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Etruscan civilization

columns, producing a light and airy space; and he offers Venus's temple in Caesar's forum as an example of how not to do it; the densely spaced, thickset columns darken the interior, hide the temple doors and crowd the walkways, so that matrons who wish to honour the goddess must enter her temple in single file, rather than arm-in arm. The widely spaced, open style preferred by Vitruvius is ''eustylos''. The densely pillared style he criticises is ''pycnostylos''. Book 3, 1, 5. * Palazzo Abatellis, with the Regional Gallery. It was built at the end of the 15th century for the prefect of the city, Francesco Abatellis. It is a massive though elegant construction, in typical Catalan Gothic (Gothic architecture) style, with Renaissance influences. The Gallery houses an Eleonora of Aragon bust by Francesco Laurana (1471) and the ''Malvagna Triptych'' (c. 1510), by Jan Gossaert (Jan Mabuse) and the famous ''Annunziata'' by Antonello da Messina. The exposition in the museum has been designed by the architect Carlo Scarpa. * The Museo Archeologico Regionale is one the main museums of Italy: it includes numerous remains from Etruscan (Etruscan civilization), Carthaginian (Carthage), Roman (Ancient Rome) and Hellenistic (Hellenistic civilization) civilizations. It houses all the decorative parts from the Sicilian temples of Segesta and Selinunte. City Walls Greece (Ancient Greece) colonizes (Magna Graecia) other regions of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Rome is founded (ab urbe condita) in 753 BC, and the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy. The 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, and the epics of Homer dated to the period. Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, who perhaps wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti (Adriatic Veneti) (often called the ''Paleoveneti'') came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor (Antenor (mythology)), a comrade of Aeneas. In the 7th-6th centuries BC the local populations of Veneto entered into contact with the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) and the Greeks. Venetic culture reached a highpoint during the 4th century BC. These ancient Veneti spoke Venetic (Venetic language), an Indo-European (Indo-European languages) language akin to, but distinct from Latin and the other Italic languages. Meanwhile, the Veneti prospered through their trade in amber and were well known for their breeding of horses. Este (House of Este), Padua, Oderzo, Adria, Vicenza, Verona, and Altino (Altinum) became centres of Venetic culture. However, over time, the Veneti began to adopt the dress and certain other customs of their Celtic (Celts) neighbours. The area of current Lombardy was settled at least since the 2nd millennium BC, as shown by the archaeological findings of ceramics, arrows, axes and carved stones. In the following centuries it was inhabited by different peoples amongst whom the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization), who founded the city of Mantua and spread the use of writing; later, starting from the 5th century BC, the area was invaded by Celtic (Celts) – Gallic (Gauls) tribes. These people settled in several cities (including Milan) and extended their rule to the Adriatic Sea. Their development was halted by the Roman (Ancient Rome) expansion in the Po Valley (Po River) from the 3rd century BC onwards: after centuries of struggle, in 194 BC the entire area of what is now Lombardy became a Roman province with the name of Gallia Cisalpina ("Gaul on the nearer side of the Alps"). The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilization in the following years, and Lombardy became one of the most developed and rich areas of Italy with the construction of a wide array of roads and the development of agriculture and trade. Important figures like Pliny the Elder (in Como) and Virgil (in Mantua) were born here. In late antiquity the strategic role of Lombardy was emphasized by the temporary moving of the capital of the Western Empire (Western Roman Empire) to Mediolanum (Milan). Here, in 313 AD, emperor Constantine (Constantine I) issued the famous edict that gave freedom of confession to all religions within the Empire. thumb right Fresco painting (Image:Tomba Della Fustigazione.jpg) inside the '' Tomba della Fustigazione'' where two men are portrayed flagellating a woman during an erotic situation. The origins and scope of erotic spanking and flagellation are largely unknown. One of the earliest depictions of erotic flagellation is found in a 6th century BC Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) burial site named in modern times the ''Tomba della Fustigazione'' or "Tomb of Flogging" after its depictions of eroticized flagellation. In Bronze Age Europe, the "Sun cross" (a three- or four-armed hooked cross in a circle) appears frequently, often interpreted as a solar symbol. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe (Greco-Roman, Illyrian, Etruscan (Etruscan civilization), Baltic, Celtic, Germanic (Germanic peoples), Georgian (Georgia (country)) Borjgali and Slavic (Slavic peoples)). This prehistoric use seems to be reflected in the appearance of the symbol in various folk cultures of Europe. Ancient and medieval city Lucca was founded by the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) (there are traces of a pre-existing Ligurian settlement) and became a Roman (Roman Empire) colony in 180 BC. The rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum (Forum (Roman)). Traces of the amphitheatre can still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. Lucca was the site of a conference in 56 BC which reaffirmed the supremacy of the Roman First Triumvirate. Boatwright, Mary et. al. "The Romans: From Village to Empire" pg 229 Greek Colonists from Knidos under Pentathlos arrived at Lipara in 580 BC and settled on the site of the village now known as Castello. The colony successfully fought the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) for control of the Tyrrhenian. Allied with Syracuse at the time of the fateful intervention of Athens in the west in 427, Lipara withstood the assault of Athenians and their allies. Carthaginian forces succeeded in holding the site briefly during their struggles with Dionysios I, tyrant of Syracuse (Dionysios of Syracuse), in 394, but once they were gone the ''polis'' entered a three-way alliance which included Dionysios' new colony at Tyndaris. Lipara prospered, but in 304 Agathokles took the town by treachery and is said to have lost pillage from it in a storm at sea. Many objects recovered from wrecks of antiquity are now in the Aeolian Museum at Lipari. Lipara became a Carthaginian naval base during the first Punic War, but fell to Roman forces in 252-251 BC, and again to Agrippa in Octavian's campaign against Pompey. Under the Roman Empire, it was a place of retreat, baths (the hydrothermic waters are still used as a spa) and exile. The Appian Way was the first long road built specifically to transport troops outside the smaller region of greater Rome (this was essential to the Romans). The few roads outside the early city were Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) and went mainly to Etruria. By the late Republic (Roman Republic), the Romans had expanded over most of Italy and were masters of road construction. Their roads began at Rome, where the master ''itinerarium'', or list of destinations along the roads, was located, and extended to the borders of their domain – hence the expression, "All roads lead to Rome". left thumb 150px ''Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne (Image:Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial throne.jpg)'', 1806, oil on canvas, 260 x 163 cm, Musée de l'Armée, Paris Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman. Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xix. In 1802 he made his debut at the Salon (Salon (Paris)) with ''Portrait of a Woman'' (the current whereabouts of which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque, Brussels, and Ghent, all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville. Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 46. As it is unlikely that Napoleon granted the artists a sitting, Ingres' meticulously painted portrait of ''Bonaparte, First Consul'' appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon painted by Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802. Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 48. thumb 200px right ''Madame Rivière'', 1806, oil on canvas, 116.5 x 81.7 cm, Louvre (Image:Ingres, Madame Riviere.jpg) History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.


Salem, Oregon

. The Santiam Canyon area, the Western Cascades and the High Cascades (Cascade Range) are to the east. Portland, Oregon and its environs are to the north, while Eugene, Oregon and its environs are to the south. Salem also provides two great Disc Golf courses. A nine hole course located in the woods of Woodmansee Park (located behind Judson Middle School), and a more open style 18 hole course located throughout Cascade Gateway Park. They are both free and open to the public. Education


Binghamton, New York

League. The Dusters were popular from the start with a wide open style of play which was unusual in professional hockey at the time. When the league folded in 1977, the Providence team of the American Hockey League moved to Binghamton and became the Binghamton Dusters. The team became the Binghamton Whalers from 1980 to 1990 and the Binghamton Rangers from 1990 to 1997 as a result of affiliations with the NHL Hartford Whalers and New York Rangers. The team is now the Binghamton


Shanghai

selection is a bit lacking. Try to go during the week; it gets awfully hectic on weekends. *


Sri Lanka

. He was the first principal of Achimota from 1924-1935. Also, Rev. Robert Stopford who headed Trinity College, Kandy from 1935–1941, was principal of Achimota from 1941-1945. The famous Aggrey Memorial Chapel, venue for morning assembly, weekly Sunday services and other important events, was modelled on the open-style architecture of Trinity College Chapel, Kandy. Aggrey Chapel ranks among one of the most popular places in Accra to hold weddings. WikiPedia:Sri Lanka Dmoz:Regional Asia Sri Lanka commons:Sri Lanka


Boston

of the more open style of play that we see in today's basketball, he created rules to discourage defensive holding and to free up offensive players. While serving as Chief of Officials for the Eastern Massachusetts High School Basketball Tournament (which became Honorary Chief Official on retirement), he helped found the New England Interscholastic Basketball Tournament. George Hoyt died on November 11, 1962. First and Second Rounds *Boston, Massachusetts (Boston) ( TD Garden


Brazil

developed, such as the non-religious approach developed by Daniel Waterman in 2001, Who We Are at a-keys.nl popularly termed Ayahuasca Open Style (AOS). Introduction to Ayahuasca at a-keys.nl *1952 – Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated. *1960 – Brasília, Brazil's capital


Netherlands

approach developed by Daniel Waterman in 2001, Who We Are at a-keys.nl popularly termed Ayahuasca Open Style (AOS). Introduction to Ayahuasca at a-keys.nl As of late 2009, ten countries had completed the process of turning off analog terrestrial broadcasting. Many other countries had plans to do so or were in the process of a staged conversion. The first


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