Maringa . Each post was commanded by a European agent and manned with armed sentries to enforce taxation and punish any rebels. The Crime of the Congo By Arthur Conan Doyle London: Hutchinson & Co., 1909. ABIR would sell a kilogram of rubber in Europe for up to 10 francs (fr), which cost them only 1.35 fr to collect and transport. However, this came at a cost to the human
rights of those who could not pay the tax, with imprisonment, flogging, and other corporal punishments recorded. The Casement Report comprises a multitude of pages of individual statements gathered by the British Consul (Consul (representative)), Roger Casement, including several detailing the grim tales of killings, mutilation, kidnapping, and cruel beatings of the native population by soldiers of the Congo administration of King Leopold (Leopold II of Belgium). The British Parliament demanded a second meeting of the 14 signatory powers of the 1885 Berlin Conference (Berlin Conference (1884)), at which time the Belgian Parliament forced a reluctant Leopold to set up an independent commission of enquiry. This led to the arrest and punishment of several officials who had been responsible for murders during a rubber-collection expedition in 1903. Excerpted from Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Boston: Houghton Miflin, 1999, pages 225-233. The reforms that followed the Casement Report, including those that concerned ABIR at Basankusu, set the foundation for the colonial Belgian state of Congo (Belgian Congo). Cathedral The Roman Catholic cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, built by Jan de Koning, a brother in the Mill Hill Missionaries society, during World War II, was the tallest building in the town until its demolition in 2012; it is due to be rebuilt to the same design. Distinct feeling of loss after demolition of unique symbol of Catholic presence in Basankusu Mill Hill Missionaries The Mill Hill Missionaries, together with the CICM Missionaries (Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae), Belgian Scheut Missions supported the establishment of the Diocese of Basankusu (Roman Catholic Diocese of Basankusu), which has its episcopal seat at the cathedral. GCatholic.org - Diocese of Basankusu The Hierarchy of the Catholic Church - Basankusu Diocese Geography 260px thumb left Basankusu Cathedral before its demolition in 2012. (File:Basankusu Cathedral.jpg) Basankusu is situated on the Lulonga River, a tributary of the Congo, at the confluence of the Lopori (Lopori River) and Maringa (Maringa River) Rivers. This location allows for transporting and receiving local goods to and from the cities of Mbandaka and Kinshasa. Because Basankusu is the last port of substance before the wilderness of the Lopori Basin, conservation efforts for the bonobo, Searching for Bonobo - Dr Therese Hart use the town as a base. Lola Ya Bonobo (Bonobo Heaven) Bonobo Reintroduction in the Democratic Republic of Congo Being slightly more than 1° north of the Equator, Basankusu has a tropical rainforest climate. There is no real dry season, with monthly rainfall in the town ranging between averages of 69 mm and 213 mm, with most months at the higher end of that range. Average high temperatures over a year are between 30 °C and 33 °C, although throughout the day a high of 37 °C is not uncommon. Evening lows average around 20 °C. BASANKUSU : Climat, températures, précipitations, ensoleillement Being close to a major river and enduring frequent, heavy tropical rainfall, Basankusu is prone to the damaging effects of water. In July, 2010, the town was affected by flooding, Inondations à Basankusu: mille quatre cents sans abri with 1,400 people made homeless. Roads, which are all non-metalled, and bridges were also affected. Such frequent harsh weather conditions have an effect on the quality of life for local people. Waterborne diseases can become more prevalent, and the transport of goods, such as food, medicine, and trade goods, becomes more difficult. Commerce 260px thumb left The Catholic religious order, the Theresienne Sisters of Basankusu at a mass for the taking and retaking of vows at the temporary structure built while the new cathedral was being built, 2013. (File:Soeurs Thérésiennes de Basankusu.jpg) Basankusu is a centre for palm oil production and treatment. One company, Compagnie de Commerce et des Plantations (CCP), Compagnie de Commerce et des Plantations (CCP) produces palm oil from plantations of African oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) at nearby villages Lisafa and Ndeke. The factory at Lisafa is responsible for the treatment of the palm oil and production of soap. The plantation areas are as follows: 3,488 hectares (ha) of oil palms, and 372 ha given over to coffee. CCP - Palm Oil Production It is a major local employer, with almost 4,000 workers on its payroll. Although CCP is one of the successful businesses in the area, it is in dispute with village chiefs regarding land acquisition. Les Conflits Fonciers In 2010, a worker would earn an average monthly salary of $40 (US dollars), depending on output. Basankusu's distance from the capital Kinshasa and the recent upheaval due to the First (First Congo War) and Second Congo Wars have made trade with the outside world difficult. However, the distribution of local products, such as maize, cassava, rice, palm oil, peanuts, and rubber, is starting to increase as more river-boats make the journey from the capital. The frustration of local producers was brought to the attention of the press (News media) by Mlle (Miss) Jeanne-Marie Abanda, Director of Caritas Basankusu (Caritas (charity)), when she explained their difficulties in December 2009: The '''Lulonga''' is a river in the Equateur province of Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is about 200 km long from its beginning at the town of Basankusu. There the Lopori (Lopori River) and the Maringa (Maringa River) join to form the Lulonga. The Lulonga river flows into the Congo River at the town Lulonga.
693668 newspaper Milenio location Mexico City date April 13, 2010 accessdate May 24, 2011 language Spanish trans_title The oldest pre Hispanic tomb in Chiapas
language Spanish trans_title Chiapa de Corzo:Found multiple thousand year old burial The burial shows that many elements of Mesoamerican burials are older than previously thought. The archeological site lies just outside the urban sprawl of modern Chiapa de Corzo, but the city is growing over it and many areas known to contains ruins underground are encroached upon by modern homes and businesses. The discovery of the ancient tomb has prompted the Mexican government to buy more lands and extend the site by 7,200 square meters to one and a half hectares. Part of the site has been open to tourism since late 2009. The Sumidero Canyon was once the site of an epic battle between the Spainiards and Chiapanecan Indians. Many Chiapanecans chose to throw themselves from the high edges of the canyon rather than be defeated by Spanish forces. Today, the canyon is a popular destination for ecotourism. Visitors often take boat trips down the river that runs through the canyon and enjoy the area's natural beauty including the many birds and abundant vegetation. The Spanish introduced new crops such as sugar cane, wheat, barley and indigo as main economic staples along native ones such as corn, cotton, cacao (cacao bean) and beans. Livestock such as cattle, horses and sheep were introduced as well. Regions would specialize in certain crops and animals depending on local conditions and for many of these regions, communication and travel were difficult. Most Europeans and their descendents tended to concentrate in cities such as Ciudad Real (San Cristóbal de las Casas), Comitán, Chiapa (Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas) and Tuxtla (Tuxtla Gutiérrez). Intermixing of the races was prohibited by colonial law but by the end of the 17th century there was a significant mestizo population. Added to this was a population of African slaves brought in by the Spanish (Afro-Mexican) in the middle of the 16th century due to the loss of native workforce. Jiménez González, p. 30–31. The major center for ceramics in the state is the city of Amatenango del Valle, with its barro blanco (white clay) pottery. Jiménez González, p. 44. The most traditional ceramic in Amatenango and Aguacatenango is a type of large jar called a cantaro used to transport water and other liquids. Many pieces created from this clay are ornamental as well as traditional pieces for everyday use such as comals, dishes, storage containers and flowerpots. All pieces here are made by hand using techniques that go back centuries. Other communities that produce ceramics include Chiapa de Corzo (Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas), Tonalá (Tonalá, Chiapas), Ocuilpa, Suchiapa and San Cristóbal de las Casas. As a municipality, the city is the local government authority for eighty three other communities which cover a territory of 412.40km2. The three urban communities of the municipality are Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Copoya and El Jobo. However, all of the rural communities have populations of less than 600 and most have less than 200. Important rural communities include Emiliano Zapata (Agua Fría), La Libertad, Tierra Colorada, Lacandón, San Juan and San Vicente El Alto. It borders the municipalities of San Fernando (San Fernando, Chiapas), Osumacinta, Chiapa de Corzo (Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas), Suchiapa, Ocozocoautla and Berriozábal. - 024 Chiapa de Corzo (Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas) Chiapa de Corzo (Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas) -
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Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa (1312–1337) who expanded Mali influence over the large Niger city-states of Timbuktu, Gao
, Portuguese India and Timor issued war tax stamps. Scott volumes 4-6. '''Boe''' (full name '''Madina do Boe''') is a settlement in the southeastern region of Guinea-Bissau. In this location the independence of Guinea-Bissau was declared on September 24, 1973. Boe served as the Guinea-Bissau ''de facto'' capital until 1974, when Portugal offered independence to Portuguese Guinea after the Carnation Revolution
and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Muhammad Ture (Askia Muhammad) (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. ref name "multiple">
of the modern era. It seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 '''Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré''', or '''Sankore Masjid''' is one of three ancient centers of learning located
;Scott multiple" Scott volumes 4-6. After India attained independence in 1947, pro-Indian residents of the Portuguese overseas territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, liberated Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954. P S Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele, 1987, In 1961, São João Baptista de Ajudá
a large concession (Concession (contract)) with the rights to tax the inhabitants, taken in the form of rubber. The collection system revolved around a series of trading posts along the two main rivers in the concession – the Lopori (Lopori River) and the Maringa (Maringa River). Each post was commanded by a European agent and manned with armed sentries to enforce taxation and punish any rebels.
for heat. There were no trees or charcoal. We lived that way for two or three years.. source ''A Korean man recalling his experiences in Ushtobe''. width 29% align right Approximately 100,000 Koreans were deported to Kazakhstan and 74,000 were sent to Uzbekistan. Many Koreans were placed far from each other in isolation to prevent contact with each other. 34,000 Koreans were placed on the desolate outpost of Ushtobe, Kazakhstan with no food
and no shelter and were forced to survive on their own for almost three years. Thousands died of starvation, sickness and exposure during the first the first few years in Central Asia. Koryo Saram. Dir. Y David Chung and Matt Dibble. Prod. Meredith Jung-En Woo. 2006 The ethnic Kazakhs were essential during these first few years for the Koreans. They provided shelter and food to help the Koreans suffering from starvation and cold. ref
name "multiple" '''Sharof Rashidovich Rashidov''' (in Cyrillic (Cyrillic alphabet_variants#Uzbek) Uzbek (Uzbek language): Шароф Рашидович Рашидов ; in Russian (Russian language): Шараф Рашидович Рашидов ''Sharaf Rashidovich Rashidov'') ( - 31 October 1983) was a Communist Party leader in the Uzbek (Uzbekistan) Soviet Socialist Republic and a CPSU Central Committee Politbureau candidate member between 1961 and 1983
. Lienz On 28 May 1945, the British Army arrived at Camp Peggetz, in Lienz, where there were 2,479 Cossacks, including 2,201 officers and soldiers. They went to invite the Cossacks to an important conference with British officials, informing them that they would return to Lienz by six o’clock that evening; some Cossacks worried, but the British reassured them that everything was in order. One British officer told the Cossacks: “I assure you, on my word of honour as a British officer, that you are just going to a conference”. By then, British-Cossack relationships were friendly to the extent that many on both sides had developed emotions for the other. Deep down, a number of British soldiers felt sympathy and remorse for executing such treacherous operations, yet bureaucratic military obedience obliged them to follow higher order. The Lienz Cossack repatriation was exceptional, because the Cossacks forcefully resisted their British repatriation to the USSR; a Cossack noted: “The NKVD or the Gestapo would have slain us with truncheons, the British did it with their word of honor.” Later years In the 1980s, he was one of the founders of the Fundació Andreu Nin, which focused on the total rectification of the prestige of that eminent revolutionary and the clarification of the mystery of his death at the hands of the NKVD, and at the same time the defense of revolutionary Marxism and dialogue with all the tendencies of the socialist labor movement. Solano is the author of a biography of Nin, a history of the JCI, and numerous essays on the POUM, the exile of Spanish revolutionaries in France, and the problems posed by the fall of the USSR and the collapse of Stalinism. He was a major advisor to and collaborator on films such as Ken Loach's ''Land and Freedom'' and the documentary ''Operación Nikolai''. In Taganrog acted at least 2 Soviet partisans groups organized by NKVD before the Soviet troops left the city and in November 1941, Semion Morozov organized an underground resistance group (Taganrog resistance movement), which consisted mainly of young Komsomol members. The members of the two groups acted separately and were not permitted to go into contact Волошин В., Ратник В."Вчера была война. Таганрог в годы немецко-фашистской оккупации. Таганрог, "Лукоморье", 2008 . Biography Anna German was born in Urgench, a city with a 22-thousand population in northwestern Uzbekistan, USSR. Her mother, Irma Martens, was the descendent of Dutch Mennonites invited to Russia by Catherine II (Catherine II of Russia). Her father, Eugeniusz Hörmann, was an accountant of German descent, born in Łódź, Poland. In 1937 he was executed by the NKVD in Urgench on the charges of spying. Anna and her mother were deported to Kyrgyzstan. right thumb 320px '''Camp Zgoda''', main gate - monument (Image:Eintrachthütte gate.JPG) The '''Zgoda labour camp''' ( , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (w:Genrikh Yagoda). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (w:Yakov Agranov), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.