3557 kilograms, which surpasses Israel’s previous record of 2359 kilograms. Israel (specifically, the Arab residents of Majdal Shams in the Golan Heights who made a bowl of tabbouleh weighing 2359 kg in March 2008), "Israel." ''Guinness World Records 2010''. 2010. and Palestinian residents of Ramallah in the West Bank (June 2006). " Largest tabbouleh record
consisting of Paul Graham, coordinator of the Mars Society's engineering team, along with the FMARS Crew 11 Chief Engineer James Harris, and several workers from the community of Resolute. Later the advance team was joined by Matt Bamsey, with Paul and the other workers leaving shortly before the main crew's arrival. The crew operated under full Mars simulation constraints for 100 days, ending on August 21, 2007. This quadrupled the previous record for in-situ Mars mission simulations. They also operated on the Martian 'sol' for over a month, to evaluate the effects on crew psychophysiology or mission operations. Sheryl L. Bishop, Ryan Kobrick, Melissa Battler and Kim Binsted. FMARS 2007: Stress and Coping in an Arctic Mars Simulation, 59th IAC Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 September – 3 October 2008. The crew conducted data collection related to a significant number of scientific studies during the course of the mission. thumb alt Crew 12 (2009) Mission Patch Crew 12 (2009) Mission Patch. (File:FMARS 2009 patch.png) Near the end of the mission, the crew spoke with astronaut Clayton Anderson, who was at that time in orbit aboard the International Space Station. Logistical support and research authorization for the mission was provided by the Polar Continental Shelf Project. 2009 FMARS Crew 12, with six personnel, occupied the station from July 2, 2009 through July 28, 2009. The crew operated under full Mars simulation constraints between July 14 and July 26. During the course of the simulation, the crew completed 16 EVAs in 43.5 hrs, traveling a distance of 128 km. This translates into a cumulative in-sim crew time of 106 man-hours and a distance of 323 km. The crew's efforts included a number of firsts for simulated Mars explorers in a Mars analog environment, including the testing of new technologies and equipment for use in robotic aerial surveying, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU (In-situ resource utilization)), geophysical measurement (Geophysics), medical laser treatment (Laser medicine), image geotagging (Geotagging), path planning and analysis (Motion planning), and public communications. "FMARS 2009 Successful", "FMARS Website", July 31, 2009, accessed December 17, 2010. Start of the simulation was delayed until July 14 due to a large number of maintenance tasks and facility upgrades which could only be completed out of sim. These included construction of new secondary containment areas for fuel storage, changes to the generator shed to improve safety and functionality, installation of a SmartAsh incinerator (incineration) and a grey water sump, refit and reconditioning of the simulated space suits, as well as general organization and clean-up within, under, and in the general vicinity of the station. This maintenance ensured full compliance with environmental regulations and improved both operational and aesthetic elements of the station. 2013 thumb Two Quest Kodiaks and a Cessna 421 on the ground in Driggs, Idaho. Use of these private aircraft greatly enabled the 2013 FMARS expedition. (File:Quest Kodiaks and Cessna 421.JPG) FMARS Crew 13 was a station refit crew, and the mission was referred to as Phase 1 of the Mars Society's multi-stage Mars Arctic 365 (MA365) Mission. The refit crew consisted of 9 personnel. "Mars Arctic 365 Phase 1 Mission a Success", "FMARS Website", July 23, 2013, accessed January 1, 2014. Crew members Joseph Palaia, Adam Nehr, and Justin Sumpter were in residence at the station between July 10 and July 17. Crew members Garrett Edquist and Dr. Alexander Kumar were at the station between July 15 and July 16. Crew members Jim Moore, Richard Sugden and Richard Spencer also visited Devon Island several times during this timeframe. Crew member Barry Stott remained in Yellowknife during the duration of the expedition to oversee logistics. Of significant note, the 2013 FMARS expedition was greatly enabled, for the first time, through use of private aircraft. Two Quest Kodiaks owned by Richard Sugden and Richard Spencer, were used to ferry materials, equipment and crew between Driggs, Idaho and Devon Island. Additionally, a Cessna 421 owned by Barry Stott was used between Driggs, Idaho and Yellowknife, NT (Yellowknife). 2014 The Mars Society is currently planning to conduct a second refit mission in July 2014 to complete the upgrades and improvements begun during the 2013 refit mission. Once the refit work is complete, the Mars Arctic 365 (MA365) mission will begin. Mars Arctic 365 will consist of a one-year Mars simulation, conducted at FMARS. A crew of six will conduct a sustained program of field exploration while operating under the same constraints that will be faced by the first human Mars explorers. "Mars Society Launches Effort to Conduct One-Year Mission in Canadian High Arctic", "FMARS Website", May 20, 2013, accessed January 4, 2014. Research and accomplishments Each crew establishes research and education outreach objectives which they strive to accomplish during their time at FMARS. 2001 The crews in 2001 were the first to conduct operations under full Mars simulation constraints, including the use of simulated Mars space suits. Zubrin 2004, pp. 179-224 EVAs by Crew 1 included the first pedestrian and motorized EVAs while wearing simulated space suits. Crew 1 also deployed weather-logging instruments along the western edge of Haynes Ridge. Crew 2 deployed a geophone flute (Geophone), provided by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris to produce three-dimensional maps of the subsurface. A similar instrument could one day be used on Mars to search for underground water or ice. Rock samples collected on Haynes Ridge during EVA were analyzed in the habitat's lab, and photographs were obtained of cyanobacteria found within them. The crew deployed cosmic ray dosimeters near Trinity Lake and Breccia Hill. The crew also completed questionnaires provided by the University of Quebec at Hull (Université du Québec) (UQAH) and NASA Johnson Space Center to aid human-factors (Human factors) research. Crew 3 deployed a dust magnetic properties instrument provided by the Niels Bohr Institute. This instrument is similar to that used on the Mars Pathfinder mission. The crew performed a psychology experiment for the human-factors research group at NASA Johnson Space Center. They conducted a pre-recorded audio question and answer session with visitors at the Kennedy Space Center Visitors Complex, where the society's Mars Desert Research Station was on display. The crew also tested in the field three telerobots (Telerobotics), Stumpy, Jan and Titan. Crew 4 continued to test the three telerobots (Stumpy, Jan and Titan) during multiple EVAs. Crew 5 tested a two-person ATV designed by Purdue University. thumb upright alt Robert Zubrin, Vladimir Pletser, and Katy Quinn of Crew 2 prepare to begin a motorized EVA on July 15, 2001. Robert Zubrin, Vladimir Pletser, and Katy Quinn of Crew 2 prepare to begin a motorized EVA on July 15, 2001. (File:FMARS Crew 2 Members on ATVs 2001-07-15.jpg) thumb upright alt Geologist Katy Quinn of Crew 2 uses a sledge hammer to generate subsurface signals which will be detected by a geophone on Haynes Ridge on July 12, 2001. Geologist Katy Quinn of Crew 2 uses a sledge hammer to generate subsurface signals which will be detected by a geophone on Haynes Ridge on July 12, 2001. (File:FMARS Crew 2 Geophone Flute 2001-07-12.jpg) thumb upright alt Charles Frankel and Brent Bos of Crew 3 climb Marine Rock on July 20, 2001. Charles Frankel and Brent Bos of Crew 3 climb Marine Rock on July 20, 2001. (File:FMARS Crew 3 at Marine Rock 2001-07-20.jpg) thumb upright alt Charles Frankel and Cathrine Frandsen of Crew 3 examine rock samples in the FMARS lab on July 22, 2001. Charles Frankel and Cathrine Frandsen of Crew 3 examine rock samples in the FMARS lab on July 22, 2001. (File:FMARS Crew 3 Examining Rock Samples 2001-07-22.jpg) thumb upright alt The DARPA - US Army telerobot "Solon" and Crew 3 explore Devo Rock canyon on July 26, 2001. The DARPA - US Army telerobot "Solon" exploring Devo Rock canyon on July 26, 2001. (File:FMARS Crew 3 DARPA Robot 2001-07-26.jpg) 2002 The crew deployed a weather station on Haynes Ridge which had been donated to the Mars Society by Met One Instruments. The weather station provided data on wind direction and speed, barometric pressure, humidity and temperature. A Terra MISR reflectance spectrometer (Spectrometer) provided by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was used to take ground truth reflectance spectra of landforms on Devon Island, to compare with measurements taken by a similar device (MISR) on board the earth orbiting Terra satellite. These spectra were collected by the crew during multiple EVAs, and were the farthest-north ground-truth measurements ever taken for the MISR instrument. This was an important demonstration of combined human robot exploration operations that will need to be done on Mars. Systematic sampling and characterization of extremophile bacteria (Extremophile) from the local environment was conducted, utilizing equipment provided from several sources including Dartmouth College, an epifluorescent microscope (Fluorescence microscope) sponsored by the Zeiss Company and a molecular laboratory lent by MJ Research. "In situ" samples were collected by the crew during EVA. These are rock samples that are not broken away from the large rock formations of their origin and are therefore free from modern biological or weathering action. The samples were collected to assist in testing a life-detection experiment called MASSE that was being developed by the Geophysical Department of the Carnegie Institute. Records were collected of rock-size distribution (in which the fraction of ground covered at each location by sand, granule (Granule (geology))s, pebbles, cobble (Cobble (geology))s, small boulders, and large boulders is estimated) in order to provide a quantitative estimate of the roughness of the ground to compare with coloration on Landsat satellite (Landsat program) images. Additionally, the crew hosted for a short period two journalists from Russian National Television (NTV) who collected footage of the station and its crew during the simulation. thumb upright alt Geologist Nell Beedle of Crew 7 examines fossilized algal mats in Devo Rock canyon. Geologist Nell Beedle of Crew 7 examines fossilized algal mats in Devo Rock canyon. (File:FMARS Crew 7 Geology 2002-07.JPG) thumb upright alt Markus Landgraf of Crew 7 uses a geologist hammer to obtain rock samples during EVA. Markus Landgraf of Crew 7 uses a geologist hammer to obtain rock samples during EVA. (File:FMARS Crew 7 Geology2 2002-07-14.JPG) thumb upright alt Crew 7 members on a motorized EVA. Crew 7 members on a motorized EVA. (File:FMARS Crew 7 MotorizedEVA 2002-07-15.JPG) thumb upright alt Nell Beedle, Emily MacDonald and Frank Eckardt of Crew 7 use a reflectance spectrometer during EVA on July 19, 2002. Nell Beedle, Emily MacDonald and Frank Eckardt of Crew 7 use a reflectance spectrometer during EVA on July 19, 2002. (File:FMARS Crew 7 MISR 2002-07-19.JPG) 2003 The crew conducted an experiment which tracked their cognitive performance throughout the mission. The results were analyzed and published in a paper by Jan Osburg and Walter Sipes. Jan Osburg and Walter Sipes. "Mars Analog Station Cognitive Testing (MASCOT): Results of First Field Season", SAE-2004-01-2586. 2004 Experiments in 2004 primarily focused on an in-depth biodiversity survey of the arctic desert and geological geophysical study of the Haughton Crater area. Logistics and engineering experiments were also conducted. The biodiversity study, led by Dr. Shannon Rupert, involved nine sites along streams ranging from first to third order. This survey was also conducted at each of the Mars Society's Analog Research Stations, including the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah and the planning site at the Australian Arkaroola desert. Dr. Akos Kereszturi took geological surveys for early characterization of terrain for the Exomars project. The crew tested an optical lens developed in Hungary called the Micro-Telescopium while on multiple EVAs. The crew found that the lens could be used for 8-15x magnification of objects while the astronaut was in the field, with the lens being fixed on the outside of helmet. Other experiments included a Geophysical analysis of Haughton Crater led by Dr. Louise Wynn which answered key questions on the physical characteristics of the 20-million year old meteor impactor. Błażej Błażejowski studied microfossils in crater soil deposits. A logistics study led by Dr. Jason Held found a method of tracking crew consumption by learning the crew's operations tempo. The crew's engineer, Judd Reed, conducted experiments on image detection in a robotic fish-eye camera, of a design highly relevant to modern Mars rovers. Crew member Joan Roch was interviewed by a number French-language media channels, including four times live for television (TVA Network of Quebec), six times for radios (Radio-Canada four times, Radio France Bleu Poitou, CISM 89,3FM Montreal) and three times for newspapers (Journal de Montreal, Metro Montreal, Centre-Presse). 2005 The crew was visited on Devon Island for several days by noted columnist John Tierney (John Tierney (journalist)), who wrote an op ed piece about the expedition entitled "Over the Moon" which appeared in the New York Times. Tierney, John (Published: July 30, 2005). Over the Moon. New York Times. 2007 The crew conducted a long duration mission, lasting four months total. This quadrupled the previous record for in-situ Mars mission simulations. They also operated on the Martian 'sol' (Timekeeping on Mars), (39 minutes longer than the 24-hour Earth day), for over a month, to evaluate the effects on crew psychophysiology or mission operations. The crew completed the AstroPCI personality inventory, the NEO-Personality Inventory by Costa and McCrae, as well as an online questionnaire battery dealing with stress, coping and group functioning on five occasions throughout the mission (pre and monthly). The tests were designed to investigate sources of interpersonal stress and strategies to cope. The results were analyzed and published in a paper by Sheryl Bishop and several of the crew members. The crew conducted data collection related to a significant number of scientific studies during the course of the mission. These included: * Biological properties of the active layer above the permafrost * Microbial community comparison within the active layer above the permafrost * Diversification of microbial activity in different snow types on Devon Island * Effects of an asynchronous online collaboration tool on knowledge building and science return on a Mars simulation mission * The role of geologic parameters in predicting bioload above the permafrost, while varying depth, location, and soil type, through the spring thaw transition * Transient hydrothermal systems of the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canada: Implications for the development of biological habitats * Tracing the relative contribution of basement and carbonate lithologies in the Haughton crater impactites * Permafrost landform development over the winter-to-summer transition: Characterization of evolving physical conditions of a polygon field in the Canadian High Arctic * Observing the "Weeping Cliffs" phenomenon near Haughton Crater as an analogue for Mars * Regolith landform mapping of Haughton Crater as an analogue for Mars * Mars Radiation Environment Modeling (MarsREM) * Measurement and evaluation of support intervention based on distance communication technologies and of physical training on relevance, feasibility and perceived efficacy * Analysis of group dynamics-perception of situational factors (heterogeneous and international) and its impact on crew interaction and perception of behavior and performance of crew members * Analysis of station environment habitability, of crew cognitive performance and changes in group dynamics * CASPER: The use of cardiac autonomic activity as a surrogate marker for sleep in a space analog environment * Human factors research as part of a space analogue mission on Devon Island * Seasonal variation of Chironomidae in the ponds of the Canadian High Arctic as a paleoclimatic indicator * Seasonal variation of the ponds on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic * Metrics of a long duration polar expedition: An analogue for human Moon-Mars exploration * Moon and Mars crew water utilization study conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station * Martian sol influence on sleep stability and mental performance during a long duration analogue exploration mission The crew also took part in a number of media and outreach events. A documentary team from Les Productions Vic Pelletier, Quebec visited the station for three days. Photographer Christian Lamontagne took pictures for their web-based program. The crew participated in a live interactive Mars Ed event with the NASA Ames Academy, for which their PCSP Principal Investigator Chris McKay gave an on-site introduction at Ames. Following the mission, several crew members met with Dr. Gary Goodyear, Member of the Canadian Parliament and Chair of the Canadian Space Caucus, to discuss the F-XI LDM mission & the future of space exploration in Canada. 2009 The crew flew the Maveric unmanned aerial vehicle (Prioria Robotics Maveric) (UAV) six times over Devon Island. Four of these flights were conducted in‐sim for the first time ever, supporting the idea that human Mars explorers could launch, operate and recover a UAV while encumbered by a spacesuit. This capability expanded the crew's field of view and the rate at which they could survey surrounding terrain. The Maveric UAV was deployed at the sites of several hydrothermal pipes (Breccia pipe), where aerial footage of these features with correlated GPS track information was captured for analysis, aiding later site sampling by crew geologists. Several GPS units including a Trimble (Trimble Navigation) GeoXM, helped the crew navigate on a long‐distance EVA to the Gemini Hills, an extensive deposit of hydrothermal breccia created by the Haughton meteor impact. The primary objective was to locate and sample a gypsum deposit at this site. Gypsum is a hydrated calcium sulfate mineral which is 20% water and is found in abundance on Earth and at many locations on Mars. Used to make plaster of Paris (Plaster of Paris#Gypsum plaster), sheetrock, cement, and other building materials, this white mineral will be an important resource for Mars industry. The crew returned to the Hab with samples from the gypsum deposit, crushed and heated them, and recovered pure liquid water and plaster of Paris. This ISRU demonstration was a first for a Mars simulation. thumb alt Crew members Kristine Ferrone and Joseph Palaia operate the Maveric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on July 24, 2009. Crew members Kristine Ferrone and Joseph Palaia operate the Maveric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on July 24, 2009. (File:072409 018-Stacy-07-24-09.jpg) thumb alt Crew members Brian Shiro, Christy Garvin, Stacy Cusack and Kristine Ferrone deploy the TEM47-PROTEM low frequency electromagnetic survey equipment on Haynes Ridge during EVA 8. Crew members Brian Shiro, Christy Garvin, Stacy Cusack and Kristine Ferrone deploy the TEM47-PROTEM low frequency electromagnetic survey equipment on Haynes Ridge during EVA 8. (File:FMARS TEM47‐PROTEM1 2009-07-19.jpg) thumb alt Crew member Kristine Ferrone operates a Class IV High Power Laser therapy device. Crew member Kristine Ferrone operates a Class IV High Power Laser therapy device. (File:FMARS Medical Laser1 2009-07-26.jpg) thumb alt Crew members Joseph Palaia and Vernon Kramer deploy the Omega Envoy prototype lunar rover on July 12, 2009. Crew members Joseph Palaia and Vernon Kramer deploy the Omega Envoy prototype lunar rover on July 12, 2009. (File:071209 082-Stacy-7-12-09.jpg) thumb upright alt Vernon Kramer uses a Trimble GeoXM GPS to locate the Gemini Hills on EVA 9. Vernon Kramer uses a Trimble GeoXM GPS to locate the Gemini Hills on EVA 9. (File:FMARS 2009 trimble.jpg) thumb upright alt The crew located the gypsum deposit and extracted samples. The crew located the gypsum deposit and extracted samples. (File:FMARS 2009 gypsum field.jpg) thumb upright alt The gypsum was scrapped and crushed to produce a fine powder. The gypsum was scrapped and crushed to produce a fine powder. (File:FMARS 2009 gypsum crush.jpg) thumb upright alt The apparatus used to extract water from the gypsum powder. The apparatus used to extract water from the gypsum powder. (File:FMARS 2009 gypsum lab.jpg) thumb upright alt Water being extracted from the gypsum powder through heating. Water being extracted from the gypsum powder through heating. (File:FMARS 2009 gypsum heat.jpg) thumb upright alt Crew member Vernon Kramer with a sample of water extracted from solid rock. Crew member Vernon Kramer with a sample of water extracted from solid rock. (File:FMARS 2009 gypsum water.jpg) Seven of the sixteen FMARS EVAs were devoted to two geophysical experiments. One project was to install Devon Island’s first seismometer, a Trillium Compact provided by Nanometrics. The crew scouted deployment locations and installed the equipment while fully in‐sim, a first for Mars analog research. Seismic stations similar to this will provide important understanding of the interior of planets including Mars, particularly the deep crust (Crust (geology)), mantle (Mantle (geology)), and core (Inner core). The second geophysical project tested how effectively human explorers in space suits could deploy low frequency electromagnetic survey equipment, a TEM47‐PROTEM provided by Geonics Limited, to search for groundwater beneath Haynes Ridge near the hab location. Future human Mars explorers may conduct similar surveys in their search for life and resources to support human settlement. The crew conducted and were subjects in a research study using a Class IV High Power Laser therapy device (Laser medicine) provided by Lighthouse Technical Innovation, Inc. Crew members received treatment on focused areas before and after each EVA. The laser therapy is effective due to the penetration of coherent laser light into the tissues causing deep heating and local vasodilation. The additional blood supply provided by the dilated vessels can serve many functions, most notably preparation of the muscles for physical exertion and accelerated healing of muscle soreness, strain, or pain from past injuries. The laser therapy at the FMARS Hab was effective in relieving symptoms caused by physical exertion and was concurrent with the quick healing of minor injuries, recovery from an illness, and the complete lack of muscle pulls or extended soreness. The Omega Envoy Project, a team vying for the Google Lunar X PRIZE, provided a prototype lunar rover for testing during the FMARS 2009 mission. The rover was assembled and tested prior to the mission by 4Frontiers Corporation interns, in coordination with the Florida Space Grant Consortium (National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program) and NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Outfitted with a communications and video package designed in collaboration with the University of Central Florida DARPA team, the rover was continuously operated via the internet from the team’s headquarters in Orlando, Florida. This demonstration proved key technologies and provided essential teleoperational experience related to communicating with and controlling the rover from a remote location. It provided a deeper understanding of the complexities to be encountered in lunar rover operation. For all FMARS 2009 EVAs, the crew wore a Garmin Forerunner combined GPS and heart rate monitor system to gather concurrent geographic and physiological data. Crew members also captured geotagged photos and videos using Coolpix P6000 GPS‐enabled cameras, donated by Nikon. These technologies allowed them to easily combine ground and UAV GPS tracks, heart rate data, and photo information within the geographic context of Google Earth to produce visuals for display on the FMARS website. The crew also gathered data useful for the evolution of MIT’s Mission Planner Software, which may be used by future astronauts to generate safe and efficient EVA traverses. Social media outlets like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums (Picasa) also helped the FMARS crew share its activities with the interested public. Some crew members also maintained blogs that garnered substantial followings. At least 25 stories featuring FMARS 2009 have been published, showing media interest in the expedition. Thanks in large part to The Mars Society volunteers serving on the Mission Support team (in Colorado, Florida, Texas, Washington, and Australia), the FMARS website received a major overhaul this year, helping the crew to organize, manage, and release to the interested public the volumes of generated information. Mission Support posted crew reports, photos and video files to the website, and also assisted in troubleshooting technical problems as they arose. The crew also benefited from the expertise of an international team of physicians who provided telemedicine support. In coordination with Southern Methodist University (SMU (Southern Methodist University)), Florida Space Grant Consortium (FSGC) and the Georgia Space Grant Consortium (National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program) (GSGC (National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program)), FMARS crew members conducted four live video webcasts with students groups. These sessions included the SMU Talented & Gifted Program, NASA Kennedy Space Center Interns, NASA Digital Learning Network via Georgia Tech, and Gardendale Magnet Elementary School in Florida. Students, educators and interns in attendance gave the FMARS crew high praise for providing this glimpse of life in a simulated Mars habitat. 2013 thumb Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) and associated infrastructure. This includes a newly deployed Instaberm (secondary containment area for fuel storage), stored diesel fuel and gasoline, and the current generator shack. (File:FMARS and Infrastructure on July 17, 2013..JPG) The 2013 expedition was a survey and refit mission, intended to assess the current condition of FMARS and to deliver equipment, materials and supplies necessary to prepare the station for the planned 1-year Mars simulation (Mars Arctic 365). Accomplishments included: * Surveyed the station and on-site infrastructure. Found the hab to be sound but identified some minor issues to be addressed next season. * Delivered one new generator * Delivered one new ATV. Two additional were purchased and stored in Resolute for deployment next season * Deployed additional containment areas for fuel storage * Delivered and installed new cooking equipment * Delivered a new metal storage and generator building to Resolute for deployment next season * Assessed ground conditions, staked out the location for the new building, and cleared the site * Surveyed two new airstrips to provide more options and avoid future landings in crosswinds * Delivered and installed a new weather station * Tested new Iridium satellite phones * Performed some clean up and organization The Mars Society is planning to conduct a second refit mission in July 2014 to finish station repair and upgrades prior to the start of the planned one year Mars Arctic 365 mission. Publications The following publications have been based on research performed at FMARS. 2001 * Vladimir Pletser, Philippe Lognonne, Michel Diament, Véronique Dehant. "Subsurface water detection on Mars by astronauts using a seismic refraction method: Tests during a manned Mars mission simulation", ActaAstronautica64(2009)457–466. * Alain Souchier. "Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations", ActaAstronautica66(2010)1580–1592. * on Devon Island in Canada's high Arctic in the summer of 2000. thumb 150px right Devon Island region (Image:DevonIsl.png) Because Haughton's geology and climatology are as close to Mars-like as can be had on Earth, Haughton and its environs have been dubbed by scientists working there as "Mars on Earth." For example the center of the crater contains impact breccia (ejected rock which has fallen back into the impact zone and partially re-welded) that is permeated with permafrost, thus creating a close analog to what may be expected at crater sites on a cold, wet Mars. The Mars Institute and SETI operate the Haughton-Mars Project at this site, designed to test many of the challenges of life and work on Mars. The non-profit Mars Society also operates the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS (Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station)) at this site and conducts similar research. As with the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station and the Mars Desert Research Station, which were chosen for their physical similarity to Mars, Euro-MARS will be set up on Krafla, a volcanic rift (rift valley) in north-east Iceland, which bears strong resemblance to volcanically-produced features on the surface of Mars. A relative dry region, Krafla also demonstrates land features that have been produced by water action which are visually similar to those found in certain regions of Mars. Unlike the previous stations, Euro-MARS offers extensive opportunities for in-situ extremophile biology research of the kind that may be carried out during future human missions to Mars. This is because the Krafla region has extensive rifts and fumaroles which are home to anaerobic (Anaerobic organism) (non-oxygen breathing) microbes. Any life evidenced on Mars will also be anaerobic in nature, so developing field study techniques in Krafla will help define protocols and procedure that will be employed on Mars.
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