: www.biciq.gob.ec web accessdate September 13, 2013
Independencia . commons:Quito
Category:Spanish-language surnames Category:Patronymic surnames
body_style 2-door pickup truck 4-door pickup truck 5-door wagon (Ford Everest) The truck has three rows of seating, rear (rear wheel drive) or four wheel drive, and 2.5 L Diesel (Diesel engine) or 2.6 L petrol engines. It rides on a 2860 mm (112.6 in) wheelbase. The Everest was introduced in March 2003, and is built at the AutoAlliance Thailand plant in Rayong,
, Ontario Waterloo , and Woodstock (Woodstock, Ontario). image 250px Suzuki Swift 5-door (Image:Suzuki Swift (second generation) (front), Kuala Lumpur.jpg) assembly Hamamatsu, Japan Kosai (Kosai, Shizuoka), Japan Ingersoll (Ingersoll, Ontario), Ontario, Canada Chang'an, China (Chang'an Suzuki) Bogotá, Colombia Quito, Ecuador ( :de:Automóviles y Máquinas del Ecuador
G engine#G15A G15A '' 16V I4 1.6 L ''G16 (Suzuki G engine#G16)'' 16V I4 production 1988–present assembly Hamamatsu, Japan Kosai (Kosai, Shizuoka), Japan Bekasi, Indonesia Khorasan, Iran (IKCO) Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada (CAMI (CAMI Automotive)) Linares, Jaén, Spain (Santana (Santana Motor)) Bagong Ilog, Pasig City, Philippines Quito, Ecuador (Omnibus
Ecuadorian independence and its sole rights to colonial titles over Spain's former colonial territory known anciently to Spain as the Kingdom and Presidency of Quito. Ecuador during its long and turbulent history had lost most of its contested territories to each of its more powerful neighbors, such as Colombia in 1832 and 1916, Brazil in 1904 through a series of peaceful treaties, and Peru after a short war in which the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro was signed in 1942. Struggle
of the Audiencia de Quito (Ecuador). It was common knowledge among the top officers of the liberation army from the south that their leader San Martin (José de San Martín) wished to liberate present-day Ecuador and add it to the future republic of Peru, since it had been part of the Inca Empire before the Spaniards conquered it. But, Bolívar (Simón Bolívar)'s intention was to form a new republic known as the Gran Colombia, out of the liberated Spanish territory of New Granada which consisted of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. San Martin's plans were thwarted when Bolívar (Simón Bolívar), with the help of Marshal Antonio José de Sucre and the Gran Colombian liberation force, descended upon the Andes mountains and occupied Guayaquil; they also annexed the newly liberated Audiencia de Quito to the Republic of Gran Colombia. This happened a few days before San Martin's Peruvian forces could arrive and occupy Guayaquil, with the intention of annexing Guayaquil to the rest of Audiencia of Quito (Ecuador) and to the future republic of Peru. Historic documents repeatedly stated that San Martin told Bolivar he came to Guayaquil to liberate the land of the Incas from Spain. Bolivar countered by sending a message from Guayaquil welcoming San Martin and his troops to Colombian soil. Peruvian occupation of Jaén, Tumbez, and Guayaquil In the south, Ecuador had ''de jure'' claims to a small piece of land beside the Pacific Ocean known as Tumbez, which lay between the Zarumilla and Tumbez rivers. In Ecuador's southern Andes Mountain region where the Marañon cuts across, Ecuador had ''de jure'' claims to an area it called Jaén de Bracamoros. These areas were included as part of the territory of Gran Colombia by Bolivar in December 17, 1819 during the Congress of Angostura were the Republic of Gran Colombia was created. Tumbez declared itself independent from Spain on January 17, 1821 and Jaen de Bracamoros on June 17, 1821 without any outside help from revolutionary armies. However, that same year 1821, Peruvian forces participating in the Trujillo revolution occupied both Jaen and Tumbez. Some Peruvian generals, without any legal titles backing them up and with Ecuador still federated with the Gran Colombia had the desire to annex Ecuador to the Republic of Peru at the expense of the Gran Colombia feeling that Ecuador was once part of the Inca Empire. Then on July 28, 1821, Peruvian independence was proclaimed in Lima by the Liberator San Martin and Tumbez and Jaen which were included as part of the revolution of Trujillo by the Peruvian occupying force, had the whole region swear allegiance to the new Peruvian flag and incorporated itself into Peru, even though Peru was not completely liberated from Spain. After Peru was completely liberated from Spain by the patriot armies led by Bolivar and Antonio Jose Sucre at the Battle of Ayacucho dated December 9, 1824, there was a strong desire by some Peruvians to resurrect the Inca Empire and to include Bolivia and Ecuador. One of these Peruvian Generals was the Ecuadorian born José de La Mar, who became one of Peru's presidents after Bolivar resigned as dictator of Peru and returned to Colombia. Gran Colombia has always protested Peru for the return of Jaen and Tumbez for almost a decade, then finally Bolivar after long and futile discussion over the return of Jaen, Tumbez, and part of Mainas, declared war. President and General José de La Mar, who was born in Ecuador, believing his opportunity had come to annex the District of Ecuador to Peru, personally, with a Peruvian force, invaded and occupied Guayaquil and a few cities in the Loja region of southern Ecuador on November 28, 1828. The war ended when a triumphant heavily outnumbered southern Gran Colombian army at Battle of Tarqui dated February 27, 1829, led by Antonio José de Sucre, defeated the Peruvian invasion force led by President La Mar. This defeat led to the signing of the Treaty of Guayaquil dated September 22, 1829, whereby Peru and its Congress recognized Gran Colombian rights over Tumbez, Jaen, and Maynas. Through protocolized meetings between representatives of Peru and Gran Colombia, the border was set as Tumbez river in the west and in the east the Maranon and Amazon rivers were to be followed toward Brazil as the most natural borders between them. However, what was pending was whether the new border around the Jaen region should follow the Chinchipe river or the Huancabamba river. According to the peace negotiations Peru agreed to return Guayaquil, Tumbez, and Jaén; despite this, Peru returned Guayaquil, but failed to return Tumbez and Jaén, alleging that it was not obligated to follow the agreements, since the Gran Colombia ceased to exist when it divided itself into three different nations - Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The Dissolution of Gran Colombia thumb 260px The Gran Colombia (File:Gran Colombia map 1824.jpg) showing all Colombian Land Claims outlined in red thumb left 250px Ecuador in 1830 (Image:Ecuador1830.png) After Ecuadors' separation from the Gran Colombian federation of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador in May 13, 1830, the Department of Cauca voluntarily decided to unite itself with Ecuador due to instability in the central government of Bogota. President Juan José Flores with the approval of the Ecuadorian congress annexed the Department of Cauca on December 20, 1830, since the government of Cauca had called for union with the District of the South as far back as April 1830. Moreover, the Cauca region throughout its long history had very strong economic and cultural ties with the people of Ecuador. Also, the Cauca region which included such cities as Pasto, Popayan and Buenaventura had always been dependent on the Presidencia or Audiencia of Quito. Fruitless negotiations continued between the governments of Bogota and Quito, where the government of Bogota didn't recognize the separation of Ecuador or that of Cauca from the Gran Colombia until war broke out in May 1832. In five months, New Granada defeated Ecuador due to the fact that the majority of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces were composed of rebellious angry unpaid veterans from Venezuela and Colombia that did not want to fight against their fellow countrymen. Seeing that his officer's were rebelling, mutinying, and changing sides, President Flores had no option but to reluctantly make peace with New Granada. The Treaty of Pasto of 1832 was signed by which the Department of Cauca was turned over to New Granada (modern Colombia), the government of Bogota recognized Ecuador as an independent country and the border was to follow the Ley de División Territorial de la República de Colombia (Law of the Division of Territory of the Gran Colombia) passed on June 25, 1824. This law set the border at the river Carchi and the eastern border that stretched to Brazil at the Caquetá river. Later Ecuador contends that the Republic of Colombia, while reorganizing its government unlawfully made its eastern border provisional and that Colombia extended its claims south to the Napo River because it says that the Government of Popayan extended its control all the way to the Napo River. The Central District of the Gran Colombia, known as Cundinamarca or New Granada (modern Colombia) with its capital in Bogota, did not recognize the separation of the Southern District of the Gran Colombia with its capital in Quito which included the Department of Ecuador, Department of Guayaquil, and the Department of Azuay from the Gran Colombian Union. War broke out when the cities of Pasto, Popayan, and Buenaventura (Buenaventura, Ecuador) of the Department of Cauca anciently known as the Popayan Province voted to voluntarily secede from New Granada due to troubles with the government of Bogota and annex itself to the new State of Ecuador in 1831. Later, after defeating Presidents Flores rebellious and mutinous Ecuadorian forces made up mostly of Venezuelans and Colombians in the Cauca Department, Flores was forced to sign the Treaty of Pasto on 1832, where President Flores had to return the Department of Cauca against the wishes of the people of Cauca to New Granada, in return New Granada recognized Ecuador as an independent nation. The border was provisionally defined according to the Law of Territorial Division of the Republic of Gran Colombia dated June 25, 1824 (Ley de División Territorial de la República de Colombia de 1824). In essence the provisional border was set as the river Carchi in the Andies Mountains and the Caquetá river in the Amazon Basin until a final border according to colonial titles could be agreed upon, since Colombia claimed that its Popayan province had borders that reached the Napo river further south during its colonial era. A final border was not agreed with Colombia until 1916 and this set the border with an imaginary line running between the Putumayo and Napo rivers. Struggle for Possession of the Amazon Basin known as Maynas thumb left South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879 (File:South America 1879.png) When Ecuador seceded from the Gran Colombia, Peru decided not follow the treaty of Guayaquil of 1829 or the protocoled agreements made. Peru contested Ecuador's claims with the newly discovered ''Real Cedula'' of 1802, by which Peru claims the King of Spain had transferred these lands from the Viceroyalty of New Granada to the Viceroyalty of Peru. During colonial times this was to halt the ever-expanding Portuguese settlements into Spanish domains, which were left vacant and in disorder after the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries from their bases along the Amazon Basin. Ecuador countered by labeling the Cedula of 1802 an ecclesiastical instrument, which had nothing to do with political borders. Peru began its de facto occupation of disputed Amazonian territories, after it signed a secret 1851 peace treaty in favor of Brazil. This treaty disregarded Spanish rights that were confirmed during colonial times by a Spanish-Portuguese treaty over the Amazon regarding territories held by illegal Portuguese settlers. Peru began occupying the defenseless missionary villages in the Mainas or Maynas region which it began calling Loreto with its capital in Iquitos. During its negotiations with Brazil, Peru stated that based on the royal cedula of 1802, it claimed Amazonian Basin territories up to Caqueta River in the north and toward the Andes Mountain range, depriving Ecuador and Colombia of all their claims to the Amazon Basin. Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. Ecuador protested that it claimed the Amazon Basin between the Caqueta river and the Marañon-Amazon river. Peru ignored these protests and created the Department of Loreto in 1853 with its capital in Iquitos which it had recently invaded and systematically began to occupy using the river systems in all the territories claimed by both Colombia and Ecuador. Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again in 1860, since Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months. The border dispute was then submitted to Spain for arbitration from 1880 to 1910, but to no avail. In the early part of the 20th century Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern Amazonian borders with its neighbors through negotiation. On May 6, 1904, Ecuador signed the Tobar - Rio Branco Treaty recognizing Brazils claims to the Amazon in recognition of Ecuador's claim to be an Amazonian country to counter Peru's earlier Treaty with Brazil back in October 23, 1851. Then after a few meetings with the Colombian government's representatives an agreement was reached and the Muñoz Vernaza-Suarez Treaty was signed July 15, 1916, in which Colombian rights to the Putumayo river were recognized as well as Ecuador's rights to the Napo river and the new border was a line that ran midpoint between those to rivers. In this way Ecuador gave up the claims it had to the Amazonian territories between the Caquetá River and Napo River to Colombia, thus cutting itself off from Brazil. Later a brief war erupted between Colombia and Peru, over Peru's claims to the Caquetá region, which ended with the Peru reluctantly signing the Salomon-Lozano Treaty on March 24, 1922. Ecuador protested this secret treaty, since Colombia gave away Ecuadorian claimed land to Peru that Ecuador had given to Colombia in 1916. In July 21, 1924 the Ponce-Castro Oyanguren Protocol was signed between Ecuador and Peru where both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an equitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the United States for arbitration. Negotiations between the Ecuadorian and Peruvian representatives began in Washington on September 30, 1935. These negotiations were long and tiresome. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims. Then on February 6, 1937, Ecuador presented a transactional line which Peru rejected the next day. The negotiations turned into intense arguments during the next 7 months and finally on September 29, 1937 the Peruvian representatives decided to break off the negotiations without submitting the dispute to arbitration because the direct negotiations were going nowhere. Four years later in 1941, amid fast-growing tensions within disputed territories around the Zarumilla River, war broke out with Peru. Peru claimed that Ecuador's military presence in Peruvian-claimed territory was an invasion; Ecuador, for its part, claimed that Peru had recently invaded Ecuador around the Zarumilla River and that Peru since Ecuador's independence from Spain has systematically occupied Tumbez, Jaen, and most of the disputed territories in the Amazonian Basin between the Putomayo and Marañon Rivers. In July 1941, troops were mobilized in both countries. Peru had an army of 11,681 troops who faced a poorly supplied and inadequately armed Ecuadorian force of 2,300, of which only 1,300 were deployed in the southern provinces. Hostilities erupted on July 5, 1941, when Peruvian forces crossed the Zarumilla river at several locations, testing the strength and resolve of the Ecuadorian border troops. Finally, on July 23, 1941, the Peruvians launched a major invasion, crossing the Zarumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Oro (El Oro Province). thumb left Map of Ecuadorian Land Claims after 1916 (File:Ecuador-peru-land-claims-01.png) During the course of the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, Peru gained control over part of the disputed territory and some parts of the province of El Oro, and some parts of the province of Loja (Loja Province), demanding that the Ecuadorian government give up its territorial claims. The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquil, almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. After a few weeks of war and under pressure by the United States and several Latin American nations, all fighting came to a stop. Ecuador and Peru came to an accord formalized in the Rio Protocol, signed on January 29, 1942, in favor of hemispheric unity against the Axis Powers in World War II favoring Peru with the territory they occupied at the time the war came to an end. The 1944 Glorious May Revolution followed a military-civilian rebellion and a subsequent civic strike which successfully removed Carlos Arroyo del Río as a dictator from Ecuador's government. However a post-Second World War recession and popular unrest led to a return to populist politics and domestic military interventions in the 1960s, while foreign companies developed oil resources in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In 1972, construction of the Andean pipeline was completed. The pipeline brought oil from the east side of the Andes to the coast, making Ecuador South America's second largest oil exporter. The pipeline in southern Ecuador did nothing to resolve tensions between Ecuador and Peru, however. thumb Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War (File:Relevo-ecu.JPG) right thumb The Dassault Mirage F1 Mirage F.1JA (File:Mirage F.1JA.JPG) (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on February 10, 1995. The Rio Protocol failed to precisely resolve the border along a little river in the remote ''Cordillera del Cóndor'' region in southern Ecuador. This caused a long-simmering dispute between Ecuador and Peru, which ultimately led to fighting between the two countries; first a border skirmish in January–February 1981 known as the Paquisha Incident, and ultimately full-scale warfare in January 1995 where the Ecuadorian military shot down Peruvian aircraft and helicopters and Peruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador. Each country blamed the other for the onset of hostilities, known as the Cenepa War. Sixto Durán Ballén, the Ecuadorian president, famously declared that he would not give up a single centimeter of Ecuador. Popular sentiment in Ecuador became strongly nationalistic (nationalism) against Peru: graffiti could be seen on the walls of Quito referring to Peru as the "''Cain de Latinoamérica''", a reference to the murder of Abel by his brother Cain in the Book of Genesis. Roos, Wilma and van Renterghem, Omer ''Ecuador'', New York, 2000, p.5. Ecuador and Peru signed the Brasilia Presidential Act peace agreement on October 26, 1998, which ended hostilities, and effectively put an end to the Western Hemisphere's longest running territorial dispute. Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, General Conflict Information, Conflict name: Ecuador - Peru, In depth, Background to the 1995 fighting and Ecuador and Peru engage in armed conflict, viwed on 2013-07-15, http: www.ucdp.uu.se gpdatabase gpcountry.php?id 126®ionSelect 5-Southern_Americas# The Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States of America) ruled that the border of the undelineated zone was to be set at the line of the ''Cordillera del Cóndor''. While Ecuador had to give up its decades-old territorial claims to the eastern slopes of the Cordillera, as well as to the entire western area of Cenepa headwaters, Peru was compelled to give to Ecuador, in perpetual lease but without sovereignty, one square kilometre of its territory, in the area where the Ecuadorian base of Tiwinza – focal point of the war – had been located within Peruvian soil and which the Ecuadorian Army held during the conflict. The final border demarcation came into effect on May 13, 1999 and the multi-national MOMEP (Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru) troop deployment withdrew on 17 June 1999. Military governments (1972–79) In 1972, a "revolutionary and nationalist" military junta (military dictatorship) overthrew the government of Velasco Ibarra. The coup d'état was led by General Guillermo Rodríguez (Guillermo Rodríguez (politician)) and executed by navy commander Jorge Queirolo G. The new president exiled José María Velasco to Argentina. He remained in power until 1976, when he was removed by another military government. That military junta was led by Admiral Alfredo Poveda, who was declared chairman of the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council included two other members:General Guillermo Durán Arcentales and General Luis Leoro Franco. The civil society more and more insistently called for democratic elections. Colonel Richelieu Levoyer, Government Minister, proposed and implemented a Plan to return to the constitutional system through universal elections. This plan enabled the new democratically elected president to assume the duties of the executive office. Return to democracy Elections were held on April 29, 1979, under a new constitution. Jaime Roldós Aguilera was elected president, garnering over one million votes, the most in Ecuadorian history. He took office on August 10, as the first constitutionally elected president after nearly a decade of civilian and military dictatorships. In 1980, he founded the ''Partido Pueblo, Cambio y Democracia'' (People, Change, and Democracy Party) after withdrawing from the ''Concentración de Fuerzas Populares'' (Popular Forces Concentration) and governed until May 24, 1981, when he died along with his wife and the minister of defense, Marco Subia Martinez, when his Air Force plane crashed in heavy rain near the Peruvian border. Many people believe that he was assassinated,
to arrive in Guayaquil in February. Throughout 1821 Sucre was unable to take Quito, and by November both sides were exhausted and signed a 90-day armistice. The following year, at Battle of Pichincha on May 24, 1822, Sucre's Venezuelan forces finally conquered Quito. The territory of Gran Colombia was secure. The main focus now became neutralizing the formidable royalist base in Peru. thumb right The Spanish Historical Center in Quito (File:Quito-San Diego-01.jpg), Ecuador Ecuador was inhabited with numerous civilizations which constructed the ethnic cultural background of Ecuador years before the Inca Empire.Many civilizations rose throughout Ecuador, such as the Chorre and the Valdivia Culture Valdivia , the latter of which spans its existence before any civilization in the Americas. The most notable groups that existed in Ecuador before, and during the Inca conquest were the Quitus (near present-day Quito), the Cañari (in present-day Cuenca (Cuenca, Ecuador)), and the Las Vegas Culture (near Guayaquil). Each civilization developed its own distinguished architecture, pottery, and religious beliefs, while others developed archaeologically disputed systems of writing (an achievement the Incas did not achieve). After years of fierce resistance, the Cañari succumbed to the Inca expansion, and were assimilated loosely under the Inca Empire. The Inca (Inca people) were an advanced society which originated in Peru, and established a great empire within one century. It dominated Peru and extended as far as Bolivia and central Chile, as well as Ecuador. To communicate with each other they developed stone-paved highways spanning thousands of miles used by messengers. These messengers passed each other records of the empire's status, which are sometimes thought to have been encoded in a system of knots called ''quipu''. Remarkably, the Cañari, Quitus, and Caras were able to hold back ''Tupac-Yupanqui'' for years, though they proved less successful against his son, Huayna Capac. After conquering Ecuador, Huayna Capac imposed upon the tribes the use of the Quechua (or ''Kichwa'') language, ''lingua franca'' of the Inca and still widely spoken in Ecuador. The Cañaris were the strongest, and fiercest group in Ecuador to fall, and after their collapse and subsequent assimilation, the conquest of lands north became easier. The origin of the Anostomidae can be quite confidently placed in the Paleogene, and somewhat less securely in late Paleogene, based on various evidence. For one thing, the biogeography of the family, with some very basal taxa found west of the Andes, indicates that it was already well distinct when the northern part of that mountain range uplift (Tectonic uplift)ed at the end of the Middle Miocene about 12 million years ago (mya). Then, there is some scant but highly informative fossil evidence assigned to this family: a premaxillary tooth was found in the Colombian Villavieja Formation "La Venta formation" in Sidlauskas & Vari (2008) is the old name. and dated to the Laventan age about 13.5-11.5 mya, while some pharyngeal teeth and other jaw parts found near Cuenca, Ecuador in the Cuenca basin (Cuenca basin (geology)) (a structural basin Pan American Race Walking Cup Cuenca (Cuenca, Ecuador), Ecuador bgcolor "gold" 1st '''Estadio Alejandro Serrano Aguilar''' is a multi-purpose stadium in Cuenca, Ecuador. It is currently used mostly for football (football (soccer)) matches and is the home stadium of Club Deportivo Cuenca and Liga Deportiva Universitaria de Cuenca. The stadium holds 22,000 spectators and opened in 1945.
The '''Northwest Montana Wetland Management District''' is located in the U.S. state of Montana and is an integral part of the National Bison Range Complex along with four other wildlife refuges and the National Bison Range. The district comprises numerous small wetland environments set aside primarily to protect areas for waterfowl. The district comprises 14 separate Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA)'s totalling 8,452 acres (34 km 2 ) and one 6,300 acre (25.5 km 2 ) Conservation easement along the north shores of Flathead Lake. Some of the land is located on the Flathead Indian Reservation (known as the Tribal Trust Lands of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes) and they continue to have claim over the land provided they assist in maintaining the resource. The Northwest Montana Wetland Management District is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior. The individual lands were acquired beginning in 1970 by purchasing plots from willing landowners, and an ongoing effort to continue to increase area.
'''Volgar Sports Palace''' is an indoor sporting arena (indoor arena) located in Tolyatti, Russia. The capacity of the arena is 2,900. It is the home arena of the HC Lada Togliatti ice hockey team. In 2009, it will be replaced by Lada Arena. NORS-R is presently active in Karelia, St. Petersburg, Murmansk Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, Archangelsk Oblast, Togliatti (Tolyatti), Novgorod Oblast, Kaliningrad Oblast, Moscow, Perm, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Ivanovo Oblast, Voronesh, Bashkortostan and Saratov.
Artigas Statues of José Artigas stand on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C.; on 6th Avenue (SoHo) in New York; in Plaza Artigas Salto, Uruguay; in Caracas, Venezuela; in Mexico City; in Newark, New Jersey; in Quito, Ecuador as well as in the town centre of Montevideo, Minnesota and in Punta del Este, Uruguay. Asunción, Paraguay has a statue of Artigas in its Plaza Uruguay, and the ''Calle Sebastián Gaboto'' was renamed the ''Avenida Artigas'' in his
Altiplano plateau (Altiplano) is the world's second-highest plateau following the Tibetan plateau. Several major cities exist either in the Andes or in the foothills, among which are Bogotá and Cali, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Mérida, Venezuela; La Paz, Bolivia; Santiago, Chile, and Cusco, Peru. These and most other cities and large towns are now connected with asphalt-paved roads, while smaller towns are often connected by dirt roads, which may require
. Lauderdale, Florida Ft. Lauderdale to Baranquilla), between two international destinations (Such as Paris to Guayaquil) and allows for simpler codeshare connections (such as Atlanta to Cartagena (Cartagena, Colombia) with Delta Air Lines and Avianca). *On April 20, 1998, Air France Flight 422 from Eldorado Airport to Quito, Ecuador, using an aircraft leased from TAME and flown with Ecuadorian crew, crashed into a mountain near Bogotá. All 43 passengers and 10 crew
(Quito, Ecuador; June 22, 1975) While visiting Bogotá, Colombia, he wrote a letter to his mother on July 6, 1952. In the letter he describes the conditions under the right-wing government of Conservative Laureano Gómez as the following: "There is more repression of individual freedom here than in any country we've been to, the police patrol the streets carrying rifles and demand your papers every few minutes." He also goes on to describe