Maringa . Each post was commanded by a European agent and manned with armed sentries to enforce taxation and punish any rebels. The Crime of the Congo By Arthur Conan Doyle London: Hutchinson & Co., 1909. ABIR would sell a kilogram of rubber in Europe for up to 10 francs (fr), which cost them only 1.35 fr to collect and transport. However, this came at a cost to the human
rights of those who could not pay the tax, with imprisonment, flogging, and other corporal punishments recorded. The Casement Report comprises a multitude of pages of individual statements gathered by the British Consul (Consul (representative)), Roger Casement, including several detailing the grim tales of killings, mutilation, kidnapping, and cruel beatings of the native population by soldiers of the Congo administration of Leopold
II of Belgium King Leopold . The British Parliament demanded a second meeting of the 14 signatory powers of the 1885 Berlin Conference (Berlin Conference (1884)), at which time the Belgian Parliament forced a reluctant Leopold to set up an independent commission of enquiry. This led to the arrest and punishment of several officials who had been responsible for murders during a rubber-collection expedition in 1903.
693668 newspaper Milenio location Mexico City date April 13, 2010 accessdate May 24, 2011 language Spanish trans_title The oldest pre Hispanic tomb in Chiapas
language Spanish trans_title Chiapa de Corzo:Found multiple thousand year old burial The burial shows that many elements of Mesoamerican burials are older than previously thought. The archeological site lies just outside the urban sprawl of modern Chiapa de Corzo, but the city is growing over it and many areas known to contains ruins underground are encroached upon by modern homes and businesses. The discovery of the ancient tomb has
. and, in 1961, Azzam Din opened the first Halal butcher shop. The first mosque was a house in Grange Road in 1962. The Al-Madina Jamia Mosque, on Waterloo Road
, the Dar ul Islam Central Mosque, on Southfield Road, and the Abu Bakr Mosque & Community Centre, which is on Park Road North, are among the best known mosques in Middlesbrough today. Sikhism The Sikh community established their first Temple, or Gurdwara, in Milton Street, in 1967. ref name "multiple" >
; After a time in Southfield Road, the centre is now in Lorne Street and was opened in 1990. Hinduism There is a Hindu Cultural Centre in Westbourne Road, North Ormesby, which was opened in 1990. Tamil Cultural Society was founded April 2013 and is currently operating in Newport Community Centre in Middlesbrough. Television and filmography Middlesbrough has featured in many television programmes, including
with terrorists" multiple times in previous years. thumb right upright float 250px The future is too good to waste on lies. (File:USA PFC BoweBergdahl ACU Cropped.png) '''Bowe Bergdahl (w:Bowe Bergdahl)''' (born 28 March 1986) is a United States Army (w:United States Army) soldier.
Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa (1312–1337) who expanded Mali influence over the large Niger city-states of Timbuktu, Gao
Grim The Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, and 4:20 p.m. as their meeting time. The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". Multiple failed attempts to find the crop eventually shortened their phrase to simply "4:20", which ultimately evolved into a codeword the teens used to mean pot-smoking in general. ref name HuffPost2010 >
ore of Uranium. A variety of Thorite often called "Uranothorite", rich in Uranium, is highly radioactive. By the end of World War II, Madagascar was viewed by France as having a "treasure-trove" of minerals, so several of France's nuclear experts told Charles de Gaulle he needed to keep Madagascar as a colony "regardless of political costs." Multiple deposits of Thorium and Uranium, principally in the form of Uranothorite, were discovered near Tranomaro, in the loop of the Mandrare river, in 1953 by a French Geological Survey, just 80 km northwest of Fort Dauphin. However, getting there by road meant driving west almost to Amboasary and then northeast for a total distance from Tolanaro of about 200 kilometres. The local farmers, who raised cattle and goats, and grew rice, manioc and maize, knew of these deposits, calling these rocks "vatovy" to describe their density and black color. They used them as slingshot ammunition and fishing weights. In 1953, the French Commissariat de l’Energie Atomique (CEA) see what is now called the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives established their center for mining at Ambatomika ("place of Mica rocks") and brought in mining equipment, built a mill, lab, offices, a small clinic, a store as well as housing and a clubhouse for the expatriates living there. What they milled was mined from small, open-pit mines, which had a minimum overburden (for a picture of one of these mines see within a 20 km radius of this site. Some of these sites were mined by colonial concessionaires who sold their ore to the CEA. By 1958, there were 44 Europeans working with 440 Malagasy there, a limited number of mid-level Imerina with many more Antandroy and some Betsileo working as guards, porters and miners. Early, artisanal mining was not recorded, but from 1954 to 1963 almost 4,000 tonnes of highly radioactive Uranothorite was mined and exported to France. By 1962, these exports were worth CFAF 389 million, and by 1964 this was Madagascar's second most valuable export. In 1963, the original Ambindandrakemba mine was exhausted, the site at Ambatomika was lost, and all the equipment was moved north 40 km to Betioky, near the Belafa ore body which was thought to have somewhere between 2,000 and 5,000 tons of uranothorianite, embedded within 100,000 to 300,000 tons of ore. In addition to the CEA, there were 4 private mining companies in 1963 including C.F. Lanouo, Kotovelo (plant at Marovato), Societe des Minerals de la Grand Ile (mine at Ambatoaho, Societe d'Exploitation des Mines d'Andranondambo (mine at Bevalala) and the Societe Miniere et Forestiere at Betanimera. In 1963 these producers were being paid 2,850 to 5,000 CFAF kg for uranium metal content and CFAF 100 to 350 kg of Thorium. However, due to the French having found much larger deposits in both Gabon and Niger, and due to the by then worn out equipment and exhausted mines, mining ended in 1968. While the higher-grade deposits have been exhausted, there is still a considerable amount of lower-grade material in this area. In 2005, the Malagasy Government conducted aerial magnetic and radiometric surveys of the area, finding the amounts of Thorium and Uranium increased as one moves west, though this could be due to "transported cover" on the Easter side of the area. In 2007 drilling by the Canadian firm, Pan African Mining Corporation, at one site found "high-grade uranium mineralisation grading 4,329 ppm uranium”, with deposits as far down as 60 metres below the surface. In 2009–10 LP HILL began ground traverses for Thorium and Uranium in the Marodambo area (in addition they have permits to search for Cordierite, Garnets and Sapphires). London-based Bekitoly Resources Ltd. is also involved in the strategic acquisition, exploration and development of uranium, rare earth deposits and other minerals in Madagascar. Their property occurs within includes 8 of the historical open-pit deposits. Their exploration activities have included airborne radiometrics and hyperspectral surveys, ground radiometrics and magnetics, mapping, grab sampling, trenching and drilling which have identified numerous widespread radiometric anomalies with uranium and thorium scintillometer readings of up to 26,257 and 43,215 ppm respectively, as well as the rare earth elements of Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium and Yttrium. Their data also suggests there are numerous additional areas "with good indications" that remain untested. Arkenstone. (2010). Thorianite specimen from Maromby Commune (near Tranomaro) Girschik, H.F. (2009, Oct.). Mining History and Geology of the [Uranium & Thorium Exploration] Project. Hecht, Gabrielle (2002). Rupture-Talk in the Nuclear Age: Conjugating Colonial power in Africa. ''Social Studies of Science, 32''(5 6), 691–727. Hecht, Gabrielle. (2009). Ambatomika, Southern Madagascar, 1950s–1960s (pp. 903–908). In Africa and the Nuclear World: Labor, Occupational Health, and the Transnational Production of Uranium. ''Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51''(4), 896–926. Vuna Group. (n.d.). Uranium and Rare Earth exploration—Madagascar. Proposed acquisition of Tranomaro Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. by LP Hill Plc Murdock, T.G. (1964). The Mineral industry of the Malagasy Republic. Tourmaline Tourmaline is a semi-precious gemstone which has been found near Ampasimainty, Ianakafy and Iankaroka, all south of Betroka. It has also been found near Behara and Tranomaro, which are both closer to Amboasary. A 7 cm Tourmaline crystal found near Tranomaro was recently sold by Arkenstone Fine Minerals for US$2,250. Zircon Zircon is used in the decorative ceramics industry as a substance which can be added to another material in order to make the ensuing system opaque. It is also the principal precursor to metallic zirconium (fairly uncommon), but also to all compounds of zirconium, including Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), which is a highly refractory material. About 25,000 tons yr of Zircon are being exported by QMM as a byproduct of its Ilmenite mining in this region see Ilmenite above . Population While the people who have historically lived in Anosy are known as the Antanosy, they may be more accurately described as "those from Anosy" given Anosy's history. In addition there are many Antandroy living in Anosy, primarily Tolagnaro, along with Malagasy from the rest of the island, many of them now working for QMM's mining efforts. There are Asians who own many of the shops in town and there are also a few Europeans living in Tolagnaro working in the area(s) of Conservation, Mining, Tourism or for the Catholic Church. While there were many French living and working in the Anosy region during the French occupation of Madagascar, most had left by the mid-1970s. Tolagnaro was also the center for work by American Lutherans, primarily in southern Madagascar, from the 1890s to the mid-1980s (see '''History of Anosy''' below). Much more recently, there were over 700 Expatriates, primarily from South Africa, who worked on the construction of the new port and mining facilities. Religions The majority of those living in Anosy practice traditional Folk religion. The two largest Christian denominations in the Anosy region are the Roman Catholic and the Malagasy Lutheran churches. There is also a small Muslim community. The Catholic Church was established in what was then still Fort Dauphin in 1896. It currently has 5 parishes, with about 170 congregations and 16 Cures. Congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) (Ed.). (1996). ''Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occasion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) 1896–1996''. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany. history of Christianity in South Madagascar with chapter on history of American Lutheran missions in the South (1887–1950) by Dr. James B. Vigen, other chapters regarding history of different Catholic congregations and “Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar” by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy which describes current context, state and challenges of Christianity in South Madagascar. Galibert, Nivoelisoa. (2007). ''À l’angle de la Grande Maison. Les Lazaristes de Madagascar: Correspondance avec Vincent de Paul (1648–1661), textes établis, introduits et annotés par Paris. Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne. n.a. (?). La fonction Missionnaire: Sur la Mission Lazariste à Fort-Dauphin (1648–1674) From AnthropologieEnLigne.com Of the Protestants in Anosy, the vast majority of them Lutheran. There are approximately 20 Malagasy Lutheran pastors working with 134 churches in the Tolagnaro Synod, meaning each pastor works with between 3 and 12 churches. Burgess, Andrew. (1932). ''Zanahary in south Madagascar''. Minneapolis: Board of Foreign Missions. Vigen, J.B. (1995). The First Norwegian-American Foreign Missionaries: John and Oline Hogstad. From ''Norwegian-American Studies, 34'', see http: www.naha.stolaf.edu In addition to the Malagasy Lutheran Church, the Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar (FJKM) has several congregations in the Anosy region as do several other Protestant denominations. Tourism Given its pleasant climate (average temperature of 20 0 in July to 27 0 Celsius in January), magnificent beaches, natural reserves (including several containing lemurs), variety of hotels and that it's only a one hour flight from Antananarivo, some have given Tolagnaro the title of "la cote d'Azur Malgache." Popular places to visit include Evatraha, Libanona beach, Lokaro, Manafiafy, Nahampoana and Vinanibe. Ranarijaona, Tiana H. (2003?). Etude d’impact des infrastructures touristiques dans la region de Tolagnaro. Mémoire de fin de stage, Universite de Toamasina. RAZAFINDRABE Andrianomenjanahary Manoela. (2007). Developpement economique axe sur le tourisme cas de l'Anosy, region a forte potentialite touristique. Maitrise. Universite d'Antananarivo. General tourism information about Tolagnaro can be found at a variety of sites: Lonely Planet. (2009). Fort Dauphin (Taolagnaro). WildMadagascar. (n.d.). Pictures of Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Antananarivo:''' There are a variety of tourist agencies in Antananarivo one can work with if you'd like to visit Tolagnaro. Authentic Madagascar Tours. Antanosy Region. DiscoverMadagascar.com (n.d.). Places to see in Fort Dauphin and its Surroundings. MadaCamp. (2009). Fort Dauphin. Madagascar National Tourism Board. Fort Dauphin area. TravelMadagascar. Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Tolagnaro:''' There are also several tourist agencies in Tolagnaro one can work with. Weather The average temperature in Tolagnaro ranges from Category:Anosy Region Category:Regions of Madagascar
and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Muhammad Ture (Askia Muhammad) (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. ref name "multiple">
of the modern era. It seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 '''Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré''', or '''Sankore Masjid''' is one of three ancient centers of learning located
a large concession (Concession (contract)) with the rights to tax the inhabitants, taken in the form of rubber. The collection system revolved around a series of trading posts along the two main rivers in the concession – the Lopori (Lopori River) and the Maringa (Maringa River). Each post was commanded by a European agent and manned with armed sentries to enforce taxation and punish any rebels.
for heat. There were no trees or charcoal. We lived that way for two or three years.. source ''A Korean man recalling his experiences in Ushtobe''. width 29% align right Approximately 100,000 Koreans were deported to Kazakhstan and 74,000 were sent to Uzbekistan. Many Koreans were placed far from each other in isolation to prevent contact with each other. 34,000 Koreans were placed on the desolate outpost of Ushtobe, Kazakhstan with no food
and no shelter and were forced to survive on their own for almost three years. Thousands died of starvation, sickness and exposure during the first the first few years in Central Asia. Koryo Saram. Dir. Y David Chung and Matt Dibble. Prod. Meredith Jung-En Woo. 2006 The ethnic Kazakhs were essential during these first few years for the Koreans. They provided shelter and food to help the Koreans suffering from starvation and cold. ref
name "multiple" '''Sharof Rashidovich Rashidov''' (in Cyrillic (Cyrillic alphabet_variants#Uzbek) Uzbek (Uzbek language): Шароф Рашидович Рашидов ; in Russian (Russian language): Шараф Рашидович Рашидов ''Sharaf Rashidovich Rashidov'') ( - 31 October 1983) was a Communist Party leader in the Uzbek (Uzbekistan) Soviet Socialist Republic and a CPSU Central Committee Politbureau candidate member between 1961 and 1983