Democratic Republic , he is best remembered for his performance in the title role of Brecht's ''Life of Galileo'' and his stirring recordings of workers songs, including many written by Hanns Eisler. He also made a memorable and haunting recording of Peat Bog Soldiers (Peat Bog Soldiers (song)). Many of Busch's original recordings from the 1930s are available in digitized form online and on CD; also available are re-recordings created during the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are equally stirring but perhaps less subtle in approach. Personnel Formed mainly of members from the ''Orpo (Ordnungspolizei)'', the ''Waffen-SS'', and local volunteers, e.g. militia groups, and led by ''SD (Sicherheitsdienst)'', ''Gestapo'' and ''Kripo (Kriminalpolizei)'' officers, these death squads followed the ''Wehrmacht Heer'' (German Army) as it advanced eastwards through Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, ''Einsatzgruppen trial'', judgment, pages 414 - 416 During the course of their operations, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' commanders were authorized to request, and they did receive, assistance from the Wehrmacht. Incorporated specifically into ''Einsatzgruppe D'' were a number of Albanian, Serbo-Croatian and possibly Bosnian volunteers, who were organized by Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).
in the title role of Brecht's ''Life of Galileo'' and his stirring recordings of workers songs, including many written by Hanns Eisler. He also made a memorable and haunting recording of Peat Bog Soldiers (Peat Bog Soldiers (song)). Many of Busch's original recordings from the 1930s are available in digitized form online and on CD; also available are re-recordings created during the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are equally stirring but perhaps less subtle in approach. After World War II the Potsdam Conference assigned the majority of the Neumark to Polish administration, and since 1945 it remains part of Poland. Polish settlers (Poles) largely replaced the expelled German (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) population. Most of the Polish territory became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship, while the northern towns Choszczno (Arnswalde) (Choszczno), Myślibórz (Soldin) (Myślibórz), and Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark) (Chojna) belong to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Some territory near Cottbus, which was administratively part of the district of Frankfurt an der Oder (coterminous with the Neumark) after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, became part of East Germany in the 1940s, becoming part of Germany after reunification (German reunification) in 1990. thumb 300px right Helicopter of the German Army Aviation Corps in Iraq Northern Iraq (File:DN-ST-92-02168.jpg) in 1991 After 1990, the Heer absorbed the army of socialist East Germany, a part of the Nationale Volksarmee (National People's Army). The former East German forces were initially commanded by the Bunderwehr Command East under command of Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm and disbanded on 30 June 1991. See Jorg Schonbohm, 'Two Armies and One Fatherland', Berghahn Books, Providence & Oxford, 1996 In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps (IV Corps (Bundeswehr)) at Potsdam in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1994 III Corps (III Corps (Bundeswehr)) was reorganised as the German Army Forces Command. In 1996, the 25th Airborne Brigade was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkräfte. *Bratsk ITL *Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp#Soviet Special Camp 2) called as the Special camp No 2, the part of GULAG 1948-1950, turned to GDR (East Germany) by Kruglov (Sergei Kruglov (politician)) *Bukachacha ITL Though most Nazi concentration and extermination camps were destroyed after the war, some were made into permanent memorials. In Communist Poland (People's Republic of Poland), some camps such as Majdanek, Jaworzno (Central Labour Camp Jaworzno), Potulice (Central Labour Camp Potulice) and Zgoda (Zgoda labor camp) were used to hold German prisoners of war, suspected Nazis and collaborators, anti-Communists and other political prisoners, as well as civilian members of the German, Silesian (Silesians) and Ukrainian (Ukrainians) ethnic minorities. Currently, there are memorials to both camps in Potulice; they have helped to enable a German-Polish discussion on historical perception of World War II. In East Germany (Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp) and Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen concentration camp)), concentration and extermination camps were used for similar purposes. Dachau concentration camp was used as a prison for arrested Nazis. The group decided to build their own version of the BESK to run the bureau, and formed Regnecentralen in October 1955 to complete and run the machine. The result was the DASK (RC DASK), a vacuum tube-based machine that completed construction in 1956 and went into full operation in February 1957. DASK was followed in 1961 by the fully transistorized GIER (RC GIER), used for similar tasks. GIER is an acronym for "Geodaetisk Instituts Elektronisk Regnemaskine" (Institute of Geodetics Electronic Calculator) and was introduced there on September 14, 1961. GIER proved to be a useful machine, and went on to be used at many Danish universities. Bech also sold GIER machines to the Eastern Bloc nations, starting with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria, and later Romania, the East Germany, and Yugoslavia. thumb right 350px A flag of 150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union) Soviet 150th Rifle Division (File:Soviet Znamya Pobedy.svg) raised over the Reichstag (the Victory Banner). All that was left for the Soviets to do was to launch an offensive to capture central Germany (which would eventually become East Germany after the war). The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin (Joseph Stalin)'s suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone of occupation (Sphere of influence), the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb (German nuclear energy project) program. Beevor, ''Berlin'', see References (#References) Page 138 Meanwhile, a small group of PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) terrorists, enraged at the looming failure of their campaign to erase Israel's existence, come across the lost Israeli warhead and use it to construct their own weapon, using the bomb's plutonium as fissile material. The terrorists enlist the help of disenfranchised East German (East Germany) physicist Manfred Fromm, who agrees to the plot in order to exact revenge for his country's reunification (Reunification of Germany) as a capitalist democratic state. With Fromm's expertise, the terrorists are able to enhance the weapon and turn it into a thermonuclear device (thermonuclear bomb). right thumb 120px Flag of East Germany (File:Flag of East Germany (Hanging).svg) The '''Culture of East Germany''' varied throughout the years due to the political and historical events that took place in the 20th century, especially as a result of Nazism and Communism. A reflection on the history of arts and culture in East Germany reveals complex relationships between artists and the state, between oppositional and conformist art. In a short four decades, East Germany developed a distinct culture and produced works of literature, film, visual arts, music, and theatre of international acclaim. right thumb 120px Flag of East Germany (File:Flag of East Germany (Hanging).svg) The '''Culture of East Germany''' varied throughout the years due to the political and historical events that took place in the 20th century, especially as a result of Nazism and Communism. A reflection on the history of arts and culture in East Germany reveals complex relationships between artists and the state, between oppositional and conformist art. In a short four decades, East Germany developed a distinct culture and produced works of literature, film, visual arts, music, and theatre of international acclaim. In the GDR (East Germany) the movie industry was very active. Besides folksy movies, the East German movie industry became known worldwide for its productions, especially for its children's movies (''Das kalte Herz'' and cinematic versions of the Grimms' fairy tales, and also modern productions like ''Das Schulgespenst''). GDR (East Germany) cinemas did not only screen domestic productions. Besides the Czech, Polish, and other Eastern European productions, certain foreign movies were shown as well, although the number was limited due to the cost of purchasing the licences. Movies which represented or glorified a capitalistic ideology were not bought. For example ''Grease (Grease (film))'' was not shown but ''One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film))'' was. Comedies were popular, such as the Danish ''Olsen Gang'' or movies with the French comedian Louis de Funès. One buzzword often heard in this context is Socialist Classicism, while the Western reference to the same phenomenon is Stalinist architecture. In GDR (East Germany) its representative building tendencies were sometimes referred to as „stalinistischer Zuckerbäckerstil“ (roughly: "Stalinist Confectioner Style") or „Stalingotik“ (Stalinist Gothic (Gothic architecture)), unofficially. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn rapidly expanded until the city was divided into East (East Berlin) and West Berlin at the end of World War II. Although the system initially remained open to residents of both sides, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the East German (East Germany) government (Government of East Germany) limited travel across the border: The East Berlin U-Bahn lines were severed from West Berlin; while two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin (U6 and U8) were allowed to pass through without stopping, although the stations were closed, with the exception of Friedrichstraße (Berlin Friedrichstraße railway station), used as a transfer point (between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system) and a border crossing into East Berlin. The system was reopened completely following the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification. The physical division of the city cut the A line in half, and shortened the B line by one stop, since the Warschauer Brücke terminal lay in East Berlin, which retained only the eastern half of the A line, and line E. West Berlin paid an annual fee of DM (Deutsch mark)20 million to permit trains on the C and D lines to run through eastern territory, although the trains were not allowed to stop on their way: the former stops became The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
such as "Got My Mojo Working" and "She's Nineteen Years Old", although he did not appear on the original recordings; long-time Muddy Waters harmonica player Little Walter was utilized on most of Muddy's recording sessions in the 1950s. Cotton's first recording session with Waters took place in June 1957, and he would alternate with Little Walter on Muddy's recording sessions until the end of the decade, and thereafter until he left to form his own band. In 1965 he
made available on CDs of varying quality, depending upon the conditions under which the original recordings took place. In 1938, Kleiber became an Argentine citizen. Kleiber was born as '''Karl Ludwig Kleiber''' in Berlin, the son of the Austrian conductor Erich Kleiber and American Ruth Goodrich, from California.
) Phoenix Theatre in London on 24 September 1930. A week after the play opened, Heinemann (Heinemann (book publisher)) published the text; a week later, HMV issued recordings of scenes from the play performed by Coward and Lawrence. "His Master's Voice", ''The Times'', 8 October 1930, p. 19. The original recordings (catalogue number C2043) have been reissued on compact disc on several labels, such as Pavilion, PASTCD9715 Coward disliked appearing in long
; as the exit music for their live performances." The album Magical Ring, featuring this song, marked a major turning point as the start of their international career. The album contains half traditional material and half original recordings, was on the UK album charts for over six months earning the group their first gold record award, and features some of Clannad's most enduring original compositions from the time like "Tower Hill", "Passing Time" and "Newgrange (Newgrange (song))". In its impact of achieving a fusion of traditional folk, modern rock and world music, for its utopian vision of man in harmony with nature, Magical Ring is often compared with Alan Stivell's Renaissance of the Celtic Harp. JT Koch (ed). Celtic Culture. A Historical Encyclopaedia ABC-CLIO 2006 pp 1627-1628 The Conservatives were returned to government, having suffered a net loss of only 21 seats, leaving them with 376 MPs. Labour succeeded in resisting challenge by the SDP-Liberal Alliance to replace them as the main opposition, and managed to increase their vote share in Scotland, Wales and Northern England. However, Labour still returned only 229 MPs to Westminster. The election was a disappointment for the SDP-Liberal Alliance, who saw their vote share fall and suffered a net loss of one seat as well as former SDP leader Roy Jenkins losing his seat. This led to the two parties eventually merging completely to become the Liberal Democrats. In Northern Ireland, the main unionist parties maintained their alliance in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement, however the Ulster Unionists (Ulster Unionist Party) lost two seats to the Social Democratic and Labour Party. The election night was covered live on the BBC, and presented by David Dimbleby, Peter Snow, and Robin Day. BBC Election 1987 coverage In Northern Ireland, the various unionist (Unionists (Ireland)) parties maintained an electoral pact (with a few dissenters) in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement. However, the Ulster Unionist lost two seats to the Social Democratic and Labour Party. Devolved governments *Northern Ireland Assembly (Northern Ireland Assembly) *Scottish (Scotland) Parliament (Scottish Parliament) Asquith conceded to the Lords' demand to have the Home Rule Act 1914 (Third Home Rule Act), which had passed all stages in the Commons, amended to temporarily exclude the six counties of Northern Ireland, which for a period would continue to be governed by London, not Dublin, and to later make some special provision for them. A Buckingham Palace Conference failed to resolve the entangled situation. Jackson, Alvin: pp.159-163 Strongly opposed to the partition of Ireland in any form, Redmond and his party reluctantly agreed to what they understood would be a ''trial'' exclusion of now six years; under Redmond's aspiration that "Ulster will have to follow", he was belatedly prepared to concede a large measure of autonomy to it to come in. WikiPedia:Northern Ireland Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom Northern Ireland commons:Northern Ireland
Heart Stops ''. In the production of album Ballou deals with all production, engineering, and mastering. In 2005 Ballou remixed and remastered Converge's Petitioning the Empty Sky and When Forever Comes Crashing. Ballou has stated that because of the quality of our Converge's recordings has improved so much that the original recordings were "becoming distracting".
. He also made a memorable and haunting recording of Peat Bog Soldiers (Peat Bog Soldiers (song)). Many of Busch's original recordings from the 1930s are available in digitized form online and on CD; also available are re-recordings created during the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are equally stirring but perhaps less subtle in approach. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
Ensemble ". A beloved figure in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), he is best remembered for his performance in the title role of Brecht's ''Life of Galileo'' and his stirring recordings of workers songs, including many written by Hanns Eisler. He also made a memorable and haunting recording of Peat Bog Soldiers (Peat Bog Soldiers (song)). Many of Busch's original recordings from the 1930s are available in digitized form online and on CD; also available are re-recordings created during the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are equally stirring but perhaps less subtle in approach. Pripyat was founded in 1970 to house workers for the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It was officially proclaimed a city in 1979 but was abandoned in 1986 following the Chernobyl disaster. It was the ninth nuclear city ("атомоград" (atomograd) in Russian, literally "atom city") in the Soviet Union at the time and its population was around 50,000 before the accident. The annual rate of natural increase for the city's population was estimated at around 800 persons, plus over 500 newcomers from all corners of the Soviet Union each year. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
blabbermouth.net news.aspx?mode Article&newsitemID 24498 They released the album, which included, along with the original recordings, remixes by former Guns N' Roses guitarist Gilby Clarke (which featured addition guitar overdubs by Tracii Guns) and former London and Cinderella (Cinderella (band)) drummer Fred Coury (who filled in for Guns N' Roses drummer Steven Adler for a few shows) zh:日本 Commons:Category:Japan Wikipedia:Japan Dmoz:Regional Asia Japan