the field area) and walk along the wall till you meet Spandarian St. The house will be on your right. phone +346 093733145 tollfree fax hours price 7000 checkin Flexible checkout Flexible content Goahr's(2) Family guesthouse is a summer house from the previous century and offer rooms and meals for a cheap price. Russian, Armenian, German and partly English spoken staff. Large, wood panaled rooms with large beds and nice views. The price is a bit better that at the other Gohar's
–7 During this period Russia expanded its empire into Central Asia, which was rich in raw materials, conquering the khanates of Kokand, Bokhara and Khiva, as well as the Trans-Caspian region (Caspian Sea). Riasonovsky p.349 Another factor contributing to the weakness of the Uzbek khanates in this period was the general decline of trade moving through the region. This change had begun in the previous century when ocean trade routes were
the twentieth century". In Curtis. Another factor contributing to the weakness of the Uzbek khanates in this period was the general decline of trade moving through the region. This change had begun in the previous century when ocean trade routes were established from Europe to India and China, circumventing the Silk Route. As European-dominated ocean transport expanded and some trading centers were destroyed, cities such as Bukhoro, Merv, and Samarqand in the Khanate
) is a town in the Semily District, Liberec Region, of northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. It has about 9,000 inhabitants. One important landmark is the St Peter and Paul Church, from the beginning of the previous century. The town has two notable museums: the Museum and Regional Gallery and the newly opened Museum of Raspers. The important politician Fratišek Ladislav Rieger was born in Semily in 1818. Also born here was Ivan Olbracht, a popular Czech writer
– Caceres; Celtiberian-type mint: ''Tamusiensi''), ''Ocelon Ocelum'' (Castelo Branco (Castelo Branco, Portugal)), ''Cottaeobriga'' (Almeida) and ''Lancia'' (Serra d’Opa). Veneration Constantine the Great built a church in his honour. His relics were translated ''ca.'' 630 to a spring at Squillace, close by the Vivarium, the monastery founded in the previous century by Cassiodorus in the heel of Italy.
district. Reilly, ''Alfonso VI'', pp. 285, 287 Two years later, he appears as Alcalde of Toledo. Reilly, ''Alfonso VI'', p. 293 Veneration Constantine the Great built a church in his honour. His relics were translated ''ca.'' 630 to a spring at Squillace, close by the Vivarium, the monastery founded in the previous century by Cassiodorus in the heel of Italy.
for the Portuguese (rumored? to have been) killed some 80 years earlier. He was relieved when Captain da Costa instead worked on negotiating a treaty of friendship, drafted by Chambanga, which was signed in Chambanga's town of Fanjahira, though was never seen again. While Chambanga gave Father Freire a small booklet of "prayers, litanies and psalms," written by shipwrecked Portuguese in the previous century, some in Latin, others in Portuguese. Soon the local Malagasy were happily trading "rice, yams, beans, lemons, ginger, cattle, sheep, goats, eggs, poultry, cotton cloth and silver bracelets for minted piastres and glass beads," and for several weeks over 2,000 Antanosy came each day to trade or just look at the ship at anchor in the bay. * This ship was also scouting for new Catholic mission sites (Goa was an ecclesiastical province of the Catholic Church, responsible for missionary work in the Indian Ocean). With the aid of Malagasy interpreters aboard the ship, French and Italian Jesuit missionaries from Goa gave mass on the beach, where they observed some Malagasy wearing pewter crosses around their necks which they'd gotten from Portuguese, while several even had tattoos of crosses. They also found some Portuguese words were being used. * After several weeks in Ranofotsy Bay, Italian Father Luigi Mariana with 3 Portuguese sailors and quite a few of their slaves, walked over to "Trano Vato" (near Vinanibe) where he wanted to establish a chapel and house that he and Father Freire could use as a base for their missionary efforts. They chose this site as they wanted to focus their efforts on King Chambanga and his people. After several weeks of work, having constructed both buildings, a 10m cross was also raised at Tranovato, with another one planted which overlooked Ranofotsy bay. * While at Tranovato, Father Mariana asked Andriamanoro, Chief of a village on a neighboring island, who had originally built this stone house? * As part of the treaty signed by the Portuguese and King Chambanga, the King had agreed to provide one of his sons to the Jesuits so they could take him back to Goa, where he would be taught Catholicism, as well as about "the customs and grandeur" of the Portuguese. Unfortunately, within 6 weeks of the arrival of the Portuguese, what had begun so well deteriorated rapidly as Captain da Costa and the Jesuit priests became increasingly frustrated over King Chambanga's unwillingness to give them his son as he had agreed to in the treaty he'd signed. Chambanga did offer to provide them with a younger, more distant relative instead, but Captain felt this was an "affront" to Portuguese "honor and name" and ordered his crew to go get Chambanga's 12 year old son, Andriandramaka (Drian-Ramaka), and bring him aboard his ship, using force if necessary. It was at this point in time when the Jesuits started to blame King Chambanga for having killed at least a "third" of the Portuguese who had been shipwrecked in Anosy in the previous century. Chambanga's response was to deny he had killed any Europeans or that he'd agreed to send his son with the Portuguese. Captain de Costa then had his soldiers and sailors seize Drian-Ramaka when he showed up with his father at Ranofotsy bay and rowed him out to their ship. Chambanga first had his soldiers try to attack the ship, but when they were driven back by cannon and musket shots fired from the ship, he tried to ransom him, but the Portuguese refused this as well, shouting towards shore they'd return his son in several years, once he had completed his religious studies in Goa. *1614–15 – Drian-Ramaka spent 2 years of study at the newly renamed Jesuit Saint Paul's College, Goa (originally named the College of Santa Fe), the largest school in the Portuguese empire, established for what were then over 2,000 boys and young men of a wide variety of races and classes, though many, like Drian-Ramaka were of the highest social strata from the India subcontinent, the Indian Ocean and even several from East Africa, where, while they were trained to assist European clergy, had also been chosen as the Jesuits were hoping they'd also be significant leaders when they returned home. While he most likely at least began to learn to speak Portuguese as well as basic Catholicism on his 5 month voyage to Goa (via Mozambique). In Goa he was taught to read and write Portuguese by priests so he could enroll in the college. He was very intelligent, in a little less than two years learning how to read, write and sing in Portuguese, as well as ride a horse (an animal he'd never seen in Anosy). He was also taught the Latin catechism and could even respond to basic questions in Latin. Eventually Drian-Ramaka was also baptized. *1616 – Prince Drian-Ramaka, having been renamed "Dom André de Souza" (Sahavandra?) by the Jesuits, returned to Anosy in April, together with 8 "white companions," 3 of them Jesuit missionaries whose task was to develop a mission at Tranovato by working in collaboration with "Dom Andre" and his Raondriana father. While his parents were very happy when they found out their son who had been forcibly taken from them two years earlier was not only alive and aboard a ship in Ranofotsy bay, when the Jesuits refused to let "Dom Andre" go to shore until his father provided two additional relatives as temporary hostages. King Chambanga was enraged over this and while he did eventually yield to this demand. These temporary hostages were chained up on the ship and then the Jesuits indicated they would take Drian-Ramaka back on board their ship as well unless his father provided them with another son (preferably 2), who would also be taken to Goa for studies. Chambanga refused to give up any of his sons to the Jesuits, including Drian-Ramaka. Furthermore, according to Larson (2007), he told the Jesuit missionaries "he felt the Portuguese had the custom of sending some missionaries first to lands they desired and following later to take possession" of them. This in turn enraged the Jesuits and ship's company, who plotted to mercilessly battle the king and his followers, only giving up on this plan when they realized in so doing they would not be able to do any missionary work in Anosy. Eventually the Jesuits worked out an agreement with Chambanga that in exchange for "just" taking one of what had been two temporary Antanosy hostages to Goa for education, they would be allowed to live and do their missionary work in Anosy. Two of the missionaries settled at Tranovato (for a 1656 map of this community drawn by Flacourt, see. ). However, when members of this new, Portuguese community identified the ''ombiasa'' as God's enemies, the ''ombiasa'' threatened to poison them. When they openly began searching for gold and silver in the Anosy area, they confirmed King Chambanga's fears that they were involved in much more than just sharing their religion with his people. Soon after this the Portuguese living at Tranovato became ill due to fevers and by the end of the year, very frustrated with how this ''vazaha'' endeavor was working out, Chambanga forbid his people to provide anything to the Portuguese in an attempt to starve them into leaving Anosy. *1617 – Having baptized only 1 person in the year they'd been there (the Jesuits blamed this on the Islamic aspects of Antanosy beliefs), one of the Jesuit priests having died, the others suffering from hunger and fever due to their enforced isolation from the local population, left Anosy. In the mean time Prince Drian-Ramaka became king at the death of his father. However, instead of embracing the Catholic faith he'd been taught, he took the name of Andriandramaka and continued to respect the local beliefs and customs of that areas folk religion. *1618 – Pitre, son of a Dutch captain, washed up on shore in Karembola (west of Androy). He lived with a local king for two years then was brought to Anosy by Dian Tsiambany where he was given a house, wife and slaves. In wasn't until 7 years after being shipwrecked (1625) that a Dutch ship anchored off the shore of Anosy and after Pitre negotiated a trade for the Antanosy he was living with (50 cattle, 50 baskets of rice, 50 fowls, honey, honey wine and edible roots for 100 pieces-of-eight, 6 bolts of cotton, Indian fabrics, porcelain and silk), he went home to Holland (Pearson, 1997). *1620 – The Goa-based Jesuits abandoned and never attempted to restart what had only been a very feeble and seriously flawed, 7 year missionary effort in Anosy (less than a year and a half of Jesuit priests living and working there). (For a different perspective on Catholic missionary work in Anosy during the 16th and 17th centuries, see. ) * For the next 20 years, while ships from many European countries anchored at various times along the Anosy coast, no one attempted to establish a permanent settlement there. *1625 – Final Zafindraminia migration into Anosy per Grandidier. *1640 – Of 500 Frenchmen shipwrecked in Karembola (Androy), 100 sailed off in a barque. Of the 400 left behind, only 2 manage to reach Anosy, the rest having died of illnesses, were killed or died of privation (Pearson, 1997). *1641 – Dutch shipwreck along coast of Androy. First French settlement colony in Anosy (1642–1674) See Larson (2007) and Pearson (1997) for where much of the information on this period came. For additional information see Allibert, C. (ed.) 1997. Autour d'Etienne de Flacourt (Actes du Colloque d'Orléans). ''Etudes Océan Indien, 23 24''. Flacourt, E. de. (1661). ''Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar, composée par le Sieur de Flacourt, directeur general de la Compagnie Française de l’Orient, et commandant pour Sa Majesté dans la-dite isles et les isles adjacentes and Relation de la Grande Isle Madagascar contenant ce qui s'est passé entre les Français et les Originaires de cette Isle, depuis l’an 1642 jusques en l’an 1655, 1656, 1657''. Paris: Gervais Clouzier Troyes: Nicolas Oudot. Flacourt, E. de. 1661 1995 . ''Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar''. C. Allibert Ed. Paris: INALCO & Karthala. Flacourt, Étienne de & Allibert, Claude. (2007). ''Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar''. Harmattan. Froidevaux, Henri. (1915). Les derniers projets du duc de la Meilleraye sur Madagascar (1663). ''Revue de l'Histoire des Colonies Francaise, 03'', 5–34. Froidevaux, Henri. (1919). Les premiers successeurs de Flacourt à Madagascar (Février 1655 – Janvier 1656). ''Revue de l'Histoire des Colonies Francaise, 01-03'', 5–34. Malotet, Arthur. (1898). ''Etienne de Flacourt: Ou, les origines de la colonisation Francaise a Madagascar, 1648–1661''. Ernest Leroux: Paris. n.a. (2003). La Case, les Sorabe, l'Histoire. From AnthropologieEnLigne.com n.a. (?). Les Compagnies de Commerce et la première colonisation de Madagascar. From AnthropologieEnLigne.com Aniruddha, R. (1979). French Colonial Policy in seventeenth century Madagascar: François Martin's Account, ''Archipel, 17''(17), 81–97. Villars, Capitaine de (1912). ''Madagascar 1638–1894. Établissement des Français dans l'île''. Paris: L. Fournier. For additional information about France's colonial efforts, see the French Colonial Empire.) * An estimated 10,000 Antanosy lived near Fort Dauphin, with the total population of Anosy several times this number. * For more information on work by the Roman Catholic Church in Anosy during the 16th and 17th centuries, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Tôlagnaro. *1643-73 - Several different French Governors of Fort Dauphin, France's first colony in the Indian Ocean, sought to conquer Anosy, mounting multiple military campaigns through the south where they pillaged and then burned hundreds of villages, killed thousands of Malagasy, enslaved others and stole tens of thousands of cattle as they sought to wrest control of the area from the Zafiraminia kings. During this time the French colonialists living there also fought for several of the Malagasy kings in Anosy. Fort Dauphin was a rough place to live. According to one source: With the exception of some officers who feared God, there was neither order nor justice in the quarter of the Europeans. The most atrocious robberies were committed with impunity. The cattle of the natives was taken by force: they were massacred without mercy, when they did not give it cheerfully: they treated as an outrage upon temporals, the representations and complaints of a conduct so contrary to justice and humanity. *1642 – First French colonial settlement in Anosy established by Jacques de Pronis Foucquenbourg, a French Huguenot who was the first Governor of the Compagnie Francaise des Indes Orientales (French East India Company) at Manafiafy, 40 km. northeast of Tolagnaro, with 8 shipwrecked Frenchmen and 70 colonists (for a map of the harbors of Manafiafy and what was soon to become Fort Dauphin, see. ) However, after 26 of the 40 settlers died within the first several months there (many most likely due to Malaria and or Dysentary) and due to it being a hostile environment, the settlement was moved southwest to what became Fort Dauphin, which they built on the peninsula there. *1643 – Fort Dauphin community began exporting ebony, hide and beeswax. 25 Initially they found the local Antanosy, ruled by Dian Ramaka (who had learned Portuguese and been baptized during 3 years studying at a Saint Paul's College, Goa), friendly, in part because many of the local inhabitants were descendants of shipwrecked sailors. In settling first in Manafiafy and then moving south to a sandy peninsula at a site known by the Antanosy people as Taolagnaro ("the place of many bones"). Both of these attempted French settlements were at the edge of the Zafiraminia's world. Pronis renamed the site Fort Dauphin, in honor of the then crown prince of France, the Dauphin (who became King Louis XIV. * Pronis angered the Antanosy people when he sold several of the Lohavohitz (wealthy and powerful bourgeoisie) class of people as slaves (they were taken to Mauritius). Hearing of this, Pronis' time as Governor was ended by those in France. *1644 - Gallions Bay. Wreck of '' Le Saint Louis '' Compagnie Française de l'Orient. *1648 - Etienne de Flacourt took over as Governor. His plan was to establish 9 different colonies in Madagascar, each of them able to be a supply for ships. In addition they would sell indigo, tobacco, sugarcane, hides, etc. to various markets around the world, the income from this used to support the colonies. As there was plenty of food being grown in the area surrounding Fort Dauphin, it could be obtained either through trade or if necessary, by force. Flacourt was a man of many skills, which included writing a very detailed explanation of Anosy at that time. He also learned to read the ''Sorabe'' form of Arabic script of the Zafirimania people. * 1648 to 1694 - First Congregation of the Mission (Lazarist) mission in southeast Madagascar, sponsored by the "Society of St. Vincent de Paul . *1649 – 15 of Flacourt's troops fought for a Mahafaly king against one of his rivals, capturing 10,000 cattle and 500 slaves. Returning to Anosy with 600 cattle, they were ambushed by Ramaka and several other roandria. However, all but one soldier arrived safely back at the Fort (due to reinforcements which accompanied them back). *mid-1600s – Rise of Zafiraminia rule of the Efaho valley as they became the key connection between the French and the rest of Anosy. At the same time, the Zafiraminia sought to drive out the French using a variety of methods. According to Flacourt: the ''Ombiasa'' royal practicers of magic employed their services against the French...they sent near the French fort baskets full of papers with printed symbols and writing on them, eggs...with the same , unbaked earthen post with writings inside and out, small coffins, dugouts, oars...all covered with symbols, scissors, tongs... In short, there is hardly anything they did not try, even the poisoning of our water wells * Extensive destruction of villages close to Fort Dauphin led by Flacourt. For example a detachment of 80 Frenchmen destroyed the town of Ifarantsa, 25 km from Fort Dauphin. * For a map of Fort Dauphin at this time, see Flacourt, S. de. (1660s?). Map of Fort Dauphin. For a map of the Anosy region at this time, see *1650 – While 77 people had been baptized, two missionaries had died, at least one from fever. There were no priests there until 1654. * As the European ships anchoring in the bays along the Anosy coast were heavily armed with cannons, muskets and pistols and the people in Anosy at that time had only a total of 9 flintlocks, they remained dominant as long as they didn't go very far inland. *1651 – The Antanosy briefly took over control of Fort Dauphin. After Flacourt was able to drive off thousands of Antanosy, led by king Ramaka, who attacked the fort, he killed Ramaka and one of his sons and burned down his village of Fanjahirambe, which was the center of the Zafiraminy. An archeological dig conducted in the early 1990s at this site found European stonewares, earthenwares, glass bottles, Far Eastern green glaze and blue and white porcelain (Wright et al., 1993). *1653 – Flacourt reinscribed the marble stone the Portuguese had used to mark their captain's grave at the Trano Vato and brought it to Fort Dauphin. On the marble he wrote, "Oh newcomer, read our advice: it will be useful for you, yours and your life: beware of the locals. Farewell." *1654 - Father Bourdaise, having traveled inland to Ranomafana, baptized 600 and translated a Catechism and the first draft of a dictionary that Flacourt later edited. *1655 – Flacourt returned to France for 5 years, where he published his extensive history of the Anosy region. *A priest and 3 brothers who had just arrived in Fort Dauphin, courageously ventured into Anosy, but were captured and imprisoned by the Antanosy who were very upset due to the death of their king. * Ramaka's son Andriampanolahy rebuilt Fanjahira, which had become a symbol of Antanosy resistance to French colonialism. *1656 – Champmargou, Flacourt's replacement, arrived at Fort Dauphin to find the French had executed two roandria, but the Fort had been burnt down by the Antanosy and Pronis was dead. In response Champmargou led a ruthless attempt to conquer the local Antanosy, which only left those living in Fort Dauphin more isolated. * La Case (Le Rochelais Le Vacher), Champmargou's subordinate, having married the daughter of a roandriana and became a local ruler. After successfully fighting in wars against both the Mahafaly and the Karembola (Antandroy), he organized an army of Antanosy soldiers who saved Campmargou and his troops in a revenge attack they were trying to do because of the death of one of the Catholic priests who had insulted Dian Manana, a powerful local roandria. Many of the French died from malaria, including Chamargou. *1660 – Flacourt died in a shipwreck while sailing back to Madagascar. *1663 – On Christmas Day, 4 Malagasy adults and 15 children were baptized into the Catholic faith, but another missionary died soon thereafter. *1665 – As part of efforts by the new French East India Company (Compagnie des Indes Orientales) to rebuild Fort Dauphin, four ships arrived from France with almost 500 settlers who were "to establish there a civil society with original inhabitants". The settlers included carpenters, shoe-smiths, cabinet makers, masons and stone-cutters, cartwrights, gardeners, labourers, wine growers, bakers, butchers, tanners, candle workers, etc. (Ray, p. 85, 1979). However, due to an unclarity of roles, there was much internal fighting among the French settlers. * Worsening relationship with the local Malagasy resulted in it becoming quite difficult for the French living in Fort Dauphin to obtain rice or meat, their staple foods. As a result they took possession of 3 different "posts" elsewhere in Madagascar to supply rice to Fort Dauphin. These included Fort Gaillard in Fenoarivo Atsinanana, which at one point shipped 158 barrels of rice and 500 birds to Fort Dauphin. A second site was located at Antongil Bay. Cattle, on the other hand, were obtained by raiding the countryside surrounding Anosy, which only worsened relationships with the people of Anosy. * Thousands of new colonists and troops arrive, many who died from warfare with the people of Anosy or fever. * The Compagnie's poor profits resulted in the Crown taking it over. *1665–67 – By the time nine new missionaries, 4 lay brothers and 2 farmers from the Recollects (Recollets) order arrived in Fort Dauphin, it had a chapel, monastery and library. *1668 – Fort described as having two "bastions" on the north side which commanded the harbor, was 50 feet long by 26 feet wide with a main door which overlooked s small meadow to the west while the other door looked east towards the sea. *1670 – 200 remaining colonists left at Fort Dauphin living in a war-torn, hostile part of Anosy. *1671 – Death of La Case. Both his daughter and widow soon married other Frenchmen. * A letter from Roguet, one of the Lazarist community, back to France reports: War continues, famine has not left, our weakness increases.... As our enemies, they increase their forces every day in number and in force...we are not in a position to defend ourselves, not having the arms, men, munitions of war nor the guns." * Admiral de la Haye, who had temporarily taken over control of Fort Dauphin from Chamargou in 1660, but then had left for Réunion, disgusted by what he found there, told King Louis XIV he should abandon Fort Dauphin. * Dubois, a visitor to Anosy, described local Malagasy graves as being covered with gold or silver arm rings, along with coral and cloth in preparation for the deceased's next life (as cited in Pearson, 1997). *1672 - On Christmas Even, many of the French living in Fort Dauphin, gathered for a midnight mass, were massacred, their bodies dumped down what as known as Flacourt's Well. *1674 – Father Etienne poisoned, having served in Fort Dauphin for 8 years. * Wreck of the ship ''La Dunkerquoise'' of the French East India Company in the Fort Dauphin harbor which was on its way to Île Bourbon (Reunion) with quite a few young French women aboard who convinced the governor they should marry his colonists instead of going on to Bourbon. The governor ordered the colonists to do this and renounce their Malagasy wives. * August 27 - Feeling betrayed, these colonists' now former Malagasy wives told the local Malagasy forces about what had happened, who viewed this as a breaking of the colonists' alliances with them. 75 of the colonists were killed by the Antanosy while they were celebrating their marriages to the recently arrived French women. * September 9 -Fort Dauphin was evacuated and the fort and settlement closed (the remaining stores were burned and the cannons were spiked). The departing French colonists left behind about 4,000 French colleagues who had died there in the last 30 years, a bitter French perspective of this region and a colonial failure, as the Antanosy had successfully forced them out. This was a source of French embarrassment for the next 200 years until France successfully took control of Madagascar in 1895, based at least partially on claims France made on Madagascar in the mid-1800s due to their time in Fort Dauphin. * While only 2 of a total of 37 French Catholic missionaries sent to Fort Dauphin by that time were able to return to France, by the time they left there were hundreds of baptized Antanosy, a French-Antanosy dictionary and a Catechism in the Antanosy language left behind. * Fort Dauphin considered by the French to be too dangerous a dock to use for the next 60 years. *1681 - Wreck of ''Soleil d'Orient'' of the French East India Company presumed somewhere northeast of Pointe Itapère (Evatra) Hoala phase of the Efaho Valley (18th–19th centuries) '''18th century:''' Abraham Samuel Tantet. (1901–1902). Une excursion en pays Antanosy au XVIIIe Siecle. ''Revue Coloniale'', pp. 121–127. Guigue, Albert. (1917). La carrière coloniale de Mengaud de la Hage (1772–1777) ''Revue de l'Histoire des Colonies Francaise, V3em Trimestre'', 257–330. *Continued conflict as the Zafiraminia attempted to regain control, without success. Size and number of settlements decreased and moved further inland from the floodplains and rivers towards the mountains. New crops introduced and a great deal of imports from China. Towards the end of this phase the traditional clay cooking ware were replaced by imported pots made of iron (Rakotoarisoa, 1998). *1707? – About 30 surviving members of the shipwrecked British ship ''Degrave'', having been able to escape from Androy, leave on a Dutch ship. *1740s – Another unsuccessful attempt by French to settle Fort Dauphin. As trade through Fort Dauphin began to increase again, the primary exports were cattle hides, salt beef or live livestock exported to Mauritius. Slavery was not an important trade. *1768 – Frenchman Count Louis Laurent de Maudave, a friend of Voltaire, former soldier in India and Mauritius planter, attempted to rebuild Fort Dauphin, signing 30 treaties with local kings as he didn't want to gain land through conquest. By this point, at least some of the local Malagasy viewed the French as allies, who because they provided them with muskets and ammunition, allowed them to gain wealth and power. * some write so it could be a supply base for the French colonies on the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues) . * Between 1768 and 1769, French traders from Mauritius in Fort Dauphin sold 10,000 guns, 50 tons of gunpowder, 120,000 lead shot bullets, 300,000 gunflints, 24,000 knives and 10,000 small mirrors. They were most likely purchased through bartering both India Rubber and slaves. At this point in time a slave could be purchased in some parts of Madagascar for 2–3 muskets. It is quite possible that at least some of these guns were traded by Antanosy with the Tandroy for cattle which the Antanosy then traded with Europeans. Arms retained by the Antanosy were later used in their unsuccessful defense of Anosy from the Imerina army which came south in the early 1800s. *1769 – Spiny prickly pear cactus Opuntia dillenii is brought from Mauritius with the aim of shielding the settlement; over the next 100 years, it spread over 50,000 square miles of the arid south from the Mandrare river and west throughout the Androy region, providing fruit to eat, a source of water and improved ground cover and ground water. *1770 - Under order of King Louis XVth, French Navy stopped this settling project and Fort Dauphin was again abandoned by Maudave in 1771, who took Malagasy slaves with him back to his Mauritius plantation. * About the time of their departure, the Zafiriminia kingdom also fell. *1798 – ''HMS Garland'' wrecked near Manafiafy. '''19th century:''' Grandidier, A. (1868). Carnets de voyage—Carnets n07 et 8: Voyage chez les Antanosy—Carnets n”9 et 10: Notes prises sur les Antanosy. Paris manuscrit MusCe de l’Homme (en microfiches centre de documentation de l’ERA, TulCar: surtout chap. 111). Grandidier, A. (1872). Excursion chez les Antanosses. CmigrCs-Paris, Delagrave, 20 p. Grandidier, G. (1958). Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar (Vol. V). Histoire politique et coloniale (Tome III). Histoire des populations autres que les Merina-Fascicule I. Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, Antanosy, Sihanaka, Tsimihety, Bezanozano. Imprimerie Officielle, Tananarive. 253p-(voir chap.3, Histoire des Antanosy, 7 1- 116). *1811 – Jean Rene, son of a French settler of Fort Dauphin and an Antanosy mom, became Governor of Toamasina, first under British and then under the Imerina king Radama I's rule. He took a blood oath with Radama in 1817 and was a powerful ally, even against the Antanosy, until his death in 1826. *1819 – Albrand reopened Fort Dauphin in the name of King Louis XVIII of France, having negotiated with the Zafiraminia king Rabefania who reassured Albrand the past was forgotten and who was interested in French protection from the Imerina monarchy, led by king Radama I, who had declared "the ocean is the limit of our rice fields" and was seeking to conquer the whole of Madagascar. The Antanosy people were also seeking a way to respond to their increasingly despotic princes ("Rohandriana"). Imerina control of Fort Dauphin area (1825–1895) (Rakotoarisoa, 1998). Guigue, Albert. (1916). Les Francais dans l'Anosy, ''Revue de l'Histoire des Colonies Francaise, IV'', 356–359. Guigue, Albert. (1919). Un questionnaire sur le passe du Sud-Est de Madagascar, ''Revue de l'Histoire des Colonies Francaise, VIII'', 303–305. *1825 – Anosy, including Fort Dauphin, conquered by 3,000 Imerina soldiers, led by Ramananolona, cousin of King Radama I, after a battle at Masihanaka, near Eboboka. The Imerina entered the French fort, subdued De Grasse, the French Commandant, replaced the French flag with that of the Imerina kingdom and Ramananolona was suddenly head the commercial establishment at Fort Dauphin (the French fled to an island off of Manafiafy, from which they were picked up and sailed to Bourbon). Having confiscated the Antanosy guns, the Imerina demanded cattle, taxes, slaves and forced labor (adults were forced to create and farm rice fields while children were required to protect rice crop from birds and sugar cane from rats). From this point on there was Antanosy resistance by Rabefania's soldiers, which was brutally suppressed by Rafito, who commanded the Imerina troops. This resistance continued till the French conquered the Imerina, meaning most of Anosy was not controlled by the Imerina kingdom, but rather only Fort Dauphin, its neighboring town of Andrahomana and Manafiafy, where they collected duty on exports and imports. *1827 – Jean Laborde's ship runs aground north of Fort Dauphin during a cyclone. He makes it ashore and is captured by Antanosy, at the same time becoming, per Queen Ranavalona I's royal decree, a royal slave. He made his way north and ended up significantly impacting the Imerina kingdom of that time. *1845 – First wave of 30,000 Antanosy moved west, eventually to the Onilahy River valley near Betioky and Bezaha to escape Imerina rule. *1850 – Unsuccessful Imerina attempt to invade Androy by means of a coastal attack near Faux Cap ends with a retreat to Fort Dauphin. *mid-1850s – Leather craft skills introduced by artisan missionaries of the London Missionary Society in the highlands spread to Anosy when those Imerina skilled in this area fled Imerina "fanompoana" (forced labor). At this time some Antanosy also become part of the specialized porterage system of the Imerina kingdom, returning to Anosy with their earnings after completing their contracts. *1852 – Six month siege of Fort Dauphin by the Antanosy which was finally broken by Imerina reinforcements sent by Lambert who broke through to the town. A report from the Imerina Governor of Anosy a year later indicates that while 47 Imerina soldiers had died in taking over the region, they had killed almost 3,000 Tanosy. This resulted in Fort Dauphin becoming more of a garrison town and Antanosy no longer attending worship in the church in town. * In response to unceasing repression and atrocities by the Imerina, an estimated 80,000 Antanosy, led by king Zaomanery, first moved to Androy (which the Imerina hadn't been able to conquer), but faced with thefts of cattle, wives and children by the Antandroy, eventually moved further west to join the previous Antanosy in the Onilahy river valley. Unfortunately, these Antanosy were faced with raid of their livestock by the Bara and Mahafaly people of that area. They felt further threatened when the Imerina were able to conquer Toliary. They also struggled regarding ethnicity, resulting in separate leaders for the Zafitomany versus the Zafiramania peoples. *1869 – Ranavalona II, Queen of the Imerina, became a Christian, requiring her representatives around the country to build churches. Some time after this a church was built in Fort Dauphin by the Imerina living there, who eventually made attendance mandatory for those living in Fort Dauphin. *1872 – Marchal, a Creole merchant from Mauritian, arrived in Fort Dauphin and eventually became the dean of the foreign community there. He established a combination botanical garden and experimental cash crop plantation which he named the Jardin de Nahampoana, just north of Fort Dauphin. *1880 – Two Malagasy Christian evangelists were sent by the London Missionary Society to Anosy and began to work with the church there, eventually taking over leadership of it. *1883 – Beginning of war against the Imerina kingdom in the Antananarivo region. Tanosy revolted against Imerina and briefly took over control from the Imerina in Fort Dauphin. *1884 – king Tsiamanana, who had replaced king Zaomanery as head of some of the Antanosy living in the Onilahy river valley, refused to submit to the Imerina general Rainimavo. - Imerina troops retook control of Fort Dauphin. *1885 - A French cruiser bombarded Fort Dauphin, forcing the evacuation of the Imerina there. *year? – French Bocard brothers established a coffee and rubber plantation at Manantantely. *1887 – Imerina lost control of Antananarivo, resulting in the Antanosy no longer respecting their rule in the Anosy region. - Rev. Nilsen-Lund of the Norwegian Mission Society (NMS), together with Malagasy porters and guides, travelled down to Fort Dauphin through Bara country (where they were twice imprisoned by different kings) for a second time at the request of the NMS, to identify the best way for the Hogstads, the first Lutheran missionaries to work in this area, to travel on their way down from the highlands. After only one day's rest in Fort Dauphin, he returned to the highlands by going straight north from Fort Dauphin to Vangaindrano, which was the way the Hogstads then came down a year later. *1888 – The Imerina post at Fort Dauphin included 421 people, 343 soldiers and 78 family members. Fifteen men and 16 women were nobles or officers, with the Governor having 13 honors. The soldiers had almost 100 Snider repeating rifles as well as over 160 other rifles. * Having spent over 6 weeks traveling down from Antananarivo to Ihosy and then east to the coast and down from there, American Rev. John and Lena Hogstad arrived in Fort Dauphin, accompanied by the Rev. Nilsen-Lund of the NMS, for whom the Hogstads worked, who helped them with their journey and to settle there. At this point in time northern Anosy, through which they traveled as they came south from Vangaindrano, was a fairly lawless place. * Fort Dauphin had 12 Europeans living there, all of them traders with formal government agreements with both the English and French. - Rev. Hogstad and his wife began work on establishing a Lutheran church in Anosy, work which eventually expanded to encompass all of Anosy, Androy and the Mahafaly regions, with significant numbers of American Lutheran pastors, evangelists, educators and medical staff working in southern Madagascar for the next 100 years. However, having been sent with the blessing of the Queen of Imerina, they were asked to start working with an existing Imerina congregation located just outside the Fort in the midst of where the Imerina lived. While they were supported by the Imerina Governor in these efforts, this support meant they were viewed as collaborators with the hated Imerina by the Antanosy. 27 (1995). First Norwegian-American Missionaries, 3 of 3. ''Norwegian-American Studies, 34''(10). Vigen, James B. (1991). A historical and missiological account of the pioneer missionaries in the establishment of the American Lutheran mission in southeast Madagascar, 1887–1911: John P. and Oline Hogstad. Doctoral Dissertation. Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago. *1889 – Ramananjo (12 honors) succeeded Rainimiarana as Imerina in charge of Fort Dauphin. * First 7 Antanosy youth baptized by Rev. Hogstad. Shortly thereafter the Hogstads began a Lutheran school especially for Antanosy youth, purchasing the liberation of Rabenjamina, a young local slave who'd been taught how to read and write in Antananarivo, who became the first teacher. Before long Hogstad had also started an evangelist training school, though 8 of the 10 first students were either Betsileo or Imerina. Before long Hogstad had established Lutheran churches in Evatraha (1889), Mandromondromotry (1890) and Mahatalaky (1893). *1890 - Catat, who passed through Fort Dauphin, described it as primarily an Imerina garrison town, inhabited by Imerina soldiers and their families. *1891 – Caoutchouc discovered in western Anosy, much of it coming from the Manambaro region, and within one year 1,680 tons were exported by German and Swiss (Jenny) houses of commerce. *1892 – London Mission Society ended their work in southern Madagascar, having handed over leadership of the Fort Dauphin congregation to Rev. Hogstad. *1893 - Rev. Isolany, American Lutheran missionary, began to establish ("40 men") secondary and ("12 men") primary schools in Anosy. Jesuits established schools in Soanerana and Manambaro, already considered "bastions" of Protestantism by this time. *1894? – Tandroy drove Europeans out of two small coastal trading-stations (Andrahombe, 20 km southwest of Fort Dauphin and Antanambazaha, at the mouth of the Mandrare), stealing their stores. These sites were probably trading for rubber and a lichen from which red or violet dye could be obtained, but neither was ever reestablished by Europeans after this. *1894 – John Waller, an African American who'd just retired as the American Consul in Tamatave, was given 225 square miles of land near Fort Dauphin for a rubber plantation by the Imerina Prime Minister Rainalivarony. While he advertised for settlers to come to this site, he never actually visited it himself, having been arrested by the French when they took over Madagascar in 1895, eventually giving up his claim to this land. *1894-95 - French Catholic missionaries in Anosy were forced to leave due to Franco-Malagasy war. *1895 – Central and northern Madagascar conquered by France. * In March, a European trading station which had existed at the mouth of the Mandrare river for the past 3 years, was overrun by Antandroy who plundered all the stores there, including Procter Brothers'. * Permanent Catholic Missions started in Fort Dauphin, led by Paulist priests and the Sisters of Charity. * Lutheran missionary Miss Nilsen established a boarding school for girls in Manafiafy. French control of Anosy (1896–1960) (Rakotoarisoa, 1998). (For additional information about France's colonial efforts, see French colonial empire.) *1896 – French took control of Fort Dauphin, almost 350 years after they'd left in defeat from their first attempt to do this. First Resident was Capitaine Brulard who initially only had control of Fort Dauphin and Manambaro, with a great deal of insecurity in the rest of the region to the detriment of both Malagasy as well as foreign merchants seeking to export rubber. The French set up outposts in Manantenina, Tsivory and Manambondro, but had to abandon both Tsivory and Manambondro when they were attacked. * The "grand" king of Anosy, Rabefagnatrika, reigned over the interior of Anosy, headquartered in Fanjahira. He was a rival to Rabefialy, who was king of Manambaro and pro-French. Raosinty was the last king of the Antatsimo, based in Ranopiso, with an interest in increasing his territory, for which reason he was permanently in conflict with the Zafiraminia kings (the Andonak' Atsimo from Ranopiso vs. the Andonak' Avaratra from Fanjahira). He was exiled by the French to Isle St. Marie in 1904. * Fort Dauphin Resident underwent a "atihena" (blood brotherhood) ceremony with King Malay of Manambaro and his two brothers, Simanihsa and Zahalo. * Apostolic Vicariate of Madagascar established Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Madagascar. St. Vincent de Paul Catholic parish established in Fort Dauphin. Monseigneur Crouzet visited Saonierana, Manambaro and Ranopiso (see Roman Catholic Diocese of Tôlagnaro for more information on the work of the Roman Catholic Church in Anosy.). * Rubber exports dropped to only 168 tons as instead of being harvested, the plants were pulled out by their roots. * Rev. Hogstad and his wife established a second Lutheran Mission Station at Manantenina. In the next 10 years additional Lutheran Mission Stations were opened up in Manafiafy (1898), Tsivory (1900), Manambaro (1908) and Ranomafana (1909). *1897 – France established a Military Circle Annex which divided the region into 3 sections, Antandroy, Antatsimo & Antanosy as they sought to have better control of the area. This included establishing a military outpost in Ampikazo, 30 km west of Fort Dauphin, to assist merchants working on rubber exports, but this was attacked by the Tatsimo of that area who burned the village down. In retaliation the French captured Tatsimo King Rahosinta, sent him to Reunion where he became a laborer and fined the Tatsimo people 500 cattle, created a head tax and set up posts in both Elekelaka and Manambaro. * France began to allot up to 2,000+ hectares concessions to large companies, all of them run by Europeans or Creoles. These eventually included about 30% of the most fertile land in Anosy. * Monseigneur Crouzet visited Ifarantsa, Fanjahira, Hazoambo, Isaka Ivondro, Enaniliha, Ranomafana, Mahabo, Ampasimena and Manantenina. * Missionary Rev. Skaar established a Lutheran school for boys in Fort Dauphin. This was later moved to Manantantely. * Lutheran Mission exchanges land French colonial government wanted just north of what is now the Fihaonana Lutheran Church for the point they named "Lebanon" (now called Libanona) which they developed into a retreat and R&R center for Lutheran missionaries who came in from stations eventually located across southern Madagascar. *1898 – Southern Madagascar (including Fort Dauphin area) conquered by France using Colonel Hubert Lyautey (General Gallieni's second in command) "tache d'huile" method which he had successfully invented for us in Indochina, a counter-insurgency method still being used today (population is surrounded by military outposts). The French disrupted both the Imerina rule as well as that by Zafiraminia princes. *1898 – Head tax of 5 francs man over 16 years old begun, in part to force Malagasy to grow more crops in order to pay taxes. Failure to pay meant either forced labor or imprisonment. * Senagalese soldiers were sent down from Tananarive to stop Tatsimo raids of neighboring villages. They successfully fought the rebels and confiscated their cattle. * July 31.Fort-Dauphin's Bay.Wreck of the French cruiser Lapérouse. * 1899 – Sisal first mentioned as a possible cash crop. '''20th century:''' Also see Jolly, Allison. (2004). ''Lords and Lemurs: Mad Scientists, Kings With Spears, and the Survival of Diversity in Madagascar''. Portland: Book News. *early-1900s – The Compagnie Agricole et Industrielle de Madagascar (CAIM) planted 500 hectares of Sisal on a 2,550 hectares concession they had received next to Lac Anony near Andranobory. The Tatsimo (see Antanosy) and those Antanosy living in the Tsivory area were soon in revolt of the French, to the point that the French captured the Tatsimo king Rahosinta who was deported to Reunion. * Pierre de Bellier de Villentroy, a Frenchman living on Reunion who was an uncle of Alain and Henri de Heaulme, began mining Mica near Tsivory, which he exported through Fort Dauphin. *1900 – Having conquered Anosy, the French set up 16 posts in the region which they'd divided into 3 ethnic sectors. They invited French settlers to farm the fertile lands in the Isaka and Fanjahira valleys (as Flacourt had envisioned). Malagasy were subjected to taxation and forced labor which was used to build roads and establish plantations, greatly increasing the amount of arable land in Anosy. *1901 – French Lieutenant Colonel Lavoiseau forces Antanosy to unite under the leadership of just one person who was Fitory. Head tax increased from 5 to 20 francs man over 16 years old. Failure to pay meant either forced labor or imprisonment. Roads were built from Fort Dauphin to the Mandrare river, Manambovo and Mahika in order to simplify the extraction of resources. Many Tatsimo moved to establish villages closer to these new highways. * Jenny (Swiss-German) family is one of the first from Europe to settle in Fort Dauphin, establishing a Swiss "house of business." Initially they exported 4-5 million French francs per year of Caoutchouc from Fort Dauphin. However, this only lasted several years as while 12 different rubber lianas were being collected for this, the plants were pulled out by the roots in their harvesting. Caoutchouc was also collected along the Mandrare river, with Jenny using barges to ship it to Fort Dauphin from where it was exported to Europe. Some of these exports were made into surgeon's gloves and some of the first Michelin tires. *1904 – Rebellion by Taisaka spread to Antanosy, led by king Befanatrika, against French rule in Esira, Isaka, Mahampoana, Manafiafy, Manambaro, Manantenina and Ranomafana results in many of the expatriates living in the Anosy region along with many Malagasy Christians retreating to the rundown fort in Fort Dauphin. This lasted for 5 months, eventually put down by French with aid from their Senagalese soldiers. The region also suffered from smallpox and locusts at this time. *1905 – Estimated 120,000 Antanosy. * Smallpox and locusts pass through Anosy. *1906 – Three areas of land in the fertile Efaho valley near Soanirana, Isaka and Ifarantsa, covering over 4,000 hectares had been created for colonial plantations. * The French, assuming Malagasy Lutherans had led the revolt, shut down all of the Lutheran schools and churches in Anosy. Schools were not reopened until missionaries from France came to reopen them. * At about this same time Pierre de Bellier de Villentroy (Frenchman living on Reunion, an uncle of Alain and Henri de Heaulme) established a Mica mine near Tsivory, which he exported through Fort Dauphin to Europe. *1907 – Forced labor (prestations) introduced for all men over 16 years old. This was used to provide labor on colonial plantations, at mica mines, to build roads, schools and hospitals and to do reforestation. Men could be taken for 30 to 60 days of work. *1912 – First major drought of French colonial period. * Lutheran Mission Station opened at Behara. *1913 – Major cyclone damages infrastructure which was followed by drought and then famine. * Roman Catholic church's Apostolic Vacariate of Southern Madagascar becomes that of Fort-Dauphin. *1914 – Just over 25 years after the arrival of the first American Lutheran missionary there was a total of 16 missionaries working in Anosy (with 8 more arriving to join them by 1917), 2,741 baptized and 2,511 students in Lutheran schools. By 1930 another 27 American Lutheran missionaries had arrived to replace missionaries who had returned to the US, died in Madagascar and to help expand work in Androy. * 1917 – Colonial government had Tatsimo near Ranopiso clear large areas in order to grow cow peas, castor oil beans and other legumes. * 1919 – Major flu epidemic followed by drought in 1920. *1920? - Marthe de Heaulme, sister of Alain and Henri, arrived in Fort Dauphin as a Catholic novitiate, becoming Sister Gabrielle of the Daughters of Charity (Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul), eventually founding and heading 3 different religious communities in southern Madagascar. * Alain and Henri de Heaulme moved south from what was then called Tananarive to work on Pierre de Bellier de Villentroy's mica mine near Tsivory, where Alain became manager. *1922 – Major cyclone severely damages road from Fort Dauphin to Behara. *1924 - Serious efforts began to turn over the leadership of the Lutheran church in Anosy to Malagasy leadership. *1925 – Cochineal insect introduced into southern Madagascar by Botanist Perrier de la Bathie. In five years it spread across southern Madagascar, causing severe famine and loss of cattle in Androy, resulting in many Tandroy moving into Tatsimo lands. * Leprosarium established by Catholics at Ampasy. *1926 – 179 Europeans were exploiting 2,170 hectares for various crops, for an average of 12 hectares European while 88 Malagasy (many of them not from Anosy), were farming 528 hectares (25% that of Europeans), for an average of 6 hectares Malagasy. *1927 – Head tax increased from 25 to 40 francs man over 16 years old. Failure to pay meant either forced labor or imprisonment. *1928 – With the growing of sisal "outsourced" from Mexico to Africa, the Societe Fonciere du Sud de Madagascar plants a trial sisal plantation on part of the 2,000ha of land they had been given near Ranopiso, about 40 km west of Fort Dauphin. * Henry de Heaulme, 29 years old, arrived in Fort Dauphin, having driven down from Tananarive in a Harley Davidson motorcycle with his wife and son in the side car. His intent was to export mica and sisal from Androy and western Anosy through Fort Dauphin. *1930 – Another 27 more by 1930 *1932 – The ''Societe Fonciere du Sud de Madagascar'' planted a 4,000 hectares of sisal in the Mandrare valley near Amboasary, about 75 km west of Fort Dauphin. For information about sisal production in the Mandrare valley, see Guerin (1969?). This same year the 11th natural reserve of Andohahela, starting with 30,000ha but growing to its current total of 76,000ha, was created by the French colonial government. It is located 40 to 80 km from Fort Dauphin. *1933 – Mica extraction in the Fort Dauphin district which employed 140 women and 30 men in extraction from Ampikazo, splitting in the towns of Ranopiso, Ankaramena and Soanirana and washing and weighing at Manantantely expanded to 5,000 women splitting 621 tons in 1938. However, by 1944 it was of little importance. * First year of what became a 5 year drought. * Ranopiso sisal plantation had grown to 1,000ha in size, stretching south almost to the coast, but only lasted from 1933 to 1938 due to soils and labor being inadequate for this, resulting in only 67 tons of sisal being harvested in 1935. It was shut down with all sisal efforts moved to the Mandrare valley. * Construction of a dam to expand farming near Behara. *1936 – The first sisal plantation near Amboasary is established by Établissements Gallois. Henri de Heaulme established his sisal plantation and the Berenty forest reserve. *1940 – Vichy France takes over control of Madagascar. The de Guitaut family, based out of Fort Dauphin, starts local growing and production of tobacco as none can be imported. *1942 – Fort Dauphin invaded by British forces who replaced Vichy France's control with that of the Free French Forces. While Mica was mined in western Anosy continued to be exported from Fort Dauphin to both sides of conflict, sisal production fell due to a lack of imports. *1943 – Some Tandroy refugees from the famine in Androy fled to Fort Dauphin, though having nothing when they got there, some of them died there. *1945 – Expansion of irrigated farming near Behara results in quite a few people moving here to work. *1947 – Tsivory Catholic parish established. *1948 – Beginning of lobster production in Anosy. *1950s–60s – Boetchi (Swiss), de Heaulme and Jenny families and the Lyonnaise and Marseillaise companies exported wild beans of Castor oil plant, cattle (10,000–30,000 year), mica and sisal. Henry de Heaulme began his conservation efforts by establishing a nature (including lemurs) reserve on his sisal plantation on the Mandrare river. *1954 – Establishment of Manambaro Hospital, some 25 km west of Fort Dauphin, by Lutheran Mission. *1955 – Societe Fonciere du Sud de Madagascar (SFSM) developed 130 hectares of rice fields and planted 25,000 coffee trees on their remaining 260 hectares concession near Ifarantsa. They had earlier planted 2,175 hectares of coffee near Ranomafana, having abandoned 800 hectares of attempted sisal near Ranopiso as well as a 182 hectare coconut plantation at Lokaro. * The Apostolic Vicariate of Fort-Dauphin becomes the Diocese of Fort Dauphin. * Amboasary Catholic parish established. *1956 - 138,000 Antanosy. *1956-57 - Just outside Amboasary Sud, bestriding the Mandrare river at a 15 m height, Paindavoine Sarl launch, by the incremental method, a 414 m long, design-improved and appropriate, licensed Callender-Hamilton bridge. Holding up the steel girders - six 69 m long spans - the massive reinforced concrete 5 piles and 2 abuttals (some of them, on compressed air-caisson foundations) were erected by Ets Eiffel (Eiffel (company)), who designed the work. The Direction Générale des Travaux Publics de Madagascar was the Owner and the Construction Supervisor. It was financed by FIDES credits (public investments' fund of the French Union Overseas Ministry) for 400 million fCFA (around US$2 million). The ''Pont du Mandrare'' provides the first all-year-long road link between the Anosy and Androy regions (RIG 13). *1957 – Just outside Fort Dauphin,is completed the SIFOR sisal weaving factory (assets 60 million fCFA Ets Vandesmet).Decorticated fibers from the Mandrare plants are processed into strings,cords,sacks and rugs(production 345t). * Three sawmills, owned by Jenny (at Bemangidy) and the Societe Sciere d'Ilandy (at Antsapa), along with another sawmill at Elandy were producing over 1,000 m 3 of lumber yr, much of it either precious or at least semi-precious wood. *1958 – Henri de Heaulme becomes President of the Provincial Assembly and Vice-President of the National Assembly, urging independence for Madagascar. He is present with Philibert Tsiranana and Monja Jaona at the signing of the new constitution for the Malagasy Republic. * Eli Lilly begins development of cancer treatment drugs from Rosy Periwinkle, a plant indigenous to Madagascar which grows along the coast of southern Madagascar beginning at Ranopiso (western Anosy) to Beloha (western Androy), but by then found in several different countries, from which they were able to develop cancer treatment drugs that earned the company hundreds of millions of dollars. While Eli Lilly bought Periwinkle from several countries and even grew it in Texas, the best quality was from southern Madagascar. *1959 – 148,132 Antanosy. In the Mandrare valley, 6 companies were growing sisal, each with 2,000+ hectares planted, employing a total of 4,500 Malagasy. Anosy as part of the Republic of Madagascar (1960–present) (Rakotoarisoa, 1998). First Republic, led by President Philibert Tsiranana (1960–1972) *1960 – Madagascar became an independent nation. * Second Catholic parish established in Tolagnaro. *1961 – SIFOR was producing 800 tonnes per year, half of which was exported to France and Reunion. *1963 – Between 1954 and 1963, 3,986 tons of highly radioactive Uranothorianite had been mined and exported to France. *1964 – Year of greatest sisal production from the Mandrare valley (almost 30,000 tonnes), having grown from just over 2,000 tonnes in 1950. France was the primary importer. *1965 – Population of Fort Dauphin is 11,800 and that of the Antanosy estimated to be 148,132. * Manantenina Catholic parish established. *1966 – Beginning of export of seaweed to Japan. *1967 – Due to the growing popularity of synthetic fibers, the price for sisal had dropped 50% since 1964. *1972 – First "industrial" plantation of Periwinkle, located near Ranopiso, with others located in Androy, starts large-scale exportation to the US and Europe. *1973 – Decreasing quality and unreliable exports of Rosy Periwinkle has Eli Lilly reducing purchases of it as they tried to grow it in Texas. * Trano Vato site excavated by the Malagasy Musee d'Art et d'Archeologie. *1974 – Beginning of the export of live lobsters from Anosy to Europe which was made possible in part due to beginning of 737 service between Fort Dauphin and Tananarive which connected with a flight to Europe. * Boom in exportation of Periwinkle, with 7 different firms involved. Second Republic, led by Admiral Didier Ratsiraka (1975–1991) *1975 – Initial analysis of Ilmenite in Anosy conducted by US Steel which set up a very small pilot plant in Mandena. Cyclone Deborah damages much of Anosy, including Tolagnaro and Amboasary, knocking out electricity and water supply for several days. * 1,200 tons of Periwinkle exported. *1978 – With worldwide demand for Periwinkle in decline, many of the companies involved in its exportation stopped doing this. *late 1970s – Demand for Periwinkle becomes so great that Eli Lilly again began purchasing it from large-scale plantations in Madagascar. *1980s – Anosy region becomes a high priority area for conservation efforts by international NGOs, resulting in the influx of a wide variety of foreign conservation experts (and some Malagasy), who began work in this area. SHTM created by de Heaulme which currently has 5 hotels in the Tolagnaro area plus the Berenty Reserve. *mid-1980s – Growth of Tolagnaro results in increased demand for charcoal for cooking, resulting in rapid deforestation of forests near Tolagnaro, Manantantely and the spiny forest east of Amboasary-Sud (this charcoal primarily produced by Antandroy). *1985 – World Wildlife Fund began working with the Andohahela reserve, conducting preliminary biological inventories, ICDP projects began in 1987 and USAID funding was obtained in 1990. *1986 – Henri and Jean de Heaulme family awarded the J. Paul Getty Award for Conservation Leadership for their conservation work in Madagascar. OMNIS and what became QIT Madagascar Minerals begin a 20+ year process which finally leads to mining of both ilmenite and ???. What was then known as QIT-Fer et Titane establishes an office in Tolagnaro and begins work in the Anosy region. *1988 – Demand for Periwinkle increases to about 800 tons year. *1989 – Diocese of Fort Dauphin becomes that of Tolagnaro. *1990s – Parts of Anosy and a reserve near Berenty (in eastern Androy) become major tourist destinations, causing rapid growth in the tourism industry in this area. *1990–97 – Andohahela national reserve project received over $4 million of funding. Third Republic, led by Presidents Albert Zafy, Didier Ratsiraka and Marc Ravalomanana (1992–2009) *1992 – Initial exploitation of Sapphires found near Andranodambo, some 210 km from Tolagnaro (first seen by French in the mid-1600s, early 1800s and 1950s) in what was then a location where mica was mined. *1994 – Cyclone Daisy passes through. Azafady starts working in Anosy. Later that year Andrew Lees (Andrew Lees (environmentalist)) dies of heat exhaustion in the Petriky forest, just west of Tolagnaro, while researching the potential impacts of the mining of Ilmenite in the Anosy region. The next year the Andrew Lees Trust was established, with an office set up at Libanona (just outside of Tolagnaro), to develop and implement social and environmental education projects across southern Madagascar. *1995 – 300 tons of seaweed per year exported to Japan. *1996 – Anosy region is identified as one of the ecologically most diverse regions of Madagascar. *1997 – Cyclone Gretelle passes through. *1998 – 20,500 passengers disembark at Tolagnaro airport. *1999 – 24,800 tourists visit Anosy. '''21st century:''' *2000 – Of the 15,000 tourists who visit Anosy, 7,000 of them visit Berenty. * Cholera outbreak *2004 – Between 1988 and 2004, about 800 tons year of Periwinkle are exported, employing over 7,000 people in both Anosy and Androy,with another 15,000 supported through kin networks. Due to the rising value of growing food in central Anosy, most Periwinkle production in this region occurs in the southwest. Unfortunately, exporters receive 22 times what is paid the peasant producers. *2005 – World Food Program responds to malnutrition in Anosy caused by a combination of drought and flooding. *2006–08 – QMM created over 4,400 jobs, 61% local hires, 10% expatriate. *2007 – Over 500,000 people now living in Anosy. In addition, Malagasy from all over the island, Europeans, North Americans, Filipinos, French, Japanese and South Africans all living in Tolagnaro while working on the QMM projects, filling up all the hotels for the next two years, ruining most of the tourism business in Anosy. *2007 – Major Syphilis outbreak in Toalagnaro. State of Emergency is declared with up to 17.000 people (30% of the sexually active population) being infected. – Port d'Ehoala Port d'Ehoala. is completed and QIT Madagascar Minerals begins to export Ilmenite through it to Canada for processing after over 30 years of exploration and studies and several years of construction of the port and mining facilities. Fourth Republic led by Mr. Andry Rajoelina (2010–present) *2011 – QMM begins to temporarily provide electricity to Tolagnaro. *2012 - Increasing lawlessness by "dahalo" (bandits) in the regions of Anosy northwest of Ranomafana all the way up to Betroka results in over 100 bandits being killed by vigilante groups. References (Category:Anosy Region) Category:Regions of Madagascar
in the ambition of Roman Emperor Justinian (Justinian I) to recover the provinces of the former Western Roman Empire, which had been lost to invading barbarian tribes in the previous century (the Migration Period). By the end of the conflict Italy was devastated and considerably depopulated. As a consequence, the victorious Byzantines found themselves unable to resist the invasion of the Lombards in 568, which resulted in the loss of large parts of the Italian peninsula. Rulers
was that he was horrified at the 1641 rebellion and had signed the Adventurers Act into law in 1642, which proposed confiscating all rebel held lands in Ireland. A new policy of refusing pardon to any Irish rebels had also been agreed in London and Dublin (issuing pardons had been a common method to end Irish conflicts in the previous century). Therefore his forces remained hostile to the Confederates until 1643, when his military position in England started to weaken. Many of the Confederate
., in which he attended the lectures of Konstantin Kavelin and Timofey Granovsky. His burgeoning career as a professor of history was cut short by denunciation of his work on the part of Sergey Uvarov. He then turned his attention to journalism and brought out a series of articles about leading personalities of the literary life of the previous century, including Nikolay Novikov, Denis Fonvizin, and Antiokh Kantemir. The old building of the terminal was built