are its "mirador" (viewing tower) with its extensive views over the Cauca River valley to the west and the Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (Los Nevados National Natural Park) to the east (it is also possible to see both Armenia and Pereira (Pereira, Colombia) from the top of the tower), and the cafe in the main square where scenes from the popular Colombian telenovela ''Cafe, con aroma de mujer'' were filmed. Image:Viaducto g.jpg thumb 300px The viaduct has become
+colombia&source gbs_navlinks_s "Colombia green guide Michelin 2012-2013." Michelin. 2012. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013. * Cathedral of Our Lady of Poverty. * Lucy Tejada, cultural centre. * Museum of Art, Pereira. * Jaime Mejia archaeological museum. * Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima. * Confamiliar recreation centre: Noah's farm eco-park, water park. * Olympic venues: village, pools, tennis courts, basketball courts and velodrome. * Los Nevados National
Natural Park . * Botanical Garden of Marseille. * Plaza de Bolívar and the naked Bolívar statue. Duncan R. J. "The Ceramics of Ráquira, Colombia: Gender, Work, and Economic Change." University Press of Florida, 1998. p93. Accessed at Google Books 29 December 2013. ref>
transmission system, with a stable substation capacity of 550,000 KVA. Tourism Lishui is well-known in China for its long history and beautiful landscapes. Yan Yu Lou (misty rain tower) was built during the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 960-1127). Many famous ancient poets praised the tower’s beauty. Other recommendable scenic spots are Fengyangshan-Baishanzu National Natural Resort, Xiandu National Park, and Shishi Temple. Shishi Temple is a wooden structure built during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (AD
, and From Essex, the original alignment followed Goffs Road through Goffs (Goffs, California) and joining I-40 at the U.S. Route 95 (U.S. Route 95 in California) exit. A later alignment is now I-40 from Goffs. The original highway winds around I-40 in the Needles (Needles, California) area, before crossing the Colorado River into Arizona. The western route parallelling the Colorado River, covers more plains, of the Colorado Desert Mojave Desert, rising to, and down from various ''mountain passes'', (for example south of Needles, California(the Sacramento Mountains (California)), or Searchlight, Nevada). Wash (Wash (creek))es-(no rivers), drain from the west into the Lower Colorado River, south from Lake Mead-Hoover Dam.
at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs. Reforming research in China The Lancet, Volume 369, Number 9565, 17 March 2007 Publications Together with the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the academy publishes the peer-reviewed academic journal, ''Science China'' (also known as ''Science in China''). ''Science China
Institutes of Health , the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the Harvard University Biomedical Accelerator Fund. Hsu successfully lobbied for the admission of the Chinese Geological Union to replace the Chinese Geological Society in Tapieh as a member of the International Union of Geological Sciences and was a member of the first IUGS delegation to China. He served the Chinese Ministry of Geology and Mining in giving training
. At the end of the bridge are a large boulder with a bench below it to the left, a trail sign labeled "Waters Meet" and "The Falls Trail" above a map of the trail in the center, and a natural stone monument with a metal plaque to the right. Bridge at Waters Meet, with the National Natural Landmark plaque on the rock at right In 1913, Ricketts opened the glens and their waterfalls to the public, charging $1 for parking. Although this fee was unpopular, it remained
. The highway then descends from the mountains to its junction with State Route 14 (State Route 14 (California)). It then proceeds eastward across US 395 (U.S. Route 395 (California)) into the town of Ridgecrest, CA (Ridgecrest, California). The constructed highway ends at the turnoff for the Trona Pinnacles National Natural Landmark (Trona Pinnacles). digital 13 (VHF (very high frequency)) other_chs K13WJ Morongo Valley, California Morongo Valley
; that is why Popayán is also known as the "University City." Nearby is Puracé National Natural Park, a geothermal wonderland of hot springs, waterfalls, and an inactive volcano from which the park derives its name. The nearest large city is Cali, in the Valle del Cauca Department, to the north of Cauca. In 2005, Popayán was declared by the UNESCO as the first city of gastronomy because of its variety and meaning to the intangible patrimony of Colombian culture. Popayan, Colombia appointed first UNESCO City of Gastronomy UNESCO 28 Aug 2005 The culinary history of the Cauca Department was chosen because of their maintaining of traditional methods of food preparation which has been passed over through different generations orally. On 2009 September 28, UNESCO also declared the processions of the Easter Week processions as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Patrimony of Humanity. History Name origin The word Popayán comes from a Native American (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) dialect. There are some theories about the origin of this word, one claims it means: Po: Two; Pa: Straw; Yan: Village, or Two Villages with Straw Roofs. Another theory says that the word Popayán comes from the name of the Payán indigenous leader, who used to live around Eme Hill, nowadays known as Las Tres Cruces Hill. Yet another theory says that according to the historian Arcecio Aragón, the origin of the word Popayán is "Pampayán" and it comes from the Quechua (Quechua languages) language: ''pampa'' (valley) and ''yan'' (river), or in other words, the pass of the river, the Cauca river. Colonial Era thumb 200px Popayán downtown (File:Centro Histórico 2.JPG) There are no records regarding the pre-Hispanic (Pre-Columbian era) history of the indigenous village of Popayán, but on 13 January 1537 the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar came to the conquered village and declared the foundation of Popayán. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Popayán was administered by an appointed governor under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito. Popayán was a very important town during the colonial period because of its location between Lima, Quito and Cartagena (Cartagena, Colombia). Even after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Popayán remained a transfer point of gold and riches going to Cartagena on its way to Spain. Popayán also served as a colonial mine, producing various denominations of the Escudo gold coins and silver Reales from 1760 through 1819; it continued producing coinage for the new Republic of Colombia after 1826. Krause "World Coins 1701-1800" 4th Ed and "1801-1900" 5th Ed, Colin R. Bruce II, Sr. editor thumb left 140px Popayán downtown (File:Centro Histórico 1.JPG) Natives populated the town before the arrival of the Spanish. Next to the city there is still a huge mound built by the Indians (Indigenous peoples of the Americas), similar to a pyramid and now covered by grass; legend says the inner structure holds richness and gold. Later, Spanish immigrants settled next to the Indians taking advantage of their good heartedness and cheap labor, and Catholicism was taught to the Indians in exchange for their gold and work. As a result of its colonial importance, Popayán is one of the most traditional Colombian towns and is very rich in Colonial architecture. Although in 1983 an earthquake (1983 Popayán earthquake) destroyed part of the city, there are still several colonial bridges, museums and churches in the town. The city is the home of an ancient pre-Hispanic (Pre-Columbian era) pyramid known as El Morro del Tulcán. It was already abandoned when the first Spanish arrived to the city in 1535. Analyses of dental samples have revealed that individuals buried there probably belonged to the most important social class from their Indian society. Popayán has been destroyed by several earthquakes. The most recent and destructive lasted eighteen seconds and occurred on 31 March 1983. The reconstruction of the colonial city took more than 10 years and today it is still possible to see some lots that have not been reconstructed. The first earthquake seismic design code (Seismic analysis) was established in Colombia as a consequence of this earthquake. The Antique City Popayán's Historic Downtown is considered one of the most beautiful and best preserved in Colombia and Latin America. Popayán has preserved its colonial architecture for more than four centuries, a reason why national Colombian and foreign visitors are seduced by its historic downtown. The cobblestone streets were almost all paved in 1937; however, there are a few projects which are currently being implemented to recover the old city's original look. Places of interest thumb right 200px El Morro, in the background (File:El Morro de Tulcán.JPG) El Morro de Tulcán It is the main archaeological site of Popayán. It consists of a truncated pyramid built in prehistoric times, approximately between 500 and 1600 A.C., a period known as late chiefdom societies. In 1937 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the foundation of the city, a monument was opened in 1937 at the top of the hill in honor of the founder of the city, Sebastián de Belalcázar, with an equestrian statue made by the Spanish artist Victorio Macho. Francisco José de Caldas Auditorium Better known as the Paraninfo, it is an imposing building of the mid eighteenth century and it was part of the monastery of the Dominican order until 1826. First, it was built with a mud and straw roof, then it was reinforced over the years with rammed earth and tile, until it became a colonial architecture expression again. Simón Bolivar declared it in 1827 as a property with historic heritage value, when it was already a two steps hose in front of the Santo Domingo plaza. The last great governor of Cauca (Cauca Department), don Miguel de Arroyo Hurtado, made more renovations and reforms that gave it the most current look. When the building was handed over to the University of Cauca in the early twentieth century, several changes and additional extensions were made, which recovered all the original spaces. thumb right 200px Caldas Park (File:Parque Caldas 1.JPG) Caldas Park This park, common passageway of students, executives, and all citizens, and cultural reunion place, it was born at the same time as Popayán in 1537, when the track in grid generated around religious, governmental, and founders buildings. Initially it was used as a marketplace. In 1538 it was placed a trap in the center of the park, where Jorge Robledo y Álvaro Oyón were beheaded. This trap lasted until 1766 when it was replaced by a faucet of water, which lasted until 1805 when a stone pile was put in its place, but it was removed too in 1910 after the inauguration of the monument to Sabio Caldas, a piece of the French sculptor Raoul Verlet, which has remained since that time in the same place. There exists a replica located in the Plazoleta de las Nieves in Bogotá. At the same time there were planted leafy trees which currently round up the monument and embellish this place. In May 2007 a proposal of architect Lorenzo Castro was made to remodel Caldas Park by expanding the pedestrian zone around the park, and in April 2009 the first phase of the work in the park began, in preparation for the celebration of Easter, a touristic time for Popayán. thumb left 200px Humanities Faculty of University of Cauca (File:Unicauca - El Carmen 1.jpg) University of Cauca thumb 200px Clock Tower (File:Torre del Reloj de la Catedral.jpg) It is the main university of Popayán, which gathers students from around the country. It was founded in 1827 by decree of General Francisco de Paula Santander. Its motto is Posteris Lumen Moriturus Edat. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the main headquarters have been placed in the old convent of the Dominican Order, cloister which is one of the best examples of religious architecture (Sacred architecture) in the city. Clock Tower Called “the nose of Popayán” by Master Guillermo Valencia, the clock tower is a well known symbol of the city. It was constructed next to the Cathedral church between 1673 and 1682 with 96 thousand bricks. The clock, made in England, was placed in 1737. Its mechanism operated by the action of two lead weights which were changed by Antonio Nariño in the Colombia independence dispute in 1814, when metal was required to manufacture ammunition. thumb 200px Humilladero Bridge (Image:El Humilladero.jpg) After the earthquake of 1983, the clock was restored and put back in operation by the same English company that manufactured it, but it stopped working a long time ago. Humilladero Bridge This bridge connects the central and northern zones of the city. It was built in 1873 on arches of brick and masonry. The designs were prepared by the Italian friar Fray Serafin Barbetti and a German engineer whose mummified remains are preserved in the Archdiocesan Museum of Religious Art in the city. The bridge crosses a fault between the city center and the El Callejón (now Bolivar) neighborhood which was previously extremely difficult to cross, requiring pedestrians to almost crawl on their knees. Accordingly the new bridge was named ''Humilladero''. For a long time this bridge was one of the main entrances to the city. The liberating armies crossed it to enter Popayán during the early stages of the struggle for Colombia independence. Its well-planned design and strong construction has allowed the bridge to remain intact through many earthquakes. Churches thumb 200px San Francisco church (File:Iglesia San Francisco 2.JPG) San Francisco According to the architect, critic and historian Germain Téllez, the facade of this church is the best example of baroque style (Baroque architecture) throughout Colombia. In its tower is placed a famous bell donated by Don Pedro Agustín de Valencia. This temple is remarkable because of its altars decorations and its naves and apse proportions. In the San Francisco's square, it stands the monument to the local hero Camilo Torres (Camilo Torres Tenorio), whose replica is located in the square of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé in Bogotá. Santo Domingo Late Neogranadino Baroque (Baroque architecture) work, designed by the Spanish architect Antonio Garcia. It has excellent examples of architectures, metal works, and furniture from Quito and Spain schools. His pulpit was designed in the first half of the nineteenth century by an illustrious son of the city, the Wise Francisco José de Caldas. Next this church is located the faculty of Laws and Political and Social Sciences of the University of Cauca. Whose style is colonial (Spanish Colonial architecture) too. thumb 200px Santo Domingo church (File:Facultad de Santo Domingo.JPG) San Agustín, Church and convent Fray Jeronimo Escobar founded the convent of the Augustinians in the late seventeenth century, whose temple was destroyed in the earthquake in 1736. Then, it was reconstructed thanks to contributions from notable people of the city, but it was necessary to restore it again after the earthquake of 1983. In particular it stands out its altar carved in wood and covered in gold, its expository baroque (Baroque architecture) made in silver and a beautiful image of the Lady of Sorrows (Our Lady of Sorrows). La Ermita It is the oldest church in the city and sometimes it served as “Pro Tempore” Cathedral. It dates from 1546 and contains a fine altar discovered after the earthquake of 1983. The principal attraction of this church is the street because its road is made of stones, like old roads in Popayán. Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción thumb left 200px Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Church (Image:Torre-del-Reloj Popayan.jpg) Originally it was a straw hut, but in 1609 it was opened a second cathedral of mud and masonry. The current construction was consecrated in 1906 by Archbishop Manuel Antonio Arboleda, who brings it a magnificent European pipe organ. Its style is the neoclassical (Neoclassical architecture), and much of the building was restored because of the earthquake of 1983, including the great dome of 40 meters high, whose restoration was made according to guidelines of the original structure designed by the local artist Adolfo Dueñas. San José thumb 200px Belén Church (Image:Iglesia belen.jpg) It was built in 1702 according to the architectural guidelines of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) in the American Baroque (Baroque architecture). It has put up with some changes, for example, the most recent occurred in 1983, when much of the facade which had been covered with paint and lime for at least two centuries, was left on view. Belén Chapel It is located on the hill of Belén, and from the chapel you can see a panoramic view of the city. To arrive to this church, it is necessary to pass through the “quingos", a road of stone steps that allow a nice climb to one of the viewpoints of the city. Since 1717 this chapel is in charge of the image of Santo Ecce Homo, patron saint of the city. Next to the church there is a cross of quarry stone of 1789, which are attributed to many legends. The original church was completely replaced by a new structure after the earthquake of 1983. Museums House-Museum Mosquera This house displays a very interesting collection of colonial art and precious memories of the Mosquera family. It works in the house that belonged to the Mosquera Arboleda family, a recognized family in the history of Colombia, whose members occupied the highest positions of political power, ecclesiastical, military and diplomatic, simultaneously during much of the nineteenth century. The most important were: Joaquín Mosquera, Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, Manuel José Mosquera and Manuel Maria Mosquera. The father of them all, Jose Maria Mosquera y Figueroa, was considered by the Liberator Simón Bolívar as the only person he would choose as a second parent. Archdiocesan Museum of Religious Art The old residence of the Arboleda family, was built in the eighteenth century based on plans of the priest Andres Perez Marcelino Arroyo, and it was acquired by the city in 1974 and renovated for its current use in 1979. Their collections are extraordinary examples of religious art, silverware, pictures of the so-called Quito School and paintings of the colonial period. Monstrances of the collection have such value that they are only exposed to the public for a few days during Easter. National Museum Guillermo Valencia It is located in a mansion on the Próceres Street, and it is dedicated to the poet Guillermo Valencia, one of the most prominent members of Modernism in Spanish literature. Its numerous rooms are decorated with valuable works of art and artistic pieces, as well as a collection of hundred of selected books, diplomas, medals and awards that Master Valencia received for his distinguished political life and for its fine literary and poetic compositions. In the park located across the street it stands the statue of the poet, made by the Spanish sculptor Victorio Macho. It has too a family cemetery where the remains of several generations of Valencia are resting. Natural History Museum It offers an exhibition of animals, like insects, butterflies and birds native to the region, and a collection of pre-Columbian pottery. Arts and culture thumb left 200px Paso (File:Paso 1.jpg) Easter thumb 200px La Verónica (File:Paso de La Verónica.jpg) Popayán is widely known for the solemnity of its Easter processions, during which it commemorates the passion (Passion (Christianity)) and death of Jesus Christ (Jesus). Since roughly the mid-sixteenth century - documents in the historical archives of Popayán mention processions in the year 1558 - sacred processions have taken place each night from Tuesday until Holy Saturday, with ancient religious images paraded through Popayán's historical downtown streets. They are borne on wooden platforms by means of 4 projecting wooden "bars" at the front and 4 at the back. These bars rest on the shoulders of the “Cargueros”, as those responsible for carrying the platforms are known. "Easter processions are representations of different episodes narrated in the Gospels, on the Passion, Crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) and Death of Jesus Christ (Jesus), where each one of these representations is called "Paso". Since the time of the conquest the pasos have been carried through the streets on the shoulders of the traditional 'cargueros' in a route shaped like a cross, which takes in the main churches and temples of the city. During Holy Week, Popayán is also home to the Festival de Música Religiosa (Religious Music Festival), begun in the 1960s on the initiative of Edmundo Mosquera Troya. This festival presents choirs, soloists and artists from around the world, specialists in sacred music. It is also the tradition at this time of the year to hold art and craft fairs selling handicrafts and commercial products. One of the most important handicrafts samples is Manos de Oro, where it exposes the several works of artists of Colombia. Amo Jesus of Puelenje thumb Amo Jesus of Puelenje on the procession (File:Amo Jesus.JPG) Amo Jesus Nazareno of Puelenje is a Catholic image that is worshiped in the temple of Puelenje, district of Popayán, Colombia. Patron Saint of this place. It is a polychrome wood sculpture of Jesus Christ (Jesus) of the eighteenth century made in the Quito school. Is Baroque. The image also scrolls the Holy Wednesday. In the processions of Holy Week in Popayán that are inscribed in UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.This religious festival is celebrated by the natives of Puelenje for 15 days, where there are fireworks, processions, religious ceremonies and cultural events. Fiestas de Pubenza Popayán celebrates these festivities at the beginning of the year, from January 5 to 13. These fiestas celebrates the spirit of racial diversity in the country, in the same way as the Carnival of Blacks and Whites in Pasto, which originally initiated in Popayán during the slavery period as a way of escaping the racial discrimination prevailing at the time. Music It is said that among the original performers there were good music interpreters, excelling in playing the chirimía, that is made up of flutes (transverse cane), guacharacas, drums, castrueras and triángulos, making its appearance in the traditional celebrations of Popayán, especially at Christmas time and at the end of the year. On the plateau of Popayán, groups of farmers play stringed instruments, composed of three guitars and maracas which have incorporated into their repertoire paseos, merengue (Merengue music)s, pasillos and boleros in vocal and instrumental form. Gastronomy thumb Creative cities network Popayan of the UNESCO (File:Creative cities network Popayan.jpg) Popayán is the only place in Latin America to have been declared a City of Gastronomy by UNESCO, in tribute to its significant tradition of regional cooking. Typical dishes of the city are a legacy of both Spanish and indigenous cultural interaction, integrating components of local origin with fruits brought from Spain. The National Gastronomy Congress of Popayán has been held each September since 2003, and in 2005 was recognized by UNESCO as a cultural heritage event of the United Nations creative network. The Congress is organized by the Gastronomic Corporation of Popayán, which has presented seven events which have also featured the participation of various countries as special guests: Peru, Brazil, Spain, Chile, Mexico, Italy and France. Today, this congress is recognized as the second largest popular event in the Cauca Department. As it has an academic format, it is distinguished from other culinary events and is the only one to be listed nationally. Among typical dishes we can find: thumb 250px Christmas Eve Dish (File:Plato de nochebuena.jpg) Carantanta: is a type of fried snack of corn placed in the pot where corn dough has been made. Soups: Shaked Broth, Sancocho, tortilla soup, Sango, carantanta soup, wrappes soup, vegetable and pastries soup. Dishes: Pipián tamales, empanadas de pipián, Calf. Vegetables: Ullucos, corn wrappes. Sauces and seasonings: pique chili, peanut chili, pineapple chili. Cakes: tortilla pie, arracacha cake, white cake, banana cake. Breads and cookies: cucas, molletes, pambazos, rosquillas. Drinks: toley water. Christmas Eve plate or dish is very special Its content is the most complete of Colombia and consists of hojaldras, rosquillas, manjar blanco, dulce cortado, natilla and syrups of fig among others. Film The Caucana Intellectual Heritage Foundation, chaired by Don Ricardo Quintero, has a valuable film archive with numerous interesting examples of moving images recorded in Popayán since the second decade of the twentieth century. Traditional cinema is represented in the city by the Bolivar Cultural Center, which shows independent films. There is also a new theater, the Royal Films multiplex in the Campanario Mall, which has four modern 3D digital cinema screens. In addition there are several film clubs, many of them located within the University of Cauca. The Cineclub La Tuátara runs every Wednesday in the Comfacauca Institute of Technology auditorium (opened 2001), which has established itself as a cultural space for the city. A very important innovation is the program of the Radio Universidad del Cauca station 104.1 fm, 'Cinema Radio', on air Saturdays at noon, in which are created thematic cycles. They present news about cinema, 'the seventh art', and also discuss the history of film and audiovisual language. Talking about cinematographic production, there are some people who are working to strengthen the seventh art in the municipality. Famous People from Popayán * Francisco José de Caldas * Camilo Torres Tenorio * Sergio Orozco * Federico Meléndez * Manolo Cardona aka Manuel Julian Cardona Molano Transport Popayan has one commercial airport, Guillermo León Valencia Airport, served by Avianca. Climate Popayán has a humid but relatively mild tropical climate, more specifically a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen (Köppen climate classification): Am) that is close to being a subtropical highland climate, though unusually the driest months from June to August are opposite to when this would be expected given that the city is actually north of the equator.
National Natural Reserve Complex in Shimen county was selected as one of several potential sites. Climate It has a monsoon-influenced, four-season humid subtropical
, and Northampton (Northampton, Massachusetts) in Massachusetts. Smith College was the setting used for Andy's college. Notable properties include Bartholomew's Cobble of Sheffield (Sheffield, Massachusetts), a National Natural Landmark containing North America's greatest diversity of fern species; Crane Beach and the Castle Hill (Castle Hill (Ipswich, Massachusetts)) mansion of Ipswich (Ipswich, Massachusetts), a barrier beach and National Historic