;For both points, see Louis Ginzberg, ''Geonica''. The present Sephardic liturgy should therefore be regarded as the product of gradual convergence between the original local rite and the North African branch of the Babylonian-Arabic family, as prevailing in Geonic times in Egypt and Morocco. Following the Reconquista, the specifically Spanish liturgy was commented on by David Abudirham (c. 1340), who was concerned to ensure conformity with the rulings of halachah (halakha). Despite this convergence, there were distinctions between the liturgies of different parts of the Iberian peninsula: for example the Lisbon and Catalonian rites were somewhat different from the Castilian rite, which formed the basis of the later Sephardic tradition. The Catalonian rite was intermediate in character between the Castilian rite and that of Provence (Hachmei Provence): Haham Gaster (Moses Gaster) classified the rites of Oran and Tunis in this group. Preface to the ''Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation, London'', above. After the revolt, Kharijites established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. Others, however, like Sijilmasa and Tilimsan (Tlemcen), which straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. In 750 the Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Al Qayrawan. Although nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabids, ruled independently until 909, presiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture. The Fatimids turned westward in 911, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla beyond the Atlas Mountains, whence in the 11th century they moved southwest to Oued M'zab. Maintaining their cohesion and beliefs over the centuries, Ibadi religious leaders have dominated public life in the region to this day. Tlemcen prospered as a commercial center and was called the "pearl of the Maghrib." Situated at the head of the Imperial Road through the strategic Taza Gap to Marrakech, the city controlled the caravan route to Sijilmasa, gateway for the gold and slave trade with the western Sudan. Aragon came to control commerce between Tlemcen's port, Oran, and Europe beginning about 1250. An outbreak of privateering out of Aragon, however, severely disrupted this trade after about 1420. In the mid 11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes (Fes, Morocco), in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen. From at least the 13th to the 19th century, Tabelbala was a stop on the caravan routes linking southern Morocco (notably Sijilmasa) to the Sahel, in particular Timbuktu. On the collapse of Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the (Ziyyanid (Zayyanid)) kingdom of Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) and was ruled for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.
to the large rocks near the Ripon Falls. Here, on either bank of the river, were large flat rocks where small boats could be launched to cross the river. These rock formations were also accredited with providing a natural moderator for the water flow out of Lake Victoria. For the original local inhabitants, the location was a crossing point, for trade, migration and as a fishing post. This might explain why, despite this barrier, the two tribes have very similar languages, and the more powerful Baganda had an enormous influence on the Basoga. The area was called the 'Place of Rocks' or 'The Place of Flat Rocks'. The word for stones or rocks in the language of the Baganda (Luganda language) is ''''Ejjinja''' (Plural '''Amayinja'''), and in the Basoga dialect this became '''Edinda'''. The British used this reference to name the town they established - "Jinja" In 1954,with the building of the Owen Falls Dam, (later renamed Nalubaale Power Station, the Ripon Falls were submerged. Most of the 'Flat Rocks' that gave the area its name disappeared under water as well. However a description of what the area looked like can be found in the notes of John Hanning Speke, the first European to lay eyes on the Source of the Nile: :''“Though beautiful, the scene was not exactly what I expected, for the broad surface of the lake was shut out from view by a spur of hill, and the falls, about twelve feet deep and four to five hundred feet broad, were broken by rocks; still it was a sight that attracted one to it for hours. The roar of the waters, the thousands of passenger fish leaping at the falls with all their might, the fishermen coming out in boats, and taking post on all the rocks with rod and hook, hippopotami and crocodiles lying sleepily on the water, the ferry at work above the falls, and cattle driven down to drink at the margin of the lake, made in all, with the pretty nature of the country—small grassy-topped hills, with trees in the intervening valleys and on the lower slopes—as interesting a picture as one could wish to see.”'' , by road, north of Jinja (Jinja, Uganda), the largest city in Busoga sub-region, on an all weather tarmac highway. Distance Between Jinja And Kamuli With Map The coordinates of Kamuli are:00 56 42N, 33 07 30 (Latitude:0.9450; Longitude:33.1250). Location of Kamuli At Google Maps thumb View of Bujagali Falls (Image:Bujagali.jpg) '''Bujagali Falls''' (also spelled '''Budhagali''') was a waterfall near Jinja (Jinja, Uganda) in Uganda where the Nile River comes out of Lake Victoria, sometimes considered the source of the Nile. Starting November 2011, the falls have become submerged by the newly built Bujagali Dam.
peculiarities that have since been eliminated in order to conform to the rulings of the Geonim and the official texts based on them. (Conversely the surviving versions of those texts, in particular that of Amram Gaon, appear to have been edited to reflect some Spanish and other local usages.) For both points, see Louis Ginzberg, ''Geonica''. The present Sephardic liturgy should therefore be regarded as the product of gradual convergence between the original local rite and the North African branch of the Babylonian-Arabic family, as prevailing in Geonic times in Egypt and Morocco. Following the Reconquista, the specifically Spanish liturgy was commented on by David Abudirham (c. 1340), who was concerned to ensure conformity with the rulings of halachah (halakha). Despite this convergence, there were distinctions between the liturgies of different parts of the Iberian peninsula: for example the Lisbon and Catalonian rites were somewhat different from the Castilian rite, which formed the basis of the later Sephardic tradition. The Catalonian rite was intermediate in character between the Castilian rite and that of Provence (Hachmei Provence): Haham Gaster (Moses Gaster) classified the rites of Oran and Tunis in this group. Preface to the ''Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation, London'', above. Sinking The ship was part of convoy KMF-26 (Annex) travelling east from Oran to the Far East via the Suez Canal. Beginning in the 1920s raï developed in Algeria as a combination of rural and urban music. Often viewed as a form of resistance towards censorship, many of the conventional values of the old raï became modernized with instruments, synthesizers and modern equipment. Later performers added influences from funk, hip hop (hip hop music), rock (rock and roll) and other styles, creating most notably a pop genre called lover's raï. Performers include Rachid Taha and Faudel. This time was when the music started getting popular among the Maghrebi populace of France. Originating in the lower-class slums of the city of Oran, raï shot to the top of the French charts in 1992 with the release of Khaled (Khaled (musician))'s self-titled album ''Khaled (Khaled (album))''. Rai continues to be an identity marker, and aided with the creation of the Arab identity in France. Social and economic problems continue in the banlieus of France, and thus, the verlan slang music will continue. Gross, Joan, David McMurray, and Ted Swedenburg. "Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Rai, Rap, and Franco-Maghrebi Identities." Diaspora 3:1 (1994): 3- 39. Reprinted in ''The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader'', ed. by Jonathan Xavier and Renato Rosaldo, 1 The Seventh U.S. Army consisted initially of three infantry divisions organised under U.S. II Corps (II Corps (United States)) commanded by Major General Omar Bradley. The U.S. 1st Division (1st Infantry Division (United States)) and U.S. 3rd Division (3rd Infantry Division (United States)) sailed from ports in Tunisia, while the U.S. 45th Division (45th Infantry Division (United States)) sailed from the United States via Oran in Algeria. The U.S. 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)), also sailing from Oran, was to be a floating reserve and be fed into combat as required. On 15 July, Patton reorganised his command into two corps by creating a new ''Provisional Corps'' headquarters commanded by his deputy army commander Geoffrey Keyes. Molony, p. 108. Peter was born in Amsterdam on 14 January 1909. He was educated at Malvern School and read Modern Languages at Caius College, Cambridge. In addition to his native English, he was bilingual in French, and fluent in Spanish, Italian and German. SOE Personal File at National Archives He also excelled in sports - he was Captain of the Cambridge University Ice Hockey Club in 1932 and won 15 international caps, proficient at exhibition diving, was a first-class skier, and played golf off a six handicap. . He moved into the British diplomatic service and served as British Vice-Consul in Holland from 1934-5, Pro-Consul in Oran, Algeria from 1935-6, and from September 1939 to August 1940 was Under Secretary to Sir Norman Birkett in the Home Office Advisory Committee, and later became President of the Committee, and was very well acquainted with Prime Minister Winston Churchill As part of II Corps, the division landed in Oran, Algeria on 8 November 1942 as part of Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North-Africa. Wikipedia:Oran Commons:Category:Oran
edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199
and nationally syndicated cartoonist, Johnny Hart. In 2001 the original local owners, Dave Pace, Mark Palombo and Patrick Snyder sold the franchise and the new owner, David Wright then initiated a move to bring back the AHL. Unfortunately for him, he declared bankruptcy, but a new ownership group followed his lead and the AHL's Binghamton Senators, farm club of the Ottawa Senators, occupied the Broome County Arena. Former B.C. Icemen include Chris Grenville, Keith Aucoin, Pete
. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "
of new punk rock-inspired labels forming in the early 1980s. The intention was to record the original local music of Christchurch, but soon the label rose to national prominence by championing the emerging music of Dunedin. - Christchurch Lancaster Park 36,500 - Spotted Shags nest in colonies of 10-700 pairs, these colonies are generally found on the ledges of coastal cliffs (see photo at right) or on rocky islets. Barrie Heather and Hugh Robertson, ''"The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand" (revised edition)'', Viking, 2005 In the South Island, they are particularly readily observed around Banks Peninsula; there is a large nesting colony immediately south of the city of Christchurch. In Wellington Harbour there is a large colony on a rocky outcrop known as "Shag Rock" just off the south-west end of Matiu Somes Island. http: notornis.osnz.org.nz system files Notornis_39_4_263.pdf, accessed on 6 March 2007 In the Hauraki Gulf there is a breeding colony on Tarahiki Island. Transmitters in the North Island are located in Auckland on AM 882 kHz, Napier (Napier, New Zealand) on AM 909 kHz and Wellington on AM 657 kHz; a transmitter for Hamilton (Hamilton, New Zealand) on AM 1494 kHz was added in 2007. Transmitters in the South Island are located in Christchurch on AM 963 kHz and Dunedin on AM 900 kHz; a transmitter for Invercargill on AM 1314 kHz was also added in 2007. The transmitters were previously used by The Concert Programme (Radio New Zealand Concert) before it moved to FM broadcasting. Commons:Category:Christchurch WikiPedia:Christchurch Dmoz:Regional Oceania New Zealand Canterbury Christchurch
). With a network backing it up, WTVK was able to get stronger programming and strengthen its signal. In 1998, the station's original local owners sold the station to ACME Communications, who swapped affiliations with the area's cable-only WB (The WB Television Network) affiliate WSWF (now WNFM (WNFM-TV)). It then adopted the on-air moniker "WB 6", after its channel location on cable. *'''Miller & Rhoads''', Richmond, Virginia. *''' Miller's Department Store Miller's
Commons:Category:Liberia WikiPedia:Liberia Dmoz:Regional Africa Liberia
of quality establishments. * The '''West End''' in the northwest part of Downtown (Dallas Downtown) has a good mix of original local restaurants and successful chain establishments. Dallas has a good number of its own chain restaurants which have become quite successful in the area, offering unique local flavors. * Wikipedia:Dallas, Texas Dmoz:Regional North America United States Texas Localities D Dallas commons:Dallas, Texas