Places Known For

resistance activities


Postojna

and Šturje (Ajdovščina) was annexed to Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)) in 1920, but was subsequently also included into Yugoslavia in 1947. See: Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 Since 1991, the region has been part of an independent Slovenia. Early activity The first organized anti-Fascist resistance activities in the Julian March began in the mid 1920s in the easternmost districts of the region (around Postojna and Ilirska Bistrica), on the border with Yugoslavia. Local Slovene activists established contacts with the Yugoslav nationalist organization Orjuna, launching first attacks at Italian military and police personnel. These were however still mostly individual actions, without an organizational background. The connections between the Slovene anti-Fascist activists and the Orjuna were soon broken due to a different ideological agenda. List of all towns in Slovenia Towns in Slovenia, recognised as such by the National Assembly in 2000, are: Ajdovščina, Bled, Bovec, Brežice, Celje, Črnomelj, Domžale, Gornja Radgona, Hrastnik, Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola, Jesenice (Jesenice, Slovenia), Kamnik, Kocevje, Koper, Kostanjevica ob Krki (Kostanjevica na Krki), Kranj, Krško, Laško, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana, Ljutomer, Maribor, Metlika, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ormož, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radeče, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroškem, Sevnica, Sežana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenske Konjice, Škofja Loka, Šoštanj, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Tržič, Velenje, Višnja Gora, Vrhnika, Zagorje ob Savi, Žalec. InterCity Slovenija (ICS) The ICS (SŽ series 310) trains are modern, air-conditioned trains which provide fast speeds and comfort. They are equipped with disabled access and other facilities. The passengers can buy food on board (from Monday to Friday), the 1st class passengers are offered food free of charge. There are also electric sockets in the 1st class department. The ICS trains run on the (Koper - Hrpelje-Kozina - Divača - Pivka - Postojna -) Ljubljana - Zidani Most - Celje - Pragersko - Maribor - Spielfeld-Straß (Austria) (Spielfeld) line, the section in brackets on summer Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays only, section in square brackets only one pair of trains a day. The train is a tilting EMU (Electric multiple unit). The reservation of a seat is obligatory and is included in the price of the ticket. Also included in the price of the ticket is the obligatory ICS supplement. *the western parts of the former Duchy of Carniola: more than half of the region of Inner Carniola, with the towns of Idrija, Vipava (Vipava, Slovenia), Šturje (Ajdovščina), Postojna, Št. Peter na Krasu (Pivka) and Ilirska Bistrica, and the Upper Carniolan municipality of Bela Peč Weissenfels (later Italianized to Fusine in Valromana, now a frazione of Tarvisio); *the whole territory of former Austrian Littoral, except for the municipality of Kastav and the island of Krk, which were ceased to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; Wikipedia:Postojna Commons:Category:Postojna


Gestapo

Havilland Mosquito Mosquito FB.Mk.VIs . On 18 February 1944 the squadron took part in the raid on the Amiens prison (Operation ''Jericho'' (Operation Jericho)), destroying a wall and enabling over a hundred Resistance (World War II#Resistance) prisoners, scheduled for execution, to escape. On 31 October 1944 the squadron destroyed the Gestapo headquarters at Aarhus resulting in the loss of German intelligence records about Resistance activities. In February 1945 the Squadron

. Resistance activities Cato Bontjes van Beek's active work against the Nazis began in the Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy)) resistance organization after she had gotten to know Libertas Schulze-Boysen. After this group was broken up, she undertook further action together with Heinz Strelow. She printed and distributed illegal writings and leaflets which sought to arouse readers to the struggle and resistance against the Nazis' reign of terror. Van Beek's struggle ended with her arrest

churches and the Christian youth groups to consolidate with the Hitler Youth. Resistance activities Beginning in 1935, he gathered around himself a circle of left-leaning anti-fascists, among them artists, pacifists, and Communists. The circle published anti-fascist writings. In 1936, he married Libertas Haas-Heye (Libertas Schulze-Boysen), a press officer for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who likewise joined the resistance group. In 1936, Schulze-Boysen made contact with Arvid Harnack and his circle, and also with the Communists Hilde (Hilde Coppi) and Hans Coppi. From these meetings arose what the Gestapo called the Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy)) (''Rote Kapelle'') group. Arrest and death In July 1942, the Decryption Department of the ''Oberkommando des Heeres'' managed to decode the group's radio messages, and the Gestapo pounced. On 31 August, Harro and Libertas Schulze-Boysen were arrested. They were sentenced to death on 19 December and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. Resistance activities In 1934, Elisabeth Hohenemser married the sculptor Kurt Schumacher (Kurt Schumacher (sculptor)), a staunch Communist. The couple became part of the circle of friends that included Libertas (Libertas Schulze-Boysen) and Harro Schulze-Boysen, and Mildred (Mildred Harnack) and Arvid Harnack, which the Gestapo later dubbed the "Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (espionage))" (''Rote Kapelle''). The group was active giving out handbills and documenting the Nazi régime's crimes. thumb Adolf Reichwein at the Volksgerichtshof (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 151-11-29, Volksgerichtshof, Adolf Reichwein.jpg) As a member of the Kreisau Circle, Reichwein belonged to the resistance movement against Hitler. It is quite likely that he would have become culture minister in a democratic government. In early July 1944, Reichwein was arrested by the Gestapo, and, in a trial against Julius Leber, Hermann Maaß and Gustav Dahrendorf, sentenced to death by Roland Freisler's ''Volksgerichtshof''. He was killed next to Maaß at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin on 20 October 1944. Arrest, trial, and death The month had not even ended when Korselt was arrested by the Gestapo. On 18 August, he was transferred from the court prison in Rostock to the detention centre in Berlin-Moabit. On 23 August, Korselt's case was heard by the First Senate of the ''Volksgerichtshof'', presided over by the president Roland Freisler and judges Storbeck, Canabis, Aumüller and Bodinus as well as the accuser Dr. Schultze. Korselt was found guilty of ''Wehrkraftzersetzung'' for uttering his remark on a tram in Rostock as to how Hitler needed to step down owing to the unlikelihood of Germany's winning the war with him in charge. The sentence was the loss of his civil rights, and death. On 25 August at 19:15, the sentence was carried out at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. By 1934, Von der Heydte obtained Austrian citizenship while also maintaining German Bavarian citizenship. He had become involved in several brawls with pro-Nazi (Nazism) students, and only evaded the Gestapo by rejoining his old cavalry regiment. During this period he received a stipend from the Carnegie Institute for Peace (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). In 1934 he re-joined the Reichswehr, and it 1935 he was transferred to ''Kavallerie-Regiment Nr.15'' and promoted to Lieutenant within the Wehrmacht. He again secured his temporary release from the military for study, and traveled to the Netherlands where he furthered his education at The Hague. The group's name was more commonly abbreviated "G30S PKI" by those wanting to associate it with the PKI, and propaganda would refer to the group as ''Gestapu'' (for its similarity to "Gestapo", the name of the Nazi (Nazism) secret police). Roosa (2007) p29 Its main function was as a civilian counterpart to the military's ''Kempeitai'' and ''Tokkeitai (Tokubetsukeibitai (Navy))'', and it can be considered roughly equivalent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States in terms of combining both criminal investigation and counter-espionage functions. It has been less charitably compared to the Nazi Gestapo secret police. The ''Tokkō'' was also known as the “Peace Police” ''(Chian Keisatsu),'' or more notoriously by the term “Thought Police” ''(Shiso Keisatsu)'', Edwin P. Hoyt, ''Japan's War'', p 113 ISBN 0-07-030612-5 a phrase later used in George Orwell's ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. In November 1942, Mandel and Reynaud were given over to the Gestapo after the Germany Army moved into unoccupied France to counter the threat from the Allies that had just landed in North Africa. Mandel was deported to Germany, first to Oranienburg then to Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp), where he was held with Léon Blum. In 1944 the German Ambassador in Paris, Otto Abetz 'suggested' to Laval that Mandel, Blum, and Reynaud, should be shot by the French government at Vichy in retaliation for a collaborationist who had been shot by the Algiers Committee. Mandel was returned to Paris on July 4, 1944, supposedly as a hostage. While being transferred from one prison to another he was captured by the Milice. thumb left 160px Storch in "The Magnificent Forger" episode, 1967. (File:Larry Storch Garrisons Gorillas 1967.JPG) This action series focused on a motley group of commandos recruited from stateside prisons to use their special skills against the Germans in World War II. They had been promised a parole at the end of the war if they worked out. And if they lived. The alternative was an immediate return to prison. If they ran, they could expect execution for desertion. The four were: Actor (Cesare' Danova (Cesare Danova)) a handsome, resonant-voiced con man; Casino (Rudy Solari), a tough, wiry safe-cracker and mechanic; Goniff (Christopher Cary) a slender, likable Cockney cat burglar; and Chief (Brendan Boone) a rugged, somber American Indian (Native Americans in the United States) who handled a switchblade like he was born to it. Led by West Pointer (United States Military Academy) First Lt. Craig Garrison (Ron Harper (Ron Harper (actor))) and headquartered in a secluded mansion in England, this slippery group ranged all over Europe in exploits that often took them behind enemy lines. In the pilot, Lt. Hanley from "Combat" gives them the name "Gorillas". Other recruits were sometimes brought in where special skills were required. In the episode "Banker's Hours", Jack Klugman is recruited to help loot a vault. In "The Magnificant Forger" comedian Larry Storch turns in one of a solid dramatic performance as a con brought in to help 'doctor' a Gestapo list of American agents. And in the two-parter "War And Crime Plot to Kill" a con played by Richard Kiley is recruited because he was a dead ringer for a German field marshal who was part of a plot to assassinate Hitler (Adolf Hitler). left thumb Residential area of Hamburg (Image:Hamburg after the 1943 bombing.jpg) after the 1943 RAF attack (Operation Gomorrah (Bombing of Hamburg in World War II)) The main RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany. From May 31, 1942 RAF Bomber Command was able to mount large-scale night raids, sometimes involving up to 1,000 aircraft. From mid-1942 increasing numbers of these aircraft were heavy four-engined bombers such as the Handley-Page Halifax and the Avro Lancaster. Noteworthy raids include Operation Millennium against Cologne, the first 1000-bomber raid; Operation Chastise, the 'Dambusters' raids on targets in the Ruhr Valley; Operation Gomorrah (Bombing of Hamburg in World War II), the destruction of Hamburg; and the 'Battle of Berlin' (Battle of Berlin (air)). The lighter, fast two-engine de Havilland Mosquito fighter-bomber was used for tactical raids like Operation Carthage, a raid on the Gestapo headquarters in Copenhagen, as well as a night-fighter. The value of this campaign to the allied war effort has been disputed and it can be argued that it was a diversion or resources away from other vital areas - regardless of its moral implications. After repeated interrogations by the Gestapo from the mid-1930s onwards, he was finally dismissed in 1940. Thielicke was conscripted, but nine months later he was able to take over a church in Ravensburg with the help of regional bishop Theophil Wurm. In 1942 he assumed theological office in Stuttgart, from where he delivered numerous sermons and went on lecture tours, continually made difficult by the government by means of bans on travel, publication and preaching. Thielicke published a critique of Bultmann's (Rudolf Karl Bultmann) composition about the demythologisation of the New Testament, which gave rise to a respectful, but inconclusive correspondence between the two. He also contacted the resistance group Freiburger Kreis, but without working actively in their plans for a revolution. According to several sources, Hudal may at the same time have been a Vatican-based informer of German intelligence under the Nazi regime, for either Abwehr of Wilhelm Canaris or for the RSHA. Vatican historian Fr. Robert Graham SJ held that view more categorically in his book ''Nothing Sacred''. Robert Graham and David Alvarez, ''Nothing Sacred: Nazi Espionage against the Vatican, 1939-1945'', London, 1998. On Hudal as a German spy, see also Klaus Voigt, ''Zuflucht auf Widerruf. Exil in Italien 1933-1945'' (Precarious refuge. Exile in Italy 1933-1945), vol. I, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1989. Several other authors mention his contacts in Rome with SS intelligence chief Walter Rauff. In September 1943, Rauff was sent to Milan, where he took charge of all Gestapo and SD (Sicherheitsdienst) operations throughout northwest Italy. "5 September 2005 releases: German intelligence officers", in Security Service, MI5, Hudal is said to have met Rauff then and to have begun some cooperation with him that was useful afterwards in the setting up of an escape network for Nazis, including for Rauff himself. After the war Rauff escaped from a prisoner camp in Rimini and "hid in a number of Italian convents, apparently under the protection of Bishop Alois Hudal", "Opening of CIA Records under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act", in The National Archives, Press Release, May 8, 2002 eventually finding safe haven in Syria , Egypt and later in Chile. German Liaison in Jewish topics (until 1942) *Colonel Josef Meisinger: chief of the Gestapo, was the Nazi liaison with Japanese military and government on the Jewish question. *Dr.Franz Joseph Spahn: leader-designee and political adviser of the NSDAP (Nazi) party in Japan in that period Kapp was born in German part of Silesia. After the outbreak of World War II he joined the Gestapo. Initially a translator, with time he was promoted to the deputy commander of a Gestapo outpost in Jędrzejów. Among his tasks were recruitment of collaborators and assisting in the arrest of people in the powiats of Jędrzejów and Włoszczowa. He was also one of the people to brutally interrogate and torture those arrested by the Germans. According to his own testimony, he personally murdered 452 Poles, including 365 Jews. The designated concentration camps were not classified as "KZ-Lager" by the Nazis, but rather as ”Häftingslager” under the administration of the Nazi "security police," the SS and Gestapo. Indeed, the Nazi authorities deported over 700 Jews from Norway to Auschwitz, over 500 ''Nacht und Nebel'' prisoners to Natzweiler; and thousands more to Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen concentration camp), Ravensbrück and other prisons and camps in Germany. Most of these stayed in Norwegian camps during transit. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


Sturmabteilung

, a leading expert on public opinion in Nazi Germany argued that there was a vast disparity of views between those of the ''Alte Kämpfer'' and the general German public, but that even those Germans who were not politically active favored bringing in tougher new anti-Semitic laws in 1935. Marrus, Michael The Holocaust In History, Toronto: Key Porter, 2000 pages 92–93 Resistance activities After the Nazis seized power (Machtergreifung) in 1933 and his flat was stormed


Montenegro

.shtml#two title History - World Wars: Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941 - 1945 publisher BBC date accessdate 2011-08-12 However, while some Chetnik units did engage in marginal Milazzo (1975) (#Milazzo 1975), p.182 resistance activities for limited periods, Milazzo (1975) (#Milazzo_1975), pp. 103-105 the Chetnik movement Milazzo (1975) (#Milazzo_1975), pp.185-186 ref>

; Milazzo (1975) (#Milazzo 1975), p.182 resistance activities and avoided accommodations with the enemy. Ramet (2006) (#Ramet 2006), p. 147 Milazzo (1975) (#Milazzo 1975), p. 21 Over a period of time, and in different parts of the country, the Chetniks were drawn progressively Tomasevich (1975) (#Tomasevich 1975) into collaboration


Vienna

its resistance activities. In January 1943, using a hand-operated duplicating machine, the group is thought to have produced between 6,000 and 9,000 copies of their fifth leaflet, "Appeal to all Germans!", which was distributed via courier runs to many cities (where they were mailed). Copies appeared in Stuttgart, Cologne, Vienna, Freiburg, Chemnitz, Hamburg, Innsbruck, and Berlin. The fifth leaflet was composed by Hans Scholl with improvements

settled in Copenhagen in 1842 when he was appointed ''royal kammermusikus'' to the Royal Danish Court. By 1851 he was named ''court organist'' to the church of Christiansborg Palace by King Frederick VII (Frederick VII of Denmark). In 1911, he became involved in politics and joined the Státoprávně pokroková strana. During the First World War, he was imprisoned in Vienna for his resistance activities against Austria-Hungary. In 1918, he co-founded the Czechoslovak National


Hamburg

Commons:Category:Hamburg Wikipedia:Hamburg Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Hamburg


Bavaria

mystic and visionary of Konnersreuth in Bavaria, who supported Gerlich's resistance activities. Initially he wanted to expose the “swindle” of her stigmatism, but Gerlich came back as a changed man and converted (religious conversion) from Calvinism to Catholicism (Roman Catholic Church) in 1931. From that year until his death, his resistance became inspired by the social teachings of the Catholic Church. In 1827, the combined fleets of France, England and Russia defeated


Jerusalem

, representing the Ten Commandments as a foundation for the Jerusalem Altar. In November 2001, 15 members of a PLF cell were arrested by Israeli authorities. Some of those captured had received military training in Iraq. The cell had been planning attacks in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and the Ben Gurion airport. The cell had already been involved in other resistance activities including the targeted assassination of Israeli illegal settler Yuri Gushstein. Terrorism - In the Spotlight: The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Overview Israeli culture is heterogeneous and dynamic. With a diverse population of immigrants from five continents and more than 100 countries, and significant subcultures like the Arabs, the Russians, the Ethiopians and the Orthodox, each with its own newspapers and cultural networks, Israeli culture is extremely varied. Tel Aviv is considered the hub of secular culture, although many leading cultural institutions are located in Jerusalem. The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays at venues throughout the country and abroad. The Israel Broadcasting Authority has a symphony orchestra that performs in Israel and around the world, and almost every city has its own orchestras, many of the musicians hailing from the former Soviet Union. Israeli dance companies, among them the Batsheva (Batsheva Dance Company) and Bat Dor, are highly acclaimed in the dance world. Theater is also an important facet of the culture of Israel. The national theater, Habima (Habima Theatre) was established in 1917. Other theater companies include the Cameri Theater, Beit Lessin Theater, Gesher Theater (which performs in Hebrew and Russian), Haifa Theater and Beersheba Theater. Safed, Jaffa and Ein Hod are home to artist colonies. Major art museums operate in Tel Aviv, Herzliya and Jerusalem, as well as in many towns and kibbutzim. Jerusalem's Israel Museum has a special pavilion showcasing the Dead Sea scrolls and a large collection of Jewish religious art, Israeli art, sculptures and Old Masters paintings. Newspapers appear in dozens of languages, and every city and town publishes a local newsletter. Via Switzerland to England, ambassador After leaving Rome, where he had become intimate with all that was most interesting in the cosmopolitan society of the papal capital, Bunsen went to England, where, except for a short term as Prussian ambassador to Switzerland (1839–1841), he was destined to pass the rest of his official life. The accession to the throne of Prussia of Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia), on 7 June 1840, made a great change in Bunsen's career. Ever since their first meeting in 1828 the two men had been close friends and had exchanged ideas in an intimate correspondence, published under Ranke (Leopold Von Ranke)'s editorship in 1873. Enthusiasm for evangelical religion and admiration for the Anglican Church they held in common, and Bunsen was the instrument naturally selected for realizing the king's fantastic scheme of setting up at Jerusalem a Prusso-Anglican bishopric (Anglican-German Bishopric in Jerusalem) as a sort of advertisement of the unity and aggressive force of Protestantism. Early life Sununu was born in Havana, Cuba, the son of Victoria (née Dada) and John Saleh Sununu, an international film distributor. 1 He is of Palestinian Christian descent. His father grew up in Jerusalem and his mother was born in San Salvador, El Salvador. http: www.nytimes.com 2000 04 12 classified paid-notice-deaths-sununu-victoria-dada.html He is a Maronite Catholic . The prayer is recited standing with feet firmly together, and preferably while facing Jerusalem. In Orthodox public worship, the Shemoneh Esrei is usually first prayed silently by the congregation and is then repeated aloud by the ''chazzan'' (reader); the repetition's original purpose was to give illiterate members of the congregation a chance to participate in the collective prayer by answering "Amen." Conservative (Conservative Judaism) and Reform (Reform Judaism) congregations sometimes abbreviate the public recitation of the Amidah according to their customs. The rules (Halacha) governing the composition and recital of the Amidah are discussed primarily in the Talmud, in Chapters 4-5 of Berakhot (Berakhot (Talmud)); in the Mishneh Torah, in chapters 4-5 of ''Hilkhot Tefilah''; and in the Shulchan Aruch, Laws 89-127. Facing Jerusalem The Amidah is preferably said facing Jerusalem, as the patriarch Jacob proclaimed, "And this place is the gateway to Heaven," Genesis 28:17 where prayers may ascend. The Talmud records the following Baraita on this topic: The most recent known change to the text of the standard daily ''Amidah'' by an authority accepted by Orthodox Judaism was done by the Arizal in the 16th century. He formulated a text of the ''Amidah'' which seems to be a fusion of the Ashkenazi and Sepharadi text in accordance with his understanding of Kabbalah. Following the establishment of the State of Israel and the reunification of Jerusalem, some Orthodox authorities proposed changes to the special ''Nachem'' ("Console...") prayer commemorating the destruction of Jerusalem added to the Amidah on Tisha B'av in light of these events. Based in New York City, the magazine has 22 bureaus: nine in the U.S.: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago Detroit, Dallas, Miami, Washington, D.C., Boston and San Francisco, as well as overseas in London, Paris, Berlin, Moscow, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Beijing, South Asia, Cape Town, Mexico City and Buenos Aires. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


Taiwan

in modern history, and participated in the Northern Expedition (Northern Expedition (1926–1927)). Her literary reputation started with her military diaries. She was arrested in Japan for resistance activities in 1935. In 1948 she moved to Taiwan to escape the coming communist rule. In 1974 she emigrated to the United States. From 1960-1963 Babbie served tours in the United States Marine Corps, as a disbursing officer in Okinawa, Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines


Berlin

1944, Kleist was one of the many supporters and helpers at the Bendlerblock in Berlin after the attempt on Hitler's life at the Wolf's Lair near Rastenburg (Kętrzyn) in East Prussia. After the plot's failure, he managed to cover up his resistance activities. Proceedings against him were later dismissed for want of evidence in December 1944, thereby sparing Kleist a trial before the ''Volksgerichtshof (People's Court (German))'', which almost certainly would have ended


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