Places Known For

powerful member


Free City of Lübeck

the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of this medieval trade organization. In 1359 Lübeck bought the ducal Herrschaft (Herrschaft (territory)) of Mölln from the indebted Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln (Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg), a branch of the ducal house of Saxe-Lauenburg. The City and Duke — with the consent of the Duke's brother Eric (Eric III, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) — agreed a price of 9,737.50 Lübeck marks (Mark (money)). The parties also agreed a clause allowing for the repurchase of the lands by the Duke or his heirs, but only if they were buying back the property for themselves and not for a third party. Elisabeth Raiser, ''Städtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lübecks und Zürichs'', Lübeck and Hamburg: Matthiesen, 1969, (Historische Studien; 406), p. 88, simultaneously: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1969. Lübeck considered this acquisition to be crucially important, since Mölln was an important staging post in the trade (especially the salt trade) between Scandinavia and the cities of Brunswick (Braunschweig) and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) via Lübeck. Therefore Lübeck manned Mölln with armed guards to maintain law and order on the roads. In 1370 Lübeck further acquired — by way of collateral for a loan — the Lordship of Bergedorf (Bergedorf (quarter)), the Vierlande, half the Sachsenwald (Saxon Forest) and Geesthacht from Duke Eric III, who had meanwhile succeeded his late brother Albert V. Elisabeth Raiser, p. 90. This acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe freight route between the cities. Eric III retained a life tenancy of these lands. Lübeck and Eric III further stipulated that once Eric had died, Lübeck would be entitled to take possession of the pledged territories until his successors could repay the debt and simultaneously exercise the repurchase of Mölln. By this stage the sum involved was calculated as 26,000 Lübeck Marks, an enormous amount of money at that time. Elisabeth Raiser, pp. 90 seq. In 1401 Eric III died without issue and was succeeded by his second cousin Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg (Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg). In the same year Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric (Eric V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) (later reigning as Eric V) and John (John IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) (later John IV), captured the pawned lands without making the agreed repayment and before Lübeck could take possession of them. Lübeck acquiesced. Elisabeth Raiser, p. 137. In 1420 Eric V attacked Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg and Lübeck gained Hamburg for a war alliance in support of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg). The armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station (today's Zollenspieker Ferry) within weeks. This forced Eric V to agree to the Peace of Perleberg on 23 August 1420, which stipulated that all the pawned territories, which Eric IV, Eric V and John IV had violently taken in 1401, were to ceded irrevocably to the cities of Hamburg and Lübeck. The cities transformed the gained areas into the "Beiderstädtischer Besitz" (condominium of both cities (condominium (international law))), ruled by bailiffs for four-year terms. The bailiffs were to come from each of the cities alternately. The Hanseatic League, under Lübeck´s leadership, fought several wars against Denmark with varying degrees of success. Whilst Lübeck and the Hanseatic League won in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the Schmalkaldic League. After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. Lübeck remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War, but with the devastation of the war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade, the Hanseatic League, and thus Lübeck, lost importance. After the ''de facto'' disbandment of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. Full sovereignty in 1806 Lübeck remained a Free Imperial City even after the German Mediatisation in 1803 and became a sovereign state at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. During the War of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte (Charles XIV John of Sweden) occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher (Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher) on 6 November 1806. First annexation Under the Continental System, trade suffered and from 1811 to 1813 Lübeck was formally annexed as part of the First French Empire. Reestablishment as sovereign state in 1813 Lübeck reassumed its pre-1811 status in 1813. The 1815 Congress of Vienna reconfirmed Lübeck's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. Lübeck joined the North German Confederation in 1867. The following year Lübeck sold its share in the bi-urban condominium of Bergedorf to the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Hamburg), which was also a sovereign state of the North German Confederation. Hamburg integrated the area into its state territory, making up most of its today Borough of Bergedorf (Bergedorf). In 1871 Lübeck became an autonomous component state within the newly founded German Empire. Its status was weakened during the Weimar Republic by the Republic's enforcement of its right to determine state and Reich taxes. In 1933, in the course of the Gleichschaltung, Lübeck's senate (senate#Alternative meanings) (the city government) and Bürgerschaft (parliament) were streamlined although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -


Kingdom of Serbia

to exist. On 1 December 1918, the National Council joined the state with the Kingdom of Serbia (which also included the territory of former Kingdom of Montenegro within its borders) to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Count Ulrich II of Cilli (Ulrich II, Count of Celje) was the most powerful member of the Cilli family. In 1432 he married Catherine, daughter of the Serbian (Kingdom of Serbia) despot Đurađ Branković. Ulrich held a large influence in many courts, which originated from the relationships the Cilli family had made in the past. Upon the death of the Habsburg king Albert II (Albert II of Germany) in 1439, he tried to get regency of Hungary, Bohemia and Austria through control over Albert's minor son Ladislaus the Posthumous. With such ambitions he got many opponents and rivals, such as the Hungarian Hunyadi family. After an unsuccessful claim to the Bosnian crown, Cilli obtained some territories in Croatia and Slavonia and in 1452 finally succeeded in forcing Emperor Frederick III (Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor) to hand over the boy king Ladislaus to his keeping. Thus, Ulrich II became ''de facto'' regent of Hungary. The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.


Florence

Order . In 1226 Emperor Frederick II (Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor) elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of this mediaeval trade organization. In 1375, Emperor Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor) named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence. Several conflicts about trade privileges were fought by Lübeck and the Hanseatic League against Denmark and Norway with varying outcomes. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the Schmalkaldic League. * Italy has an embassy in Luxembourg City. Italian embassy in Luxembourg City (in French and Italian only) * Luxembourg has an embassy in Rome and 9 honorary consulates (in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Perugia, Riccione, Turin, and Venice). Luxembourg embassy in Rome (in Italian only) * Both countries are full members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, of the European Union and of NATO. thumb 200px right Errico Malatesta (Image:ErricoMalatesta.gif) Cafiero explains in ''Anarchy and Communism'' (1880) that private property in the product of labor will lead to unequal accumulation of capital and, therefore, the reappearance of social classes and their antagonisms, and thus the resurrection of the state: "If we preserve the individual appropriation of the products of labour, we would be forced to preserve money, leaving more or less accumulation of wealth according to more or less merit rather than need of individuals." At the Florence Conference of the Italian Federation of the International in 1876, held in a forest outside Florence due to police activity, they declared the principles of anarcho-communism, beginning with: Biography Alamanni was born in Florence. His father was a devoted adherent of the Medici party, but Luigi, smarting under a supposed injustice, joined with others in an unsuccessful conspiracy against Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Pope Clement VII. He was obliged in consequence to take refuge in Venice, and, on the accession of Clement, to flee to France. When Florence shook off the papal yoke in 1527, Alamanni returned, and took a prominent part in the management of the affairs of the republic. Childhood and education An Italian humanist (Humanism), Alberti is often seen as a model of the Renaissance "universal man". See Kelly-Gadol, Joan (Joan Kelly). ''Leon Battista Alberti. Universal Man of the Renaissance''. University of Chicago Press, 1969; He was born in Genoa, one of two illegitimate (Illegitimacy) sons of a wealthy Florentine (Florence) merchant, Lorenzo Alberti. Leon Battista's mother, Bianca Fieschi, was a Bolognese (Bologna) widow who died during an outbreak of bubonic plague. Like many other families, the Albertis had been expelled from their native city, Florence, by the republican government, run by the Albizzis. At the time of Leon Battista's birth, his father Lorenzo lived in Genoa, but the family soon moved to Venice, where Lorenzo ran the family bank with his brother. Lorenzo married again in 1408. The ban on the family was lifted in 1428, and that same year Leon visited Florence for the first time. Childhood and education An Italian humanist (Humanism), Alberti is often seen as a model of the Renaissance "universal man". See Kelly-Gadol, Joan (Joan Kelly). ''Leon Battista Alberti. Universal Man of the Renaissance''. University of Chicago Press, 1969; He was born in Genoa, one of two illegitimate (Illegitimacy) sons of a wealthy Florentine (Florence) merchant, Lorenzo Alberti. Leon Battista's mother, Bianca Fieschi, was a Bolognese (Bologna) widow who died during an outbreak of bubonic plague. Like many other families, the Albertis had been expelled from their native city, Florence, by the republican government, run by the Albizzis. At the time of Leon Battista's birth, his father Lorenzo lived in Genoa, but the family soon moved to Venice, where Lorenzo ran the family bank with his brother. Lorenzo married again in 1408. The ban on the family was lifted in 1428, and that same year Leon visited Florence for the first time. thumb right Facade of Santa Maria Novella (Image:Santa Maria Novella.jpg). *He took great interest in studying the ruins of classical architecture in Rome and elsewhere. At Rome he was employed by Pope Nicholas V in the restoration of the papal palace and of the restoration of the Roman aqueduct of Acqua Vergine, which debouched (debouches) into a simple basin designed by Alberti, which was swept away later by the Baroque Trevi Fountain. At Mantua he designed the church of Sant'Andrea (Sant'Andrea, Mantua), and at Rimini the church of San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano). On a commission from the Rucellai family he completed the principal facade of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence which had been begun in the previous century. He also built the facade for the family palace in the Via della Vigna Nuova, known as the Palazzo Rucellai, though it is not exactly clear what his role as designer was. *Alberti is also now thought to have had an important role in the designing of Pienza, a village that had been called Corsignano, but which was redesigned beginning around 1459. It was the birthplace of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II, in whose employ Alberti served. Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat but needed for it to reflect the dignity of his position. The design, which radically transformed the center of the town, included a palace for the pope, a church, a town hall and a building for the bishops who would accompany the Pope on his trips. Pienza is considered an early example of Renaissance urban planning. Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, at Vinci (Vinci, Italy) in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded him by Francis I (Francis I of France). The death of Laocoön was famously depicted in a much-admired marble ''Laocoön and his Sons'', attributed by Pliny the Elder to the Rhodian (Rhodes) sculptors Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydorus, which stands in the Vatican Museums, Rome. Copies have been executed by various artists, notably Baccio Bandinelli. These show the complete sculpture (with conjectural reconstructions of the missing pieces) and can be seen in Rhodes, at the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, Rome, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and in front of the Archaeological Museum, Odessa, Ukraine, amongst others. birth_date Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


Portugal

and tobacco was extremely hard to police and therefore extremely profitable. He married Mrs. Bridget Morgell, the widow of a rich Dingle merchant and also the daughter of the then MP for County Kerry, Mr. Thomas Crosby. Being related to the best smuggler in Ireland can't have sat too easily on Crosby's shoulders and there is some suspicion that Magee's death in a Lisbon monastery was due to some exile imposed by the powerful MP (Member of Parliament). However, his wife, and his sons


Japan

to the influence of the reformers. The conservative faction's most powerful member, Dowager Empress (Empress Dowager Cixi) ended the reforms and ordered Kang executed (Capital punishment) through slow slicing. Kang fled to Japan, where with Liang, he organized the Protect the Emperor Society, travelled throughout the Chinese diaspora (overseas Chinese) promoting constitutional monarchy and competed with the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen's (Sun Yat-sen) Revive China

form of the traditional matchmaking process, and is similar in a number of ways to the concept of the mail-order bride. zh:日本 Commons:Category:Japan Wikipedia:Japan Dmoz:Regional Asia Japan


Soviet Union

Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


France

to the best smuggler in Ireland can't have sat too easily on Crosby's shoulders and there is some suspicion that Magee's death in a Lisbon monastery was due to some exile imposed by the powerful MP (Member of Parliament). However, his wife, and his sons continued the family business of smuggling. '''Ringaskiddy''' ( - Skiddy's Headland) is a village in County Cork, Ireland (Republic of Ireland). It is located on the western side of Cork harbour


United States

' infrared space surveillance needs through the first two to three decades of the 21st century. The SBIRS program is designed to provide key capabilities the areas of missile warning, missile defense and battlespace characterization. '''Gaetano Badalamenti''' (September 14, 1923 – April 29, 2004) was a powerful member of the Sicilian (Sicily) Mafia. ''Don Tano'' Badalamenti was the capofamiglia (Mafia#Structure_and_composition) of his hometown Cinisi, Sicily, and headed


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