the smallest is at Mutare Provincial Hospital a very small light aircraft strip for emergency evacuation (now defunct) and a light plane aerodrome in Sakubva near Mutare Teachers College. There is yet a third airport constructed in Chiadzwa to carry diamonds for processing in Harare. Population The population is predominantly Shona (Shona people), the majority of them speaking the Manyika dialect. Manyika people are locally known as Samanyikas. According to the 2012 preliminary census data, Mutare has a population of 188 243 ; 88 957 being male and 99 286 females . This marks a rapid increase from a population of 69,621 in 1982 and 131,367 in 1992. Zimbabwe (Population data). Suburbs thumb right Mutare Area Viewed from Christmas Pass (File:Mutare Area, Zimbabwe.jpg) Mutare, like most cities in Zimbabwe, classifies residential suburbs according to the population density. The most upscale suburbs (low-density suburbs) such as Murambi,Fairbridge Park (named after the founder of the present site of Mutare), Morningside and Tiger's Kloof are located on the north end of the city along the foothills, while Palmerston, Darlington, Greenside, Greenside extension and Bordervale are east of the city center, near the border with Mozambique. In the west are the medium-density suburbs of Yeovil, Westlea and Florida (and Train Houses), as well as the high density suburb of Chikanga, which was constructed in phases (Phase 1; 2; 3) beginning in the late eighties. Further west of Chikanga lies the Garikai Hlalani Kuhle and Hobhouse. South of the railway track lies the high-density suburb of Sakubva, which contains nearly half of the city's population despite an area of less than four square miles. Sakubva is considered to be the poorest of Mutare's suburbs, and its economy is centred around a large outdoor food and flea market-and the "Musika weHuku" (The chicken market). A few miles to the south, hidden from view from the rest of the city by a series of hills, is the high-density suburb of Dangamvura. The low-density areas of Weirmouth (Plots) and Fern valley are also on the southern outskirts of the city; in these areas residential lots exceed an acre, and market gardening is an economic activity. Further to the south along the road to Masvingo and outside the city limits is the high-density town of Zimunya. Mutare's main industrial areas are south of the railway and west of Sakubva, although there is also some light industry just east of the southern part of the city centre at "Greenmarket" and surrounding areas. These are some of the suburbs of Mutare. class "wikitable" - ''' Region''' '''! Suburbs''' - Northern (North of the railway line) Murambi;Fairbridge Park; Morningside; Tiger's Kloof; Palmerston; Avenues; Utopia; Darlington; Greenside; Yeovil; Westlea; Florida; Chikanga; Toronto - Southern (South of the railway line) Sakubva; Dangamvura; Weirmouth; Fern valley; Zimunya. - Education Mutare is home to schools and tertiary institutions: Primary education * Baring Primary School * Chancellor Junior School * Chikanga Primary School * Cross Kopje Junior School * Chirovakamwe * Dangamvura Primary School * Hillcrest Preparatory School (Private school) * Mutanda Primary School * Mutare Junior School * New Dangare Primary School * Rujeko Primary School * Sakubva Primary School * Murahwa Hill Primary School * St Joseph's Primary School * Sheni Primary School * Zamba Primary School * Zimunya Primary School * Sacred Heart Primary School * Chisamba Primary School * Matika Primary School Secondary education high school education * Mutare Boys' High School * Mutare Girls' High School * St Dominics High Mutare * St Josephs High School *St Augustines Tsambe *Hartzell *Hillcrest College(Private School) * Chikanga High School * Dangamvura High School * Elise Gledhill High School * Jay Rones High School * Nyamauru High School * Sakubva High School (Dangwe) * Sakubva High 2 School (Rushingo) * St Mary's High Chikanga * Beaulah Heights * Dora High School * Gwirindindi Secondary School * Marange High School * Chinyauhwera Secondary School * There are a number of private colleges around the city. Tertiary institutions * Africa University, a pan-African United Methodist funded university of about 5,000 students * Marymount Teachers' College * Mutare Teachers College * Mutare Polytechnic * Magamba vocational training * Fern Valley University -under consideration for construction for a long time Economy The main activities of the area are citrus farming, mining (The city's name is derived from "metal") and forestry. Two of the largest food producers in Zimbabwe, Cairns Foods and Tanganda Tea, operate in Mutare. Mining includes gold at Redwing Mine, Penhalonga and some smaller mines, '''diamonds''' in Marange (Marange diamond fields) and gravel quarries around the city. There are a number of forestry companies including The Wattle Company, Allied Timbers formerly FCZ and Border Timbers. The main timber products include rough sawn timber, wattle bark, charcoal, various doors and frames and mouldings. The major timber produced is pine, sydney blue gum, black wattle, and some hardwoods on a smaller scale. Notable residents * Professor Governor Mambo Mupepi, born in Mutare and went to Dangare Primary School, great goalkeeper and athlete brought MASA and SASA home 1967 Now teaches in the USA and writes much including "British Imperialism in Zimbabwe: Narrating the Organizational Development of the First Chimurenga 1883–1904", "Creating High Impact Organization","Unlocking entreprenuerial capability in Zimbabwe" and many more. * C.W.Mercer, a British author who wrote under the pen name Dornford Yates; lived near the city from 1948 until his death in 1960 * Donal Lamont, Catholic bishop of Umtali Mutare 1957–82, an outspoken opponent of the Ian Smith government; expelled from Rhodesia in 1977 after a high-profile trial * Douglas Rogers (Douglas Rogers (writer)), a journalist and memoirist was born in the city in 1968 and raised there * Arthur Mutambara, became Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 11 February 2009, under the September 2008 power-sharing agreement * Tichafa Samuel Parirenyatwa Dr. (1927–1962), Zimbabwe's first black medical. * Herbert Chitepo (15 June 1923 – 18 March 1975, Zimbabwe's first black lawyer and Chairman of ZANU July 1963 – 18 March 1975 * Supa Mandiwanzira, media personality and politician. He became the deputy minister in the ministry of Information, Media and Broadcasting Services on 10 September 2013. * Edgar Tekere (1937–2011), nicknamed "2 Boy", a prominent politician * Genius Chidzikwe, a tennis player * Trevor Madondo (1976–2001), one of the first black cricket players in Zimbabwe * Lawrence Mudehwe, the first Executive Mayor to be elected as an independent candidate in Zimbabwe; served for two terms * Bjorn Mordt (born 1978), cricketer * Daniel Baradza (born c. 1973), sculptor * Blessing Makunike (24 January 1977 – 13 March 2004), a Zimbabwean international football player * Chiwoniso Maraire (5 March 1976 – 24 July 2013), an accomplished Mbira player, singer, songwriter, and exponent of Zimbabwean mbira music * Willard Katsande (Kaizer Chiefs and Warriors midfielder) * Onismor Bhasera (Bidvest Wits and Warriors leftback) * Washington Arubi (Tuks and warriors Goalkeeper) * Morgan Tsvangirai * Opa Muchinguri * Lazarus Muhoni (Former warriors international football player and formerly with ZUPCO, Buffaloes, Black Rhinos, Dynamos, CAPS) * Nelson Bandura (Tanganda and Mamelodi Sundowns Football Clubs) *Kennias Marange (Former FIFA panel referee) *Trevor Jones Lovelace Saruwaka Mutasa Central MP * Maxwell Chitunhu( Computer Scientist) * David Makwerere (Academic) * Pamela Machakanja (Professor in Peace and Conflict Studies) * Rukudzo Murapa (Former Africa University Vice-Chancellor) * Taka Mutunhu (Banker) * Chris Mushohwe * Hosiah Chipanga * Mike Hitchman * Layman Gunda (The youngest Disc Jockey in the Province) Sister cities WikiPedia:Mutare
composed of 39 parts with a scarab at his right hip has led to speculations this is the tomb of Jamukha. A simple 13th century rock painting of a Mongolian woman with distinct Mongolian headdress can be seen on the north side of Mt Bogd Khan Uul. Abtai Sain Khan is said to have worshipped the mountain in the 16th century as well. The French missionary Gerbillon (Jean-François Gerbillon) camped at the site of Ulan Bator on August 5, 1698 and continued north the next day along the Selbe River valley (present-day Sukhbaatar District). He says in his Journal: '''Peace Bridge''' in Mongolia is a bridge built in 1963 in the city centre of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia, with technical and financial assistance from China (People's Republic of China). * In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is ''de facto'' independent, but not recognized by any UN members. * In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province. * In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District. - align center 30px border (File:Flag of Mongolia.svg) '''Mongolia''' Монгол улс (''Mongol uls'') 35px (File:Monggol ulus.svg) (''Mongγol ulus'') Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) align right 1,564,115.75 align right e 2,754,685 (2010 Census) align right 1.75 align center Mongolian tögrög (MNT) align center Mongolian (Mongolian language) Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Head of Government: Sükhbaataryn Batbold - Asashōryū whose real name is Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj and hailing from Ulan Bator (w:Ulan Bator), Mongolia, started the tournament fourteen days earlier with an opening-day win over komusubi Kisenosato. His tournament win creates a new record with yokozuna (w:Yokozuna_(sumo)#Yokozuna) becoming only the fourth man to win 23 Emperors Cups. He now is only one win behind Kitanoumi (24), but a long way from both Chiyonofuji (31) and Taiho (32).
'', the Hamdallaye obelisk, the Modibo Keita Memorial and many other monuments, the Palais de la Culture Amadou Hampaté Ba and the Point G hill, containing caves with rock paintings. In 1988, Bamako was the location of a WHO (World Health Organization) conference known as the Bamako Initiative that helped reshape health policy of sub-Saharan Africa. The yearly held Budapest-Bamako rally has the endpoint in Bamako, with the Dakar Rally often passing through Bamako. File:Monument Al Quoods - Bamako.jpg Al Quoods Monument File:Monument de l'indépendance - Bamako.jpg Independence Monument File:Monument de la paix - Bamako.jpg Monument de la paix File:L'obélisque des idéogrammes, Hamdallaye - Bamako.jpg Hamdallaye obelisk File:Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes - Statue place des explorateurs - Koulouba - Bamako.jpg Statue of Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes File:Pyramide du souvenir - Bamako.jpg Pyramide du souvenir File:Place Abdoul Karim Camara - Bamako.jpg Place Abdoul Karim Camara File:Place des explorateurs, Koulouba - Bamako.jpg Place des explorateurs Transport thumb left 250px Looking north from Pont Des Martyrs. Kuluba hill is in the background. (File:Bamakolooking north from the old bridge.jpg) thumb 250px right This is a Share taxi#Sotrama Sotrama (File:Taxi vans in Bamako.jpg) stand (pronounced so-tram-a). The Sotrama (Taxi van) is what is used as 'public transportation', though many are owned independently. The Dakar-Niger Railway links Bamako to Dakar via Kati, Négala, Kita (Kita, Mali), and Kayes. The road network links Bamako to Koulikoro, Kati, Kolokani, Ségou, and Sikasso. The Bamako-Sénou International Airport is located 15 km from the city and opened to passengers in 1974. Passenger traffic steadily increased in the early 2000s. Government figures revealed 403,380 passengers in 1999, 423,506 in 2003, 486,526 in 2004, and 516,000 in 2005, and is predicted to reach over 900,000 by 2015 under a low (4%) yearly growth rate scenario. Composante aéroport Bamako-Sénou, Proposition MCA-Mali (2006) To date this growth rate has been surpassed. Total air traffic the airport increased by 12.4% in 2007 and 14% in 2008. Most of this increase came in passenger transport, with the number of passengers served increasing by 20% in 2007 and 17% in 2008. Twenty-seven airline carriers operated weekly or better at Bamako-Sénou International Airport in the 2007–2008 period. This continued growth was offset by cargo flights' decline of 16.75% in 2007, and 3.93% in 2008. "Air traffic at Bamako airport increases by 14% in 2008". PANA press. 2009-01-14 The highest frequency route is on the Bamako-Dakar sector with 29 weekly non-stop connections. Domestic flights also serve Mali's regional capitals Kayes, Mopti, Timbuktu, Sikasso, Gao, and Kidal. Bamako Senou International Airport is managed by Aéroports du Mali (ADM). Its operations are overseen by the Malian Ministry of Equipment and Transports. Much of the transportation is either by the Niger River, or by paved roads linking Bamako to other major urban areas. Navigating the river is possible from Koulikoro to Mopti and Gao. The bush taxi is one of the main modes of transport. Bamako is situated on both sides of the Niger River and two bridges connect the two banks: the Bridge of Martyrs completed in 1960 and renamed in memory of protesters killed in March 1991 by the regime of Moussa Traoré, and the King Fahd Bridge (King Fahd Bridge (Bamako)), named after the Saudi Arabian donor. A third bridge project is currently being funded by the People's Republic of China. Located in Sotuba area, it has the objective to decongest traffic in the city. « Troisième pont de Bamako : le compte à rebours a commencé », ''L'Essor'', 19 November 2007. Healthcare The Point G hospital, built between 1906 and 1913, covers an area of 25 hectares. A former military hospital, it became a civilian hospital shortly before the independence of Mali, and is situated on a hill overlooking Bamako B. Doumbia, « Centenaire du Point G : Un siècle à la pointe des soins et une belle histoire », ''L'Essor'', 11 December 2006. The second hospital of Bamako is the Gabriel Touré Hospital named after a young doctor and humanist Gabriel Touré who was born in 1910 in Ouagadougou and died in 1935 after having been contaminated by a patient with the pneumonic plague. The hospital was established in 1959. B. Doumbia, Board of Directors of the Gabriel Toure hospital: the quality imperative, L'Essor, 26 February 2009 The contract for the building of a new hospital in Bamako, to relieve pressure on the other hospital resources was signed on 27 December 2008. Located in the district of Yirimadio, the department will include a pediatric and obstetrics-gynecology facilities, a department of internal medicine, medical imagery facilities and hospital care with 150 beds to support the emergency services and intensive care. This hospital, like many recent developments in Bamako is financed and equipped with Chinese investment. B. Doumbia, Futur « Hôpital du Mali » : les travaux peuvent démarrer, l'Essor, 31 December 2008 In popular culture Bamako has provided the backdrop or been the subject of books and films such as ''Bamako (Bamako (film))'', directed by Abderrahmane Sissako. The film depicts a trial taking place in Bamako, amid the daily life that is going on in the city. In the midst of that trial, two sides argue whether the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, or perhaps corruption, are guilty of the current financial state of many poverty-stricken African countries. The film was first released at the Cannes Film Festival on 21 May 2006 and in Manhattan by New Yorker Films on 14 February 2007 and was the recipient of the first Film Award of the Council of Europe given at the Istanbul International Film Festival in April 2007. Commons:Category:Bamako Wikipedia:Bamako Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali Localities Bamako
trading center of Kankan, on the upper Milo River. Kankan was a center for the trade in kola nuts, and was well sited to dominate the trade routes in all directions. By 1881, Wassoulou extended through Guinea and Mali, from what is now Sierra Leone to northern Côte d'Ivoire. '''Kita''' is a town and commune in western Mali. It lies on the eastern slope of Mount Kita (Bambara: "Kita-kulu"), known for its caves and rock paintings. Today, the city
depictions representing living creatures such as the golden birds on the Mogadishan canopies (Canopy (building)), the ancient rock paintings in northern Somalia, and the plant decoration (Decorative arts)s on religious tombs in southern Somalia, but these are considered rare. Instead, intricate patterns and geometric designs, bold colors and monumental architecture were the norm. Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia
known rock painting of a ''Brunsvigia'' species in Lesotho probably emphasizes how much the San people valued the bulbs for their psychoactive effects. '''Juliaca''' (Spanish: ''Juliaca'', Quechua (Quechua languages): ''Hullaqa'', Aymara: ''Hullaqa'') is San Roman's capital city in Puno Region, which is situated in southeastern Peru. It is the region's largest city with a population of 225,146 inhabitants (2007), http: censos.inei.gob.pe Censos2007 IndDem on the Altiplano, Juliaca ( Commons:Category:Peru
examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in France. A painting from the Chauvet Cave depicts a hyena outlined and represented in profile, with two legs, with its head and front part with well distinguishable spotted coloration pattern. Because of the specimen's steeped profile, it is thought that the painting was originally meant to represent a cave bear, but was modified as a hyena. In Lascaux, a red and black rock painting of a hyena is present in the part of the cave known as the Diverticule axial, and is depicted in profile, with four limbs, showing an animal with a steep back. The body and the long neck have spots, including the flanks. An image on a cave in Ariège shows an incompletely outlined and deeply engraved figure, representing a part of an elongated neck, smoothly passing into part of the animal’s forelimb on the proximal side. Its head is in profile, with a possibly re-engraved muzzle. The ear is typical of the spotted hyena, as it is rounded. An image in the Le Gabillou Cave in Dordogne shows a deeply engraved zoomorphic figure with a head in frontal view and an elongated neck with part of the forelimb in profile. It has large round eyes and short, rounded ears which are set far from each other. It has a broad, line-like mouth that evokes a smile. Though originally thought to represent a composite or zoomorphic hybrid, it is probable it is a spotted hyena based on its broad muzzle and long neck. The '''naval operations of the American Revolutionary War''' (also, mostly in British usage, ''American War of Independence''), divide themselves naturally into two periods. The first ranges from 1775 until the summer of 1778, as the Royal Navy was engaged in cooperating with the troops employed against the American revolutionaries (Patriot (American Revolution)), on the coasts, rivers and lakes of North America, or in endeavouring to protect British commerce against the enterprise of American privateers. During the second period, the successive interventions of France, Spain, and the Netherlands extended the naval war until it ranged from the West Indies to the Bay of Bengal. This second period lasted from the summer of 1778 to the middle of 1783, and it included operations already been in progress in America or for the protection of commerce, and naval campaigns on a great scale carried out by the fleets of the maritime powers. '''Grey Goose''' is a Bacardi-owned brand of premium priced vodka produced in France. It is distilled in France from French wheat. In 2004, Sidney Frank sold the brand to Bacardi for $2.2 billion. Among French vodkas, Grey Goose has some competitors, as the French vodkas Nuage, Idol, Marceau and Ice Kube are also now on the market, as well as the German Lumb and Swedish Albertson brands. These vodkas are sold mostly in North America and Eastern Europe, and are marketed as premium brands. Grey Goose vodka is bottled with a replaceable cork (Cork (material)) rather than a screw-top cap. Production and history Grey Goose was designed for the American (United States) market in 1997 by Sidney Frank, a self-made billionaire. After the advent of the premium vodka market by rival Polish vodka brand Belvedere vodka in 1996, his concept was to create a high quality vodka for Americans. He took the idea from the notion of French (France) manufacturing having an inherent link with high perceived quality, quickly dispatching a team to Europe. Grey Goose was created as a result. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
1933 by the Hungarian (Hungary) explorer László Almásy. It contains rock painting images of people swimming estimated to have been created 10,000 years ago during the time of the most recent Ice Age. She is described as strong-willed and artistically talented. She was an accomplished amateur photographer and painter (Painting) and she also sculpted. On her travels in Egypt and Italy she both photographed and painted extensively, and experimented with various photo-developing techniques, producing high quality photographic work. She was also an excellent pianist and, for example, could play through the complete ''Ring of the Nibelung'' by Wagner without notes. She had had a good music education and in her youth she had turned the notes on court concerts for Franz Liszt. Her favourite composers were Schubert and Beethoven. She was also described as a skillful rider. Natural resources Bentonite, perlite, pozzolana and small quantities of kaolin are actively collected via strip mine or open-pit mine techniques in Milos and sold all over the world. In the past, baryte, sulfur, millstones and gypsum were also mined; in fact, Pliny notes that Milos was the most abundant source of sulfur in the ancient world. C.Michael Hogan. 2011. ''Sulfur''. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A.Jorgensen and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington DC In ancient times the alum of Milos was reckoned next to that of Egypt (Pliny xxxv. 15 52 ). The Melian earth was employed as a pigment by ancient artists. Milos was a source of obsidian during the Neolithic ages for the Aegean and Mediterranean. Orange (Orange (fruit)), olive, cypress (Mediterranean Cypress), tamarisk, juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) and arbutus trees grow throughout the island, which, however, is too dry to have any profusion of vegetation. Vines, cotton and barley are the main crops. Early military career Born '''Mansfield George Smith''' on April 1, 1859 in British India, the youngest in the family of five sons and eight daughters of Colonel John Thomas Smith (1805–1882) of the Royal Engineers, of Föelallt House, Cardigan Kent, and his wife, Maria Sarah Tyser. His father was the great grandson of John Smith (a director of both the South Sea Company and the East India Company), the second son of Abel Smith (d.1756) the Nottingham Banker. Smith attended the Royal Naval College (Britannia Royal Naval College) at Dartmouth (Dartmouth, Devon) from the age of thirteen and, upon graduation, was commissioned to the Navy as a sub-lieutenant. He was posted to HMS ''Bellerophon'' (HMS Bellerophon (1865)) in 1878, and for the next seven years served in operations against Malay (Malaysia) pirates (during 1875–6) and in Egypt in 1883. However, he increasingly suffered from severe seasickness, and in 1885 was placed on the retired list as "unfit for service". When Ben-Gurion resigned in June 1963, Eshkol was elected party chairman with a broad consensus, and was subsequently appointed Prime Minister. However, his relationship with Ben-Gurion soon turned acrimonious over the latter's insistence on investigating the Lavon Affair, an Israeli covert operation in Egypt, which had gone wrong a decade earlier. Ben-Gurion failed to challenge Eshkol's leadership and split from Mapai with a few of his young protégés to form Rafi (Rafi (political party)) in June 1965. In the meantime, Mapai merged with Ahdut HaAvoda to form the Alignment (Alignment (political party)) with Eshkol as its head. Rafi was defeated by the Alignment in the elections (Israeli legislative election, 1965) held in November 1965, establishing Eshkol as the country's indisputable leader. Yet Ben-Gurion, drawing on his influence as Israel's founding father, continued to undermine Eshkol's authority throughout his term as Prime Minister, portraying him as a spineless politician incapable of addressing Israel's security predicament. The summit President Clinton announced his invitation to Barak and Arafat on 5 July 2000, to come to Camp David to continue their negotiations on the Middle East peace process. There was a hopeful precedent in the 1978 Camp David Accords (Camp David Accords (1978)) where President Jimmy Carter (Jimmy Carter) was able to broker a peace agreement between Egypt, represented by President Anwar Sadat, and Israel represented by Prime Minister Menachem Begin. The Oslo Accords of 1993 between the later assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat had provided that agreement should be reached on all outstanding issues between the Palestinians and Israeli sides – the so-called final status settlement – within five years of the implementation of Palestinian autonomy (State of Palestine). However, the interim process put in place under Oslo had fulfilled neither Israeli nor Palestinian expectations, and Arafat argued that the summit was premature. Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
) is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups claimed to be the aboriginal (Indigenous peoples) population of India.
This versatile genius was a prolific writer, a Japanese lecturer and a geophysicist. Born on 2 August 1876 to Hanumantharayudu and Venkataratnamma at Bhatlapennumaru in the Divi taluk in Krishna district, Pingali was a precocious child. After finishing his primary education at Challapalli and school at the Hindu High School, Masulipatnam, he went to Colombo to complete his Senior Cambridge. Enthused by patriotic zeal, he enlisted himself for the Boer war at 19. While in Africa he met Gandhi, and their rapport lasted for more than half a century. On his return to India he worked as a railway guard at Bangalore and Madras and subsequently joined the government service as the plague officer at Bellary. His patriotic zeal, however, did not permit him to stagnate in a permanent job, and his quest for education took him to Lahore where he joined the Anglo-Vedic College, and learnt Japanese and Urdu. He studied Japanese and history under Prof Gote.During his five years stay in the north, he became active in politics. Pingali met many revolutionaries and planned strategies to overthrow the colonial rule. The 1906 Congress session with Dadabhai Naoroji witnessed Pingali emerging as an activist and a force behind the decision making committee. Here he met the famous philanthropist, the Raja of Munagala, and from 1906–11, he spent his time in Munagala researching on agriculture and the crops. For his pioneering study on the special variety of Cambodia cotton, he came to be called Patti Venkayya. Even the British were taken up by his contributions in the field of agriculture and conferred on him honorary membership of the Royal Agricultural Society of Britain. Underwater hockey enjoys great popularity in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the USA, the Netherlands and France, as well as to a lesser extent in other countries such as Japan, Singapore, the Philippines, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Zimbabwe, and can be found in numerous additional countries (but not Moldova apparently).