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Confederate Ireland

Revolution " of 1688. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which pitted the "green" tradition of the republican (Irish republicanism) United Irishmen against the "orange" tradition of Anglican Protestant Ascendancy loyal to the British Crown, the ideal of a later nationalist (Irish nationalism) generation in the mid-19th century was to make peace between the two traditions and, if possible, to found a self-governing Ireland on such peace and union. * '''Kingdom of Ireland''' (1541–1800) :* Confederate Ireland was an Irish government that controlled much of Ireland between during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. * Part of the '''United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland''' (1801–1922) In spring 1642 the Irish Catholics formed their own government, the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), with its capital at Kilkenny, and began to raise their own regular troops, more organized and capable than the irregular militia of the 1641 rebellion. Also in early 1642 the king sent in troop reinforcements from England and Scotland. Ormonde was faced with a difficult task in reconciling all the different factions in Ireland. The Old (native) Irish and Catholic Irish of English descent ("Old English (Old English (Ireland))") were represented in Confederate Ireland—essentially an independent Catholic government based in Kilkenny—who wanted to come to terms with King Charles I of England (Charles I of England) in return for religious toleration and self-government. On the other side, any concession that Ormonde made to the Confederates weakened his support among English and Scottish Protestants in Ireland. But jealousy between the kinsmen was complicated by differences between Eoghan Ruadh and the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) which met at Kilkenny in October 1642. Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I (Charles I of England); but his real aim was the complete Independence of Ireland as a Roman Catholic country, while the Old English (Old English (Ireland)) Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England. More concretely, O'Neill wanted the Plantation of Ulster overturned and the recovery of the O'Neill clan's ancestral lands. Moreover, he was unhappy that the majority of Confederate military resources were directed to Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara)'s Leinster Army. Preston was also a Spanish veteran but he and O'Neill had an intense personal dislike of each other. In May 1650 Cromwell was recalled to England to command a Parliamentary force preparing to invade Scotland, and Ireton assumed command of the New Model Army in Ireland with the title and powers of lord-deputy (Lord Deputy of Ireland) to complete the conquest of the country. This he proceeded to do with his usual energy, becoming noted as much by the severity of his methods of punishment as for his military skill. By the middle of 1650 Ireton and his commanders faced two problems. One was the capture of the remaining cities held by the Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) and Royalists forces. The other was an escalating guerrilla war in the countryside as Irish fighters called tories (rapparees) attacked his supply lines. Ireton appealed to the English Parliament to publish lenient surrender terms for Irish Catholics, in order to end their resistance, but when this was refused he began the laborious process of subduing the Catholic forces. The Tribes distinguished themselves from the Gaelic (Gaels) peoples who lived in the hinterland of the city. However the feared suppression of their common faith joined both sides together as Irish Catholics after the Irish Rebellion of 1641 (indeed for many Irish was a second or even first language). During the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1653), Galway took the side of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland (Confederate Ireland), and as a result the Tribes were punished following the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was besieged (Siege of Galway) and after the surrender of Galway in April 1652, the Tribes had to face the confiscation of their property by the New Model Army. Campaign In 1643, King Charles had signed a "cessation" with the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). This allowed him to recall several English regiments which had been sent to Ireland after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, to reinforce his armies. Rogers (1968), p.112 In November 1643, several of these regiments were sent to Cheshire where a new field army was being raised, commanded at first by Lord Capell (Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham). Capell was replaced in December by Lord John Byron (John Byron, 1st Baron Byron), who had been a successful cavalry brigade commander in the King's main "Oxford Army". On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, and Co. Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army arrived 1649 in the county and captured it. The lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II (James II of England), after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and then to exile in France. County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland during the 1640s. A fleet of Confederate privateers was based in Wexford town, consisting of sailors from Flanders and Spain as well as local men. Their vessels raided English (England) Parliamentarian shipping, giving some of the proceeds to the Confederate government in Kilkenny. As a result, the town was sacked (Sack of Wexford) by the English Parliamentarians (Roundhead) during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Many of its inhabitants were killed and much of the town was burned. Poynings' Law was a major rallying point for groups seeking self government for Ireland, particularly the Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) in the 1640s. It was also a major grievance for Henry Grattan's Patriot Party (Irish Patriot Party) in the late 18th century, who consistently sought a repeal of Poynings' Law. The Act remained in place until the Constitution of 1782 gave the Irish parliament legislative independence. thumb right The flag of the Republic of Ireland (File:Flag of Ireland.svg), representing the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, formally adopted as the national flag by Bunreacht na hEireann (1937). thumb right The green harp flag (File:Green harp flag of Ireland 17th century.svg) was first used by Irish Confederate troops (Confederate Ireland) in the Eleven Years War (Irish Confederate Wars), and became the main symbol of Irish nationalism from the 17th century to the early 20th century. A more significant movement came in the 1640s, after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when a coalition of Gaelic Irish and Hiberno-Norman Catholics set up a ''de facto'' independent Irish state to fight the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (see Confederate Ireland). The Confederate Catholics of Ireland, also known as the Confederation of Kilkenny, emphasised that Ireland was a Kingdom independent from England, though under the same monarch. They demanded autonomy for the Irish Parliament, full rights for Catholics and an end to the confiscation of Catholic owned land. The Confederate cause was destroyed in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649–53) and the old Catholic landowning class was dispossessed permanently. The Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) troops abandoned the tower house during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, and Hamlet Obins (who had survived its capture) repossessed it in 1652. It was then passed to his son Anthony Obins. thumb left upright A souvenir of Montrose's hanging: His right arm (seen front and back) and sword. (Image:Arms of Montrose.png) Highlanders had never before been known to combine together, but Montrose knew that many of the West Highland clans, who were largely Catholic (Roman Catholic), detested Argyll and his Campbell (Clan Campbell) clansmen, none more so than the MacDonalds (Clan Donald) who with many of the other clans rallied to his summons. The Royalist allied Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland) sent 2000 disciplined Irish soldiers led by Alasdair MacColla across the sea to assist him. In two campaigns, distinguished by rapidity of movement, he met and defeated his opponents in six battles. At Tippermuir (battle of Tippermuir) and Aberdeen (battle of Aberdeen) he routed Covenanting levies; at Inverlochy (Battle of Inverlochy (1645)) he crushed the Campbells, at Auldearn (Battle of Auldearn), Alford (battle of Alford) and Kilsyth (battle of Kilsyth) his victories were obtained over well-led and disciplined armies. George Wishart, ''Memoirs of the Most Renowned James Graham, Marquis of Montrose'', 1819, A. Constable, 530 pages Confederate Ireland In the 17th century, the castle came into the hands of Elizabeth Preston, wife of then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, another James Butler (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde), also 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Ormonde. Butler, unlike most of his family, was a Protestant and throughout the Irish Confederate Wars of the 1640s was the representative of Charles I (Charles I of England) in Ireland. However, his castle became the capital of a Catholic rebel movement, Confederate Ireland, whose parliament or "Supreme Council" met in Kilkenny Castle from 1642-48. Ormonde himself was based in Dublin at this time. The east wall and the northeast tower of the Castle were damaged in 1650 during the siege of Kilkenny by Oliver Cromwell during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. They were later torn down. Then, in 1661, Butler remodelled the castle as a “modern” château after his return from exile. A new entrance gateway in the south wall was built around this time. thumb left Trim Castle (File:Trim Castle 6.jpg) built by Hugh de Lacy The town is home to Western Europe's largest Norman (Norman architecture) castle, Trim Castle (or King John's Castle), which was built in the late 12th century following the Norman invasion of Ireland's eastern seaboard. Trim and the surrounding lands were granted to Hugh de Lacy (Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath), a Norman knight. Richard II of England stayed there before being ousted from power. Once a candidate to be the country's capital, the town has also occupied a role as one of the outposts of the Pale. It was also designated by Elizabeth I of England as the planned location for a Protestant Dublin University (known as Trinity College, Dublin). The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


Gävle

of the central shopping district. See thumb 250px Old Town of Gävle (Image:Gävle-Gamla Stan.JPG) '''Gävlebocken''' is one of the citys most famous mascots. During the Christmas season local business owners contribute to construct a large straw goat in Castle Square. The goat often is victim of a fiery death by pranksters. Be aware that '''burning or otherwise vandalizing the goat is a crime''', though locals might deceive foreign travellers to carry on the "tradition". A few blocks is all that remains of '''Gamla Gefle''', Gävle's old town, after several devastating fires and excessive demolition in the 1960s. Located on the south side of Gavleån it makes for a nice afternoon walk, there's several art galleries and workshops worth a quick visit. * WikiPedia:Gävle Dmoz:Regional Europe Sweden Gävleborg County Localities Gävle commons:Gävle


Morelia

WikiPedia:Morelia Dmoz:Regional North_America Mexico States Michoacan Localities Morelia Commons:Category:Morelia


Bernicia

with the Kingdom of Deira (Deira (kingdom)) to form Northumbria (Kingdom of Northumbria). For a time, Lothian came under the control of the Kingdom of Bernicia, to the south. In due course Bernicia was united with Deira to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. Oswiu called a church council held at Whitby Abbey in 664 in an attempt to resolve this controversy (Easter controversy). Although Oswiu himself had been brought up in the "Celtic" tradition, political


Tiberias

other regional dialects of Hebrew. This Tiberian Hebrew from the 7th to 10th century CE is sometimes called "Biblical Hebrew" because it is used to pronounce the Hebrew Bible; however properly it should be distinguished from the historical Biblical Hebrew of the 6th century BCE, whose original pronunciation must be reconstructed. Tiberian Hebrew incorporates the remarkable scholarship of the Masoretes (from ''masoret'' meaning "tradition"), who added niqqud vowel


Greater Sudbury

, and was a founder of the Elgin Street Mission and the Pregnancy Care Crisis Centre. He helped to organize a rally against same-sex marriage (Same-sex marriage in Canada) in 2005, and indicated that his belief in "traditional values" was a catalyst for his decision to run for office. Bob Vaillancourt, "Tradition-bound: Rally promotes heterosexual marriages", ''Sudbury Star'', 16 May 2005, A1. '''Nairn and Hyman''' is a township (Canada) township


Chiapas

own "son" tradition (son chiapaneco), often played on the marimba. Mexican waltzes are also particularly popular here. ;Chihuahua (Chihuahua (state)): norteño is unique in that it uses the saxophone in addition to the usual accordion, and thus has two lead instruments. Zacatecas norteño is similar to ''norteña chihuahuense''. History A Danish archeologist who had taught at Tulane, Frans Blom was one of the first to excavate Palenque, a Mayan city about 150


Lima

; ''Vengo a Chile por lo menos tres veces al año, me comunico con Chile todos los días a través de Skype con mi mamá, estoy enterada de lo que pasa y cuando me preguntan 'qué eres' digo automáticamente 'chilena'. Vivo en América, pero me siento profundamente chilena en la manera de vivir, de ser: soy mandona, metete, dominante, intrusa, hospitalaria, tribal.'' (Isabel Allende) Allende, whose works sometimes contain aspects of the "magic realist (magic realism)" tradition


Hamilton, Ontario

values" was a catalyst for his decision to run for office. Bob Vaillancourt, "Tradition-bound: Rally promotes heterosexual marriages", ''Sudbury Star'', 16 May 2005, A1. Livingstone was born in Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario). He is a 22-year veteran of the Canadian Army and has served overseas in Germany and the Golan Heights, where he saw two tours of duty with the United Nations Disengagement Observer force. He was fifty-two years old


Laos

people in Amphoe Chanuman are descendant of the Phu Thai ethnic group who migrated down from Laos. They specialise in weaving "Khit" cloth, preserving its unique patterns. Their traditional musical performance "Mo Lam" always supports the democratic constitutional monarchy. Amnat Charoen people try to retain the "Long Khuang" tradition which consisted of teenagers meeting up for communal activities such as weaving or silk spinning accompanied by lively


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