County Hastings , Northumberland (Northumberland County, Ontario) and Peterborough (Peterborough County) in southern (Southern Ontario) Ontario, Canada.
, was supported by conservative businessmen and 60,000 dues-paying BITU members, who encompassed dock and sugar plantation workers and other unskilled urban labourers. On his release in 1943, Bustamante began building up the JLP. Meanwhile, several PNP leaders organised the leftist-oriented Trade Union Congress (TUC). Thus, from an early stage in modern Jamaica, unionised labour was an integral part of organised political life. For the next quarter century, Bustamante and Manley competed for centre stage in Jamaican political affairs, the former espousing the cause of the "barefoot man"; the latter, "democratic socialism," a loosely defined political and economic theory aimed at achieving a classless (Classless society) system of government. Jamaica's two founding fathers projected quite different popular images. Bustamante, lacking even a high school diploma, was an autocratic, charismatic, and highly adept politician; Manley was an athletic, Oxford-trained (University of Oxford) lawyer, Rhodes scholar (Rhodes Scholarship), humanist, and liberal intellectual. Although considerably more reserved than Bustamante, Manley was well liked and widely respected. He was also a visionary nationalist who became the driving force behind the crown colony's quest for independence. Following the 1938 disturbances in the West Indies, London sent the Moyne Commission (Report of West India Royal Commission (Moyne Report)) to study conditions in the British Caribbean territories (British West Indies). Its findings led in the early 1940s to better wages and a new constitution. Issued on 20 November 1944, the Constitution (Constitution of Jamaica) modified the crown colony system and inaugurated limited self-government based on the Westminster model of government (Westminster system) and universal adult suffrage. It also embodied the island's principles of ministerial responsibility and the rule of law. Thirty-one percent of the population participated in the 1944 elections (Jamaican general election, 1944). The JPL – helped by its promises to create jobs, its practice of dispensing public funds in pro-JLP parishes, and the PNP's relatively radical platform – won an 18 percent majority of the votes over the PNP, as well as 22 seats in the 32-member House of Representatives, with 5 going to the PNP and 5 to other short-lived parties. In 1945 Bustamante took office as Jamaica's first premier (the pre-independence title for head of government (Prime Minister of Jamaica)). Under the new charter, the British governor, assisted by the six-member Privy Council and ten-member Executive Council, remained responsible solely to the crown. The Jamaican Legislative Council became the upper house, or Senate, of the bicameral Parliament. House members were elected by adult suffrage from single-member electoral districts called constituencies. Despite these changes, ultimate power remained concentrated in the hands of the governor and other high officials. After World War II, Jamaica began a relatively long transition to full political independence (Independence of Jamaica). Jamaicans preferred British culture over American (American culture), but they had a love-hate relationship with the British and resented British domination, racism, and the dictatorial Colonial Office. Britain gradually granted the colony more self-government under periodic constitutional changes. Jamaica's political patterns and governmental structure were shaped during two decades of what was called "constitutional decolonisation (decolonization)," the period between 1944 and independence in 1962. Having seen how little popular appeal the PNP's 1944 campaign position had, the party shifted toward the centre in 1949 and remained there until 1974. The PNP actually won a 0.8-percent majority of the votes over the JLP in the 1949 election (Jamaican general election, 1949), although the JLP won a majority of the House seats. In the 1950s, the PNP and JLP became increasingly similar in their sociological composition and ideological outlook. During the cold war years, socialism became an explosive domestic issue. The JLP exploited it among property owners and churchgoers, attracting more middle-class support. As a result, PNP leaders diluted their socialist rhetoric, and in 1952 the PNP moderated its image by expelling four prominent leftists who had controlled the TUC. The PNP then formed the more conservative National Workers Union (National Workers Union (Jamaica)) (NWU). Henceforth, PNP socialism meant little more than national planning within a framework of private property and foreign capital. The PNP retained, however, a basic commitment to socialist precepts, such as public control of resources and a more equitable income distribution. Manley's PNP came to office for the first time after winning the 1955 elections (Jamaican general election, 1955) with an 11-percent majority over the JLP and 50.5 percent of the popular vote. Amendments to the constitution that took effect in May 1953 reconstituted the Executive Council and provided for eight ministers to be selected from among House members. The first ministries were subsequently established. These amendments also enlarged the limited powers of the House of Representatives and made elected members of the governor's executive council responsible to the legislature. Manley, elected chief minister (Prime Minister of Jamaica) beginning in January 1955, accelerated the process of decolonisation during his able stewardship. Further progress toward self-government was achieved under constitutional amendments in 1955 and 1956, and cabinet government was established on 11 November 1957. Assured by British declarations that independence would be granted to a collective West Indian state rather than to individual colonies, Manley supported Jamaica's joining nine other British territories in the West Indies Federation, established on 3 January 1958. Manley became the island's premier after the PNP again won a decisive victory in the general election in July 1959 (Jamaican general election, 1959), securing thirty of forty-five House seats. Membership in the federation remained an issue in Jamaican politics. Bustamante, reversing his previously supportive position on the issue, warned of the financial implications of membership – Jamaica was responsible for 43 percent of its own financing – and an inequity in Jamaica's proportional representation in the federation's House of Assembly. Manley's PNP favoured staying in the federation, but he agreed to hold a referendum in September 1961 (Jamaican Federation of the West Indies membership referendum, 1961) to decide on the issue. When 54 percent of the electorate voted to withdraw, Jamaica left the federation, which dissolved in 1962 after Trinidad and Tobago also pulled out. Manley believed that the rejection of his pro-federation policy in the 1961 referendum called for a renewed mandate from the electorate, but the JLP won the election of early 1962 (Jamaican general election, 1962) by a fraction. Bustamante assumed the premiership that April, and Manley spent his remaining few years in politics as leader of the opposition. Jamaica received its independence (Independence of Jamaica) on 6 August 1962. The new nation retained, however, its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and adopted a Westminster style parliamentary system. Bustamante, at age seventy-eight, became the new nation's first prime minister and also assumed responsibility for the new ministries of defence and foreign affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade (Jamaica)). Jamaicans welcomed independence, but they had already spent their nationalistic passion over the emotional issue of federation. The general feeling was that independence would not make much difference in their lives. Economy The first European settlers (European colonization of the Americas), the Spanish (Spanish people), were primarily interested in extracting precious metals and did not develop or otherwise transform Jamaica. In 1655 the English occupied the island and began a slow process of creating an agricultural economy based on slave labour in support of England's industrial revolution. During the seventeenth century, the basic patterns and social system of the sugar plantation economy (Plantation economy) were established in Jamaica. Large estates owned by absentee planters were managed by local agents. The slave population increased rapidly during the last quarter of the seventeenth century and, by the end of the century, slaves outnumbered white Europeans by at least five to one. Because conditions were extremely harsh under the slave regime and the mortality rate for slaves was high, the slave population expanded through the slave trade from West Africa rather than by natural increase. During most of the eighteenth century, a monocrop (Monocropping) economy based on sugar production for export flourished. In the last quarter of the century, however, the Jamaican sugar economy declined as famines, hurricanes, colonial wars, and wars of independence disrupted trade. By the 1820s, Jamaican sugar had become less competitive with that from high-volume producers such as Cuba and production subsequently declined. By 1882 sugar output was less than half the level achieved in 1828. A major reason for the decline was the British Parliament's 1807 abolition of the slave trade (Slave Trade Act 1807), under which the transportation of slaves to Jamaica after 1 March 1808 was forbidden; the abolition of the slave trade was followed by the abolition of slavery in 1834 (Slavery Abolition Act 1833) and full emancipation within four years. Unable to convert the ex-slaves into a share-cropping tenant class similar to the one established in the post-Civil War South of the United States (Reconstruction Era), planters became increasingly dependent on wage labour and began recruiting workers abroad, primarily from India (British Raj), China (Qing Dynasty), and Sierra Leone. Many of the former slaves settled in peasant or small farm communities in the interior of the island, the "yam belt," where they engaged in subsistence and some cash crop farming. The second half of the nineteenth century was a period of severe economic decline for Jamaica. Low crop prices, droughts, and disease led to serious social unrest, culminating in the Morant Bay rebellions of 1865. However, renewed British administration after the 1865 rebellion, in the form of crown colony status, resulted in some social and economic progress as well as investment in the physical infrastructure. Agricultural development was the centrepiece of restored British rule in Jamaica. In 1868 the first large-scale irrigation project was launched. In 1895 the Jamaica Agricultural Society was founded to promote more scientific and profitable methods of farming. Also in the 1890s, the Crown Lands Settlement Scheme was introduced, a land reform program of sorts, which allowed small farmers to purchase two hectares or more of land on favourable terms. Between 1865 and 1930, the character of landholding in Jamaica changed substantially, as sugar declined in importance. As many former plantations went bankrupt, some land was sold to Jamaican peasants under the Crown Lands Settlement whereas other cane fields were consolidated by dominant British producers, most notably by the British firm Tate and Lyle (Tate & Lyle). Although the concentration of land and wealth in Jamaica was not as drastic as in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean (Spanish Caribbean), by the 1920s the typical sugar plantation on the island had increased to an average of 266 hectares. But, as noted, smallscale agriculture in Jamaica survived the consolidation of land by sugar powers. The number of small holdings in fact tripled between 1865 and 1930, thus retaining a large portion of the population as peasantry. Most of the expansion in small holdings took place before 1910, with farms averaging between two and twenty hectares. The rise of the banana trade during the second half of the nineteenth century also changed production and trade patterns on the island. Bananas were first exported in 1867, and banana farming grew rapidly thereafter. By 1890, bananas had replaced sugar as Jamaica's principal export. Production rose from 5 million stems (32 percent of exports) in 1897 to an average of 20 million stems a year in the 1920s and 1930s, or over half of domestic exports. As with sugar, the presence of American companies, like the well-known United Fruit Company in Jamaica, was a driving force behind renewed agricultural exports. The British also became more interested in Jamaican bananas than in the country's sugar. Expansion of banana production, however, was hampered by serious labour shortages. The rise of the banana economy took place amidst a general exodus of up to 11,000 Jamaicans a year. The Great Depression caused sugar prices to slump in 1929 and led to the return of many Jamaicans. Economic stagnation, discontent with unemployment, low wages, high prices, and poor living conditions caused social unrest in the 1930s (British West Indian labour unrest of 1934–1939). Uprisings in Jamaica began on the Frome Sugar Estate in the western parish of Westmoreland (Westmoreland Parish) and quickly spread east to Kingston (Kingston, Jamaica). Jamaica, in particular, set the pace for the region in its demands for economic development from British colonial rule. Because of disturbances in Jamaica and the rest of the region, the British in 1938 appointed the Moyne Commission (Report of West India Royal Commission (Moyne Report)). An immediate result of the Commission was the Colonial Development Welfare Act, which provided for the expenditure of approximately Ł1 million a year for twenty years on coordinated development in the British West Indies. Concrete actions, however, were not implemented to deal with Jamaica's massive structural problems. The expanding relationship that Jamaica entered into with the United States during World War II produced a momentum for change that could not be turned back by the end of the war. Familiarity with the early economic progress achieved in Puerto Rico under Operation Bootstrap, renewed immigration to the United States, the lasting impressions of Marcus Garvey, and the publication of the Moyne Commission Report led to important modifications in the Jamaican political process and demands for economic development. As was the case throughout the Commonwealth Caribbean in the mid- to late 1930s, social upheaval in Jamaica paved the way for the emergence of strong trade unions and nascent political parties (Politics of Jamaica). These changes set the stage for early modernisation in the 1940s and 1950s and for limited self-rule, introduced in 1944. An extensive period of postwar growth transformed Jamaica into an increasingly industrial society. This pattern was accelerated with the export of bauxite beginning in the 1950s. The economic structure shifted from a dependence on agriculture that in 1950 accounted for 30.8 percent of GDP to an agricultural contribution of 12.9 percent in 1960 and 6.7 percent in 1970. During the same period, the contribution to GDP of mining increased from less than 1 percent in 1950 to 9.3 percent in 1960 and 12.6 percent in 1970. Manufacturing expanded from 11.3 percent in 1950 to 12.8 in 1960 and 15.7 in 1970. See also *Invasion of Jamaica (1655) *Jamaica *History of Jamaica *History of the British West Indies References Colony of Jamaica (Category:History of Jamaica) Category:Former countries in the Caribbean Category:British West Indies Category:Former British colonies (Category:Colony of Jamaica) Category:Former colonies in North America
) Carleton in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada from 1834 to 1841 and in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada from 1848 to 1854 *''Prominent men of Canada a collection of persons distinguished in professional and political life, and in the commerce and industry of Canada'', GM Adam (1892) p. 152 . He also served as the first sheriff for Carleton County. He died in 1867 and was interred at the National Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa. birth_date Lyon was born in Richmond, Ontario, near Ottawa. His early sporting career was in cricket. Toronto Star 10 Jun 1899 p. 2 Although he began playing golf at the age of 38, he won the gold medal in golf (Golf at the 1904 Summer Olympics) in the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri. He won the Canadian Amateur Championship a record eight times between 1898 and 1914, and won the Canadian Seniors' Golf Association Championship ten times between 1918 and 1930. Lyon lost in the finals of the 1906 U.S. Amateur Championship (United States Amateur Championship (golf)), and in the semi-finals of the 1908 British Amateur Championship, when in his 50th year. He traveled to London in 1908 to defend his Olympic title, but plans to stage a golf tournament there were cancelled at the last minute, since representatives from England and Scotland were unable to agree on the format, and golf has not been held in the Olympics since. ''Golf in Canada: A History'', by James A. Barclay. * Expansion needed (updated by bot) ** 27 - 2006 World Outgames, 4th Parliament of the Province of Canada, 5th Parliament of the Province of Canada, CFJP-TV, Calgary International Spoken Word Festival, Canadian National Railway Company, Common Sense Revolution, Concordia University massacre, Confederation Building (Newfoundland and Labrador), Cuper's Cove, Newfoundland and Labrador, Cégep Limoilou, GlobalFest, Goulbourn Township, Ontario, History of Alberta, Just for Laughs, Legislative Council of the Province of Canada, List of Acadians, List of Montreal parks, Maizerets, Mount Allison Mounties, Parlement Jeunesse du Québec, Reagan Dale Neis, Richmond, Ontario, Rocky Mountaineer, Régie intermunicipale de police de la Rivière-du-Nord, West Carleton Township, Ontario, Yukon general election, 2006 * Expert attention needed (updated by bot)
He was educated at Government College, Sokoto (1964 - 1968), Nigeria Defence Academy, Kaduna, (1967 - 1972), Nigeria Army Armored School, Ibadan, (1972), US Army Administration School, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, USA (1976), Royal Armour School, Kentucky, USA (1977 - 1978), Command and Staff College, Jaji (1978 - 1979 and 1982 - 1983), Bayero University, Kano (1979 - 1981), Harvard University, USA (1988 - 1989).
Soviet government of Georgia declared him outlaw, but later offered him a nominal post in the Red Army. In 1923, during the Red Terror, he was arrested and exiled to Persia whence he moved to France. Subsequently many claimed, though apparently unfairly, that it was him who informed the Soviets about the planned national uprising in Georgia (1924). In a few years, he was allowed to return and he lived in his native village Sasireti, far from political life. During the Great Purges, however, he was arrested and executed without a trial, 1937. In the 1950s, Mazniashvili's son, a World War II veteran of the Soviet army, submitted a request for a political rehabilitation (rehabilitation (Soviet)) of his father, but it was turned down by the authorities. Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia (July 2008), ''The Archival Bulletin'' #2, pp. 10-15 Soldiers Memories (In Georgian) '' History The Orylonok camp was established on July 12, 1960 by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR (March 27, 1959). It is located on the Black Sea coast near the town Tuapse, Krasnodar Krai, Russian SFSR, at wikipedia:Tuapse Commons:Tuapse
level, and has an average temperature of 18 20°C.
A.D) had built a church and a canal. The academician Nikoloz Berdzenishvili wrote that from that time on Rustavi was considered as a big political and administrative center. During the reign of Vakhtang Gorgasali (5th century) Rustavi took an important part in the political life of Georgia. Since then a Bishopricpulpit had been founded in Rustavi and of the bishops out of twelve was sanctified according to the wish of Vakhtang Gorgasali. The churches of Kartli acted against the King
00030 ''Prominent men of Canada a collection of persons distinguished in professional and political life, and in the commerce and industry of Canada'', GM Adam (1892) p. 152 . He also served as the first sheriff for Carleton County. He died in 1867 and was interred at the National Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa.