who considered the Four Arts part of their cultural identity and social standing. “Qing Dynasty, Painting,” Metropolitan Museum of Art The painting of the early years of the dynasty (Chinese art#Early Qing painting) included such painters as the orthodox Four Wangs and the individualists Bada Shanren (1626–1705) and Shitao (1641–1707). The nineteenth century saw such innovations as the Shanghai School and the Lingnan School "The Lingnan School of Painting," which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting. Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu, but scholars in the school of evidential learning (Kaozheng) made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship. Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan, developed a school of practical statecraft (He Changling) which rooted bureaucratic reform and restructuring in classical philosophy. Literature (Chinese literature) grew to new heights in the Qing period. Poetry (Qing poetry) continued as a mark of the cultivated gentleman, but women wrote in larger and larger numbers and poets (:Category:Qing dynasty poets) came from all walks of life. The poetry of the Qing dynasty is a lively field of research, being studied (along with the poetry of the Ming dynasty (Ming poetry)) for its association with Chinese opera, developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry, the transition to a greater role for vernacular language (Written vernacular Chinese), and for poetry by women in Chinese culture. The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the ''Quantangshi'' and the ''Three Hundred Tang Poems''. Pu Songling brought the short story form to a new level in his ''Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'', published in the mid-18th century, and Shen Fu demonstrated the charm of the informal memoir in ''Six Chapters of a Floating Life (Six Records of a Floating Life)'', written in the early 19th century but published only in 1877. The art of the novel reached a pinnacle in Cao Xueqin's ''Dream of the Red Chamber'', but its combination of social commentary and psychological insight were echoed in highly skilled novels such as Wu Jingzi's ''The Scholars (The Scholars (novel))'' (1750) and Li Ruzhen's ''Flowers in the Mirror'' (1827). "Ming and Qing Novels," ''Berkshire Encyclopedia'' In drama, Kong Shangren's Kunqu opera ''The Peach Blossom Fan'', completed in 1699, portrayed the tragic downfall of the Ming dynasty in romantic terms. The most prestigious form became the so-called Peking opera, though local and folk opera were also widely popular. Cuisine (History of Chinese cuisine#History) aroused a cultural pride in the accumulated richness of a long and varied past. The gentleman gourmet, such as Yuan Mei (Yuan Mei#Yuan as a gastronome), applied aesthetic standards to the art of cooking, eating, and appreciation of tea (Chinese tea culture) at a time when New World crops and products (Columbian Exchange) entered everyday life. The Manchu Han Imperial Feast originated at the court. Although this banquet was probably never common, it reflected an appreciation by Han Chinese for Manchu culinary customs. Jonathan Spence, "Ch'ing," in Kwang-chih Chang, ed., ''Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977): 260–294, reprinted in Jonathan Spence, ''Chinese Roundabout: Essays in History and Culture'' (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992). By the end of the nineteenth century, all elements of national artistic and cultural life had recognized and begun to come to terms with world culture as found in the West and Japan. Whether to stay within old forms or welcome Western models was now a conscious choice rather than an unchallenged acceptance of tradition. Classically trained Confucian scholars such as Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei broke ground later cultivated in the New Culture Movement. See also ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.
Netherlandish painting Early Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch. It has been housed in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since 1939. Dating from between 1490 and 1510, when Bosch was about 40 or 50 years old, Bosch's exact date of birth is unknown but is estimated to be 1450. Gibson, 15–16 it is his best-known Snyder 1977, 9 and most ambitious, complete work. Snyder 1977, 96 ref>
The Weakerthans released their album Reunion Tour in 2007 featuring two songs inspired by and named after Hopper paintings, "Sun in an Empty Room", and "Night Windows", and have also referenced him in songs such as "Hospital Vespers". Polish (Poland) composer Paweł Szymański's ''Compartment 2, Car 7'' for violin, viola, cello and vibraphone (2003) was inspired by Hopper's ''Compartment C, Car 193''. Hopper's painting ''Early Sunday Morning
at the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant . * December 31 *Nicolas Froment ( ) was a France
, a style of painting. Early life Hilder was born in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, the fourth son and eighth child of Henry Hilder, an engineer originally from Sussex.
''Compartment C, Car 193''. Hopper's painting ''Early Sunday Morning'' was the inspiration for the sleeve of British band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark's 1985 album ''Crush (Crush (OMD album))''. Early life and family Wanamaker was born in New York City, the daughter of Canadian (Canada)-born actress and radio performer Charlotte Holland, and American (United States)-born actor, film director, and radio producer Sam Wanamaker, who decided not to return to the United