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population concentration


Thinis

250px thumb right Nearby Abydos, Egypt Abydos (File:Osireion.jpg) (''Osireion pictured''), after ceding its political rank to Thinis, remained an important religious centre. Pre-dynastic and Early Dynastic periods Although the archaeological site of Thinis has never been located, Anderson 1999: 105 evidence of population concentration in the Abydos (Abydos, Egypt)-Thinis region dates from the fourth millennium BCE. Patch 1991 Thinis is also cited as the earliest royal burial-site (Ancient Egyptian burial customs) in Egypt. Clark 2004: 115 At an early point, the city of Abydos resigned its political rank to Thinis, and although Abydos would continue to enjoy supreme religious importance, Maspero 1903: 333 its history and functions cannot be understood without reference to Thinis. The role of Thinis as centre of the Thinite Confederacy (or Dynasty 0) and into the Early Dynastic Period (Early Dynastic Period of Egypt) (specifically Dynasty I (First dynasty of Egypt) and Dynasty II (Second dynasty of Egypt)) Lesley 1868: 154 is taken from Manetho, Wilkinson 2000: 67 and, according to Wilkinson (2000), seems to be confirmed by Dynasty I and late Dynasty II royal tombs at Abydos, the principal regional necropolis. Old Kingdom 250px thumb right Mentuhotep II (File:Mentuhotep Seated edit.jpg), pharaoh of the Theban (Thebes, Egypt) Dynasty XI (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt), finally brought Thinis under Theban sway during his campaign of reunification. Such importance seems to have been short-lived: certainly, the national political role of Thinis ended at the beginning of Dynasty III (Third dynasty of Egypt) (c. 2686 BCE), when Memphis (Memphis, Egypt) became the chief religious and political centre. Najovits 2003: 171 Nonetheless, Thinis retained its regional significance: during Dynasty V (Fifth dynasty of Egypt), it was the probable seat of the "overseer of Upper Egypt", an administrative official with responsibility for the Nile Valley south of the Delta (Nile Delta), Bard 1999: 38 and throughout antiquity (Ancient Egypt) it was the eponymous capital of ''nome (nome (Egypt))'' VIII of Upper Egypt and seat of its nomarch. During the wars of the First Intermediate Period (c. 2181 – c. 2055 BCE), Ankhtifi, nomarch of Hierakonpolis, demanded recognition of his suzerainty from the "overseer of Upper Egypt" at Thinis, Hamblin 2006: 373 and although the city walls (Defensive walls), cited in Ankhtifi's autobiography, seem to have left Ankhtifi capable of only a show of force, he appears to have purchased Thinis' neutrality with grain (Cereal). Brovarski 1999: 44 Following Ankhtifi's death, Thinis was the northernmost ''nome'' to fall under the sway of Intef II, pharaoh of the Theban (Thebes, Egypt) Dynasty XI (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt) (c. 2118 – c. 2069 BCE). Hamblin 2006: 375 Progress north by the Theban armies was halted by Kheti III, pharaoh of the Heracleopolitan (Herakleopolis Magna) Dynasty IX (Ninth dynasty of Egypt), in a battle at Thinis itself that is recorded in the ''Teaching for King Merykara'', Parkinson 1999: 225 and, throughout Intef II's later years, his war against the Heracleopolitans and their allies, the nomarchs of Assyut, was waged in the land between Thinis and Assyut. As Thebes began to take the upper hand, Mentuhotep II (c. 2061 – c. 2010 BCE), on his campaign of reunification, brought Thinis, which had been in revolt, possibly at Heracleopolitan instigation and certainly with the support of an army under the command of the nomarch of Assyut, firmly under his control. Hamblin 2006: 385 During the Second Intermediate Period (c. eighteenth century BCE), Thinis may have experienced resurgent autonomy: Ryholt (Kim Ryholt) (1997) proposes that the Abydos dynasty of kings might better be called the "Thinite Dynasty" Ryholt 1997: 163 and that, in any event, their royal seat was likely at Thinis, already a ''nome'' capital. Ryholt 1997: 165 New Kingdom and Late Period The city's steady decline appears to have halted briefly during Dynasty XVIII (Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt) (c. 1550 – c. 1292 BCE), when Thinis enjoyed renewed prominence, based on its geographical connection to various oases (Oasis) Redford 2003: 176 n. 58 of possible military importance. Bryan 2006: 104 Certainly, the office of mayor of Thinis was occupied by several notable New Kingdom figures: Satepihu, who participated in the construction of an obelisk for Hatshepsut and was himself subject of an exemplary block statue (Block statue (Egyptian)); Wilkinson 1992: 30 the herald Intef, an indispensable member of the royal household and the travelling-companion of Thutmose III; Redford 2003: 176 and Min, tutor to the prince Amenhotep III. Bryan 2006: 100 Nonetheless, Thinis had declined to a settlement of little significance by the historic period. Maspero 1903: 331 The misleading reference on a seventh-century BCE Assyrian stele to "Nespamedu, king of Thinis" is nothing more than a reflection of Assyrian "ignorance of the subtlety of the Egyptian political hierarchy". Leahy 1979 Certainly, by the Roman period (Egypt (Roman province)), Thinis had been supplanted as capital of its ''nome'' by Ptolemais (Ptolemais Hermiou), perhaps even as early as that city's foundation by Ptolemy I (Ptolemy I Soter). Religion 250px thumb right A tableau from the ''Book of the Dead (File:BD Hunefer.jpg)'' (''green-skinned Osiris is seated to the right''). In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, Thinis features as a mythical place in heaven. As each ''nome'' was home to the tomb and mummy of its dead ''nome''-god, so at Thinis was the temple and last resting-place of Anhur, whose epithets included "bull of Thinis", Pinch 2002: 177 worshipped after his death Maspero 1903: 163 as Khenti-Amentiu, and who, as ''nome''-god, was placed at the head of the local ennead. Maspero 1903: 205 The high priest of the temple of Anhur at Thinis was called the first prophet, Maspero 1903: 177 or chief of seers, Kitchen 2003: 108 Frood 2007: 108 a title that Maspero (1903) suggests is a reflection of Thinis' decline in status as a city. Maspero 1903: 177 n.1 One such chief of seers, Anhurmose, who died in the reign of Merneptah (c. 1213 – c. 1203 BCE), broke with the tradition of his New Kingdom predecessors, who were buried at Abydos, and was laid to rest at Thinis itself. Frood 2007: 107 The lion-goddess Mehit was also worshipped at Thinis, Pinch 2002: 164 Frood 2007: 267 and the restoration of her temple there during Merneptah's reign was probably overseen by Anhurmose. There is evidence that succession (Order of succession) to the office of chief of seers of Anhur at Thinis was familial: in the Herakleopolitan period (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt), one Hagi succeeded his elder brother, also called Hagi, and their father to the post; Fischer 1987 and, in the New Kingdom, Wenennefer (Parennefer called Wennefer) Frood 2007: 97 was succeeded in the priestly office by his son, Hori. Frood 2007: 189 In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven. In particular, as set out in the ''Book of the Dead'', its eschatological (Eschatology) significance can be seen in certain rituals: when the god Osiris triumphs, "joy goeth its round in Thinis", a reference to the celestial Thinis, rather than the earthly city. References This is a list of Egyptian capitals in a chronological order. * Thinis (Actual Location Unknown)(before 2950 BC) the first capital of Upper and Lower Egypt * Memphis (Memphis, Egypt): (2950 BC - 2180 BC) - I - VIII dynasties State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos (Abydos, Egypt) in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery. - align center about 3080 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD Narmer (or Menes) unites '''Lower Egypt''' and '''Upper Egypt''' under the '''First Dynasty of Egypt'''. Thinis becomes the capital of all '''Egypt (Ancient Egypt)'''. - - align center about 3200 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD The city-states of '''Thinis''', '''Naqada''', and '''Nekhen''' dominate Upper Egypt. -


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