Places Known For

political presence


Marrakesh

to spring up. United Nations agencies became active in Marrakesh beginning in the 1970s, and the city's international political presence has subsequently grown. In 1985, UNESCO declared the old town area of Marrakesh a UNESCO World Heritage Site, raising international awareness of the cultural heritage of the city. Ain el Quassimou, built by the family of Leo Tolstoy


South Ossetia

militiamen and freelance fighters from Russia. Hostage takings, shootouts and occasional bombings left dozens dead and wounded. A ceasefire deal was reached on 13 August though it was repeatedly violated. The Georgian government protested against the allegedly increasing Russian economic and political

presence in the region and against the uncontrolled military of the South Ossetian side. It also considered the peacekeeping force (Joint Control Commission for Georgian–Ossetian Conflict Resolution) (consisting in equal parts of South Ossetians, North Ossetians, Russians and Georgians) to be non-neutral and demanded its replacement. Resolution on Peacekeepers Leaves Room for More Diplomacy. ''Civil Georgia''. 2006-02-16. WikiPedia:South Ossetia commons:South Ossetia


Coventry

diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S., the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government and at the national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan (James Callaghan) and Blair (Tony Blair) have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegal. Current Chancellor George Osborne is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon. Kenilworth's inner court consists of a number of buildings set against a bailey (Ward (fortification)) wall, originally of Norman origin, exploiting the defensive value of a natural knoll (Hillock) that rises up steeply from the surrounding area. Pettifer, pp.257–8. The 12th-century great tower (keep) occupies the knoll itself and forms the north-east corner of the bailey. Ruined during the slighting, the great tower is notable for its huge corner turrets, essentially hugely exaggerated Norman pilaster buttresses. Thompson 1991, p.77; Pettifer, p.258. Its walls are 5 metres (17 ft) thick, and the towers 30 metres (100 ft) high. Hull 2009, p.102. Although Kenilworth's great tower is larger, it is similar to that of Brandon Castle near Coventry; both were built by the local Clinton family (Geoffrey de Clinton) in the 1120s. Morris 2010, p.37. The tower can be termed a hall keep, as it is longer than it is wide. The lowest floor is filled with earth, possibly taken from the earlier motte that may have been present on the site, and is further protected by a sloping stone plinth around the base. The tall Tudor windows at the top of the tower date from the 1570s. Morris 2010, p.8. Leicester's gatehouse was built on the north side of the base court, replacing an older gatehouse to provide a fashionable entrance from the direction of Coventry. Morris 2010, p.26. The external design, with its symbolic towers and, originally, battlements, echoes a style popular a century or more before, closely resembling Kirby Muxloe (Kirby Muxloe Castle) and the Beauchamp gatehouse at Warwick Castle. Johnson 2000, p.233; Morris 2010, p.26, 47. By contrast the interior, with its contemporary wood panelling, is in the same, highly contemporary Elizabethan fashion of Leicester's building in the inner court. Johnson 2000, p.233. Leicester's gatehouse is one of the few parts of the castle to remain intact. The stables built by John Dudley (John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland) in the 1550s also survive and lie along the east side of the base court. Morris 2010, p.28. The stable block is a large building built mostly in stone, but with a timber-framed, decoratively panelled first storey designed in an anachronistic, vernacular style. Morris 2010, p.28; Johnson 2000, p.224. Both buildings could have easily been seen from Leicester's building and were therefore on permanent display to visitors. Leciester's intent may have been to create a deliberately anachronistic view across the base court, echoing the older ideals of chivalry and romance alongside the more modern aspects of the redesign of the castle. Johnson 2000, p.226; Stokstad, p.80. birth_date WikiPedia:Coventry Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England West Midlands Coventry Commons:Coventry


Nottingham

Nationalist Members of Parliament), Glasgow, Bristol and Portsmouth. Big industrial cities such as Coventry, Birmingham, Manchester as well as parts of Newcastle (Newcastle upon Tyne) and Nottingham also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S., the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government and at the national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan (James Callaghan) and Blair (Tony Blair) have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegal. Current Chancellor George Osborne is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon. The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures using the militia or army to protect industry. Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported (Penal transportation) for life. When John's elder brother Richard became king in September 1189, he had already declared his intention of joining the Third Crusade. Richard set about raising the huge sums of money required for this expedition through the sale of lands, titles and appointments, and attempted to ensure that he would not face a revolt while away from his empire. Warren, pp.38–9. John was made Count of Mortain (List of Counts of Mortain), was married to the wealthy Isabel of Gloucester, and was given valuable lands in Lancaster and the counties of Cornwall, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Nottingham and Somerset, all with the aim of buying his loyalty to Richard whilst the king was on crusade. Warren, pp.39–40. Richard retained royal control of key castles in these counties, thereby preventing John from accumulating too much military and political power. Barlow, p.293. In return, John promised not to visit England for the next three years, thereby in theory giving Richard adequate time to conduct a successful crusade and return from the Levant without fear of John seizing power. Warren, p.40. Richard left political authority in England – the post of justiciar – jointly in the hands of Bishop Hugh de Puiset and William Mandeville (William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex), and made William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely, his chancellor. Warren, p.39. Mandeville immediately died, and Longchamp took over as joint justiciar with Puiset, which would prove to be a less than satisfactory partnership. Eleanor, the queen mother, convinced Richard to allow John into England in his absence. John's campaign started well. In November John retook Rochester Castle from rebel baron William d'Aubigny (William d'Aubigny (rebel)) in a sophisticated assault. One chronicler had not seen "a siege so hard pressed or so strongly resisted", whilst historian Reginald Brown describes it as "one of the greatest siege operations in England up to that time". Turner, p.192 citing Brown, pp.10–11; Turner, p.193. Having regained the south-east John split his forces, sending William Longespée to retake the north of side of London and East Anglia, whilst John himself headed north via Nottingham to attack the estates of the northern barons. Turner, p.193. Both operations were successful and the majority of the remaining rebels were pinned down in London. In January 1216 John marched against Alexander II of Scotland, who had allied himself with the rebel cause. Duncan, p.267. John took back Alexander's possessions in northern England in a rapid campaign and pushed up towards Edinburgh over a ten-day period. Background The movement emerged in the harsh economic climate of the Napoleonic Wars and difficult working conditions in the new textile factories. The principal objection of the Luddites was to the introduction of new wide-framed automated looms that could be operated by cheap, relatively unskilled labour, resulting in the loss of jobs for many skilled textile workers. The movement began in Nottingham in 1811 and spread rapidly throughout England in 1811 and 1812. Mills and pieces of factory machinery were burned by handloom weavers, and for a short time Luddites were so strong that they clashed in battles with the British Army. Many wool and cotton mill (mill (factory))s were destroyed until the British government suppressed the movement. Road links As a major city, Liverpool has direct road links with many other areas within England. To the east, the M62 motorway connects Liverpool with Hull (Kingston-upon-Hull) and along the route provides links to several large cities, including Manchester, Leeds and Bradford. The M62 also provides a connection to both the M6 motorway and M1 Motorway, providing indirect links to more distant areas including Birmingham, Sheffield, Preston (Preston, Lancashire), London and Nottingham. Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Nottinghamshire Nottingham Commons:Category:Nottingham


Portsmouth

and Portsmouth. Big industrial cities such as Coventry, Birmingham, Manchester as well as parts of Newcastle (Newcastle upon Tyne) and Nottingham also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S., the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government and at the national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan (James Callaghan) and Blair (Tony Blair) have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegal. Current Chancellor George Osborne is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon. On 1 January 1912 the National Telephone Company was nationalised and merged into the General Post Office by the Telephone Transfer Act 1911. Only Guernsey, Portsmouth and Hull (Kingston upon Hull) remained outside of the GPO. Henry VIII (Henry VIII of England), who developed the Royal Navy and its permanent base at Portsmouth, fortified the island at Yarmouth (Yarmouth, Isle of Wight), Cowes, East Cowes, and Sandown. Much later, after the Spanish Armada in 1588, the threat of Spanish attacks remained and the outer fortifications of Carisbrooke Castle were built between 1597 and 1602. SuperJANET4 also saw an increase in the userbase of JANET with the inclusion of the Further Education Community and the use of the SuperJANET4 backbone to interconnect schools' networks. The core point of presence (Backbone) sites in SuperJANET4 were Edinburgh, Glasgow, Warrington, Reading (Reading, Berkshire), Bristol, Portsmouth, London and Leeds. The 18th century was dominated by wars with France, during which the Medway became the primary base for a fleet that could act along the Dutch and French coasts. When the theatre of operation moved to the Atlantic, this role was assumed by Portsmouth and Plymouth, with Chatham concentrating on shipbuilding and ship repair. -- As an indication of the area's military importance, the first Ordnance Survey map ever drawn was a one-inch map of Kent, published in 1801. WikiPedia:Portsmouth Commons:Category:Portsmouth


Bristol

Commons:Category:Bristol Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Bristol Wikipedia:Bristol


Liverpool

Tyne Newcastle and Nottingham also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. As with their experience in the U.S., the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, most especially in local government and at the national level. Prime Ministers Callaghan (James Callaghan) and Blair (Tony Blair) have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegal. Current Chancellor George Osborne is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon. Ferry connections between Britain (Great Britain) and Ireland via the Irish Sea include the routes from Swansea to Cork now closed, Fishguard and Pembroke (Pembroke, Pembrokeshire) to Rosslare, Holyhead to Dún Laoghaire, Stranraer to Belfast and Larne, and Cairnryan to Larne. There is also a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man. The world's largest car ferry, ''Ulysses (MV Ulysses)'', is operated by Irish Ferries (Irish Continental) on the Dublin–Holyhead route. The Isle of Man Sea Terminal in Douglas is served by frequent ferries to and from Heysham. Douglas is also served by frequent summer services to and from Liverpool with a more restricted timetable operating in winter. There are also limited summer-only services to and from Belfast and Dublin. All ferries are operated by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company. His concert career began at the young age of nine when his father toured both Isaac and his sister, Clementina, throughout northern Spain. By the time he had reached 12, he had made many attempts to run away from home. A popular myth is that at the age of 12 Albéniz stowed away in a ship bound for Buenos Aires. He then made his way via Cuba to the United States, giving concerts in New York and San Francisco and then travelled to Liverpool, London and Leipzig. Gramophone Archive By age 15, he had already given concerts worldwide. This over-dramatized story is not entirely true. Albéniz did travel the world as a performer, however he was accompanied by his father. As a customs agent he was required to travel frequently. After a juxtaposition of Isaac's concert dates, on his alleged adventure, and his father's travel itinerary it is apparent that they were traveling together. After a short stay at the Leipzig Conservatory, in 1876 he went to study at the Royal Conservatory (Royal Conservatory of Brussels) in Brussels after King Alonso's personal secretary, Guillermo Morphy obtained him a royal grant. Commons:category:Liverpool Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Merseyside Liverpool Wikipedia:Liverpool


India

of Samata Party(old) , Indian Elections.com The party has socialist leanings and is of considerable political and social influence in North India. '''Janata Dal (United)''' ('''JDU''') is a political party in India with political presence mainly in Bihar and Jharkhand. Janta Dal (United) party mentor and patron is "Veteran Socialist leader" George Fernandes; George Fernandes broke away from the erstwhile Janata Dal and formed the Samata Party in 1994. Presently it is led by Sharad Yadav and Nitish Kumar. The current party was formed by the merger of the erstwhile Janata Dal (United) with the Samata Party on October 30, 2003. The uniting force is believed to be common opposition to Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar especially after the RJD welcomed Samata Party rebels like Raghunath Jha into the party. Janata Dal (United) is a constituent of the National Democratic Alliance (National Democratic Alliance (India)). The '''Rashtriya Janata Dal''' (RJD- "National People's Party") is a political party in India, based in the state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Laloo Prasad Yadav. The party came about as a result of Lalu Prasad Yadav, ex-president of Janata Dal, being evicted by Sharad Yadav, Commons:Category:India Wikipedia:India Dmoz:Regional Asia India


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