exhibits of ancient sailing routes and products. An exhibition chamber deals with the history and culture of Chanthaburi. * Commons:Category:Chanthaburi Wikipedia:Chanthaburi
families were forced into slavery, working on sugar cane plantations along the Southern Shores surrounding the towns of Saint Vincent and Itanhaém, a region also called "Morpion" at that time (according to André Thévet - ''"Singularités de la France Antarctique"''). The Tupinambá responded to this outrage with the Tamoio Confederation, a powerful military alliance that stood to destroy Saint Vincent, with the help of the French, who had founded a Protestant refugee colony, France Antarctique in Guanabara Bay before the foundation of Rio de Janeiro. The Portuguese set two Jesuit priests, Fathers Anchieta and Nobrega (Manuel da Nóbrega), to Ubatuba (a tribe named Yperoig), to make peace with the Tupinambá Indians. Anchieta was kept as a hostage and Nobrega returned to Saint Vincent along with the Chief Cunhambebe to make arrangements for the final Treaty. The Portuguese won, destroying France Antarctique and keeping the land. thumb left 250px Beaches,from the left: Praia Vermelha do Sul, Praia Brava do Sul, and Praia Dura (Image:Brasil Ubatuba beaches.jpg) Population history in numbers class "wikitable" ! Year !! Population !! Density - 2003 72,857 102.33 km² - 2004 76,847 107.93 km² - 2010 78,801 110.68 km² Climate WikiPedia:Ubatuba Commons:Category:Ubatuba
for Independence regiment became administrative-territorial subdivision (until 1686). During that time Cherkasy's Regiment was one of the most powerful military units and took part in all of the battles for Bohdan Khmelnytsky army. But after several unsuccessful Cossack attacks against Poland, Bogdan Khmelnytsky decided to sign a treaty with the Russian Empire. The Signing was supposed to be held in Cherkasy but was moved to Pereyaslav in 1654, where Pereyaslivska Rada was held. Khmelnytsky signed an agreement under which he took the oath of alligience and incorporated Ukraine into Russia. That allowed Russia to interfere with Polish interests and new war broke out. It was finally ended with the signing of the Truce of Andrusovo by which Russia gained some territories. But, Cherkasy became a part of Poland for a long time. While in the Polish Kingdom the city was a seat of the county (poviat) which belonged to a greater unit - the Kievan Voivodship until 1793. In 1768 during the Koliyivshchyna turmoils the city was severely devastated and pillaged. In 1791 the city gained Magdeburg rights. After the Second Partition of Poland the city was incorporated into the Kievan Guberniya of the Imperial Russia. 19th – early 20th centuries thumb right 150px City plan as of 1826 (File:Cherkasy plan 1826.PNG) Since the beginning of the 19th century the city was planned by Russian architect, civil engineer and town planner of Scottish descent, William Heste. After the second division of Poland in 1793, Cherkasy became part of the Russian Empire. From 1797 it was a povitove (Uyezd) town of Kiev Governorate. In the second half of the 19th century the city experienced a great economical growth. After the railroad appeared in the city, a lot of new industrial enterprises were built. Sugar, tobacco, metalwork, mechanical engineering and trade industries were at peak development at that time. Architect William Heste made a general development plan for the city, which involved building square blocks with straight streets. 20th Century (Soviet era) After the October revolution in 1917 Cherkasy fell under bolshevik control. After that, however, the city changed its rule at least 18 times – during the civil war it was conquered by hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi, then again by bolshevikis, later by Nikifor Grigoriev. On January 1, 1920, the city finally and for a long period fell under Soviet rule. As with all villages and towns in the area, it was a victim of man-made famine in 1932-1933 (Holodomor) and a Great Purge (a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union organised by Joseph Stalin in 1936–1938).thumb 150px left Monument of Holodomor (File:Holodomor Monument in Cherkasy.jpg) Victims thumb 150px right Memorial to the Warriors of 254 Infantry Division, Liberators of Cherkasy (File:war monument in cherkasy.jpg) The Second World War (World War II) damaged the city greatly. On June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), German bombers attacked Cherkasy. For two months soldiers defended the city, but on August 22, the invaders took the city. On December 14, 1943, Cherkasy was set free from German invaders. After the end of the war, the city began to recover after being almost destroyed. According to 5-year plans (Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the Soviet Union), the city began to re-develop its economy, infrastructure and socio-cultural sphere. In 1954 the city became the administrative center of Cherkasy Oblast (province), the youngest among other oblasts in Ukraine. In the 1960s Cherkasy became the chemical giant of the Ukrainian SSR, after "Azot" (the biggest nitrogen fertilizer producing plant), "Himvolokno" (artificial fiber manufacturing plant), "Himreaktyv" (chemical reagents for military purposes) and many others were built in the city. In 1961 a Kremenchuk hydro power plant was built, forming Kremenchuk Water Reservoir, on which Cherkasy is standing now. This made the city a big transport hub, serving the longest dyke (Levee) in Ukraine (15 km) with rail and road on it. Independence Since gaining independence, industry in the city has declined, along with the number of citizens and living standards. A lot of big and powerful factories and plants were privatized but couldn't survive in a competitive market. Some enterprises changed their profile – several (3) factories and plants around the city were united under the "Bogdan Corporation" and started production of buses and cars. Some of the companies remained working and became successful, like "Azot" (Azot (Cherkasy)). On November 28, 2008, the monument of Lenin was removed from the central square. This caused different reactions in different people. Now the central square, formerly called "Lenin Square", is called "Soborna Square" (Cathedral Square). The square was recently renovated. In 2009, Cherkasy airport received International Airport status (IATA: CKC – ICAO: UKKE). Transportation Public transportation Public transportation is represented by trolleybuses (List of trolleybus systems in Ukraine#Cherkasy Oblast) and buses. Trolleybuses started serving the city in 1965, and now are operating on 10 routes, from approximately 6 am till 11 pm. The fleet is old, and mostly consists of ZiU-9 and ZiU-10 vehicles. Recently, 3 new trolleybuses (manufactured by LAZ (Lviv Bus Factory)) appeared in the city. Buses are mostly represented with "Etalon", "Bohdan" (Bogdan (bus)), and "PAZ" (Pavlovo Bus Factory) buses. Cherkasy City Bus is the authority that controls the buses in the city, it consists of several private contractors which actually operate the transport system. File:ЛиАЗ-677М, Елец.jpg These buses were in operation in 1980s File:Маршрутка 243 Х ПАЗ1.JPG "PAZ" buses are still in use File:Черкаський міський автобус - Богдан.JPG Cherkasy-made "Bohdan" bus on the street File:Marshrutka in Sevastopol - the 95a.JPG "Etalon" bus, made by BAZ thumb View from bridge (P10) over railway and H16 (File:From bridge at Cherkasy, 2006.5.JPG) Roads Cherkasy is a big transport hub due to its location in the center of the country. Two major automobile routes are going through the city - H16 (Uman-Zolotonosha, national route) and P10 (Kaniv-Kremenchuk, regional route). There is a 4-lane highway between Cherkasy and Smila (Smila, Ukraine) (city which is a part of Cherkasy Urban Agglomeration). The roads are in poor technical condition and road maintenance is poor. thumb (File:Arrival of a train, 2006.5.JPG) Railways The city has a railway station and one railway stop, both are operated by state-owned Ukrzaliznytsia company. Cherkasy has regular connections to neighboring cities with small diesel trains. Major route Odessa-Moscow is passing through Cherkasy. One of the most important railway junctions in Ukraine, is located
—grew into major commercial centers around which the great Sudanic (Sudan (region)) empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able to dominate neighboring states. The Sudanic empires also became centers of Islamic learning. Islam had been introduced into the western Sudan by Arab traders from North Africa and spread rapidly after the conversion of many important rulers. From the eleventh century, by which time the rulers of the Sudanic empires had embraced Islam, it spread south into the northern areas of contemporary Côte d'Ivoire. Wikipedia:Djenné
after taking off, the control tower lost contact with the aircraft which began flying erratically and eventually nosedived and exploded on impact. There are a number of conspiracy theories behind the crash due to the fact that there was never a thorough investigation despite the fact that some of Pakistan's most powerful military officials lost their lives. During the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to General Gerard Lake
-2 (2006) until 43 BC (Gaius Cassius Longinus) and the Roman conquest. thumb 350px left Ancient coin of the Aetolian League, reading '''ΑΙΤΩΛΏΝ''' showing diademed head of a king to the left and Aitolos (File:Aetolian League.JPG) standing right. Circa 211 (211 BC)- 196 BC The Aetolians set up a united league, the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful military confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece. The '''Battle of Gythium''' was fought in 195 BC between Sparta and the coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium was an important Spartan base the allies decided to capture it before they advanced inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Achaeans (Achaean League) were joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans held out but one of the joint commanders, Dexagoridas, decided to surrender the city to the Roman legate (legatus). When Gorgopas (Gorgopas (2nd Century BC)), the other commander, found out he killed Dexagoridas and took solo command of the city. After Dexagoridas' murder the Spartans held out more vigorously. However, Flaminius of the allied forces arrived with 4,000 more men and the Spartans decided to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison could leave unharmed. The result of this battle forced Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulated to the allies. The '''Battle of Mantinea''' was fought in 207 BC between Sparta led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans were victorious, and Machanidas was slain. Historical usage Not all states gave their naval commanders such a title. Athens, for instance, placed its fleet under the command of generals (''strategoi (strategos)'') holding the same title as those who commanded its land forces. Such command structures reflected the fact that, especially early in the Classical period, fleets operated in close conjunction with land forces, and indeed, the title of navarch did not begin to appear until the time of the Peloponnesian War, when fleets began to operate more independently. This separate title was originally used in cities that lacked an established naval tradition, Sparta being the most prominent, but entered broader use later, being adopted by the navies of the Hellenistic era states such as Macedon, Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy), Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic Empire) and Seleucid Empire, Achaean League, and Rhodes. Based on the design of the defense towers, Ober proposes that the site was fortified after 370 BCE. Lawrence opts for a date in the late 4th century BCE, on the assumption that Demetrios Poliorcetes (Demetrius I of Macedon) built the fortress rather than simply occupying it. The site was under the control of the Achaean League in 243-224 BCE, and in 224 - 146 BCE it joined the Boeotian League. Shrines of Melampos (Melampus) and Heracles are known to have existed by inscriptions recovered on the site. The town and its warehouses operated down into Roman times. An inscription of c. 420 CE listed Aigosthena as a free city. A five-aisled Christian basilica was erected in the lower fortified area in the medieval period, and there was a monastery complex within the citadel. In politics after the death of Alexander the Great it was briefly ruled by Cassander. It gained some attention in 280 BC for being a part of the effort to revive the Achaean League. A battle took place at Dyme in 226 BC between the Spartans under King Cleomenes III and the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon and ended in a Spartan victory. It was ransacked by Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the First Macedonian War. There was a rebellion in 115 BC. Pompey settled some pirates there and Caesar later installed a Roman colony at Dyme. The '''Battle of Dyme''' or Dymae was a battle that was fought by the Achaean League under the command of their Strategos, Aratus (Aratus of Sicyon) and a Spartan army under the command of King Cleomenes III and was part of the Cleomenean War. The battle took in place near Dyme in north-west Achaea and was fought in 226 BC. In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes joining a fleet of twenty Rhodian decked warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Livy, 32.16,17; Hansen, pp. 63–64. The allied fleet then sailed for Cenchreae in preparation for an attack on Corinth. Meanwhile, the new Roman consul for that year, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, had learned that the Achaean League, allies of Macedon, had had a change in leadership which favored Rome. With the hope of inducing the Achaeans to abandon Philip and join the allies, envoys were sent, including Attalus himself, to Sicyon, where they offered the incorporation of Corinth into the Achaean League. Attalus apparently so impressed the Sicyonians, that they erected a colossal statue of him in their market place and instituted sacrifices in his honor. A meeting of the League was convened and after a heated debate and the withdrawal of some of delegates the rest agreed to join the alliance. Attalus led his army from Cenchreae (now controlled by the allies) through the Isthmus and attached Corinth from the north, controlling the access to Lechaeum, the Corinthian port on the Gulf of Corinth, the Romans attacked from the east controlling the approaches to Cenchreae, with the Achaeans attacking from the west controlling the access to the city via the Sicyonian gate. However the city held, and when Macedonian reinforcements arrived, the siege was abandoned. The Achaeans were dismissed, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Livy, 32.19–23; Polybius, 18.16; Hansen, p. 64. Gruen (1986), pp. 179, 181.
, one of the most powerful military strongmen in Sonora. He turned Calabasas into his own private hacienda, and by the late 1840s Pima dispossession along the Santa Cruz was nearly complete. coor Wikipedia:Guaymas Dmoz:Regional North_America Mexico States Sonora Localities Guaymas
on the edge of the desert, and from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Gao, and Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centers around which the great Sudanic (Sudan (region)) empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able to dominate neighboring states. The Sudanic empires also became centers of Islamic learning. Islam had been introduced into the western Sudan by Arab traders from North Africa and spread rapidly after the conversion of many important rulers. From the eleventh century, by which time the rulers of the Sudanic empires had embraced Islam, it spread south into the northern areas of contemporary Côte d'Ivoire.
thumb right 240px A mural (Image:Emperor Taizong in Dunhuang.jpg) painting (Chinese painting) of Emperor Taizong (located bottom, center) dated to 642 AD, located in Cave 220, Dunhuang, Gansu province. One of the first actions that Emperor Taizong carried out as emperor was releasing a number of ladies in waiting (lady in waiting) from the palace and returning them to their homes, so that they could be married. He made his wife Princess Zhangsun the empress, and their oldest son Li Chengqian the crown prince. An 8th century Chinese fresco at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu portrays Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BCE) worshiping statues of a golden man; "golden men brought in 121 BCE by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads". However, neither the ''Shiji'' nor ''Book of Han'' histories of Emperor Wu mentions a golden Buddhist statue (compare Emperor Ming above). Caves, Art, and Technology The popularization of Buddhism in this period is evident in the many scripture-filled caves and structures surviving from this period. The Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province, the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang in Henan and the Yungang Grottoes near Datong in Shanxi are the most renowned examples from the Northern (Northern Dynasties), Sui (Sui Dynasty) and Tang Dynasties (Tang Dynasty). The Leshan Giant Buddha, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world. A number of foundations promoting the arts arose in the 1980s, including the Cultural Properties Foundation set up to preserve historic sites overseas, especially along the Silk Road in Inner Asia and at Dunhuang in China. Another international arrangement was made in 1988 with the United States Smithsonian Institution for cooperative exchange of high-technology studies of Asian artifacts. The government plays a major role by funding the Japan Foundation, which provides both institutional and individual grants, effects scholarly exchanges, awards annual prizes, supported publications and exhibitions, and sends traditional Japanese arts groups to perform abroad. The Arts Festival held for two months each fall for all the performing arts is sponsored by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Major cities also provides substantial support for the arts; a growing number of cities in the 1980s had built large centers for the performing arts and, stimulated by government funding, were offering prizes such as the Lafcadio Hearn Prize initiated by the city of Matsue. A number of new municipal museums were also providing about one-third more facilities in the 1980s than were previously available. In the late 1980s, Tokyo added more than twenty new cultural halls, notably, the large Bunkamura built by Tokyu Group and the reconstruction of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. All these efforts reflect a rising popular enthusiasm for the arts. Japanese art buyers swept the Western art markets in the late 1980s, paying record highs for impressionist (Impressionism) paintings and US$51.7 million alone for one blue period Picasso. A Tibetan tradition mentions that after Songtsän Gampo's death in 649 C.E., Chinese troops captured Lhasa and burnt the Red Palace.