Places Known For

modern scholarship


Kingdom of Iberia

, that modern scholarship interpret as a semi-legendary narrative. Stephen H. Rapp. ''Studies in medieval Georgian historiography: early texts and Eurasian contexts'', vol 601. Peeters Publishers, 2003. ISBN 90-429-1318-5, 9789042913189. P. 275. "While P’arnavaz may in fact be a fabrication, it is more feasible that over time the memory of the historical P’arnavaz accumulated a legendary facade." One such chronicle, ''Moktsevai Kartlisai'' (“Conversion of Kartli”) mentions that a ruler named Azo (Azo (Georgian history)) and his people came from Arian-Kartli – the initial home of the proto-Iberians, which had been under Achaemenid rule until the fall of the Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire) – and settled on the site where Mtskheta was to be founded. Another Georgian chronicle, ''Kartlis Tskhovreba'' (“History of Kartli”) claims Azo to be an officer of Alexander (Alexander the Great)’s, who massacred a local ruling family and conquered the area, until being defeated at the end of the 4th century BC by Prince Pharnavaz (Pharnavaz I of Iberia), at that time a local chief (Category:Caucasian Iberia) Category:States and territories established in the 4th century BC Category:5th-century disestablishments Edward Gibbon, Volume II, Chapter XLII, discusses Iberia as one of the areas in the "Barbaric world" **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla I (Padla I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (881–893) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat I (890–912) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike I (Kvirike I of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (893–918) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Adarnase IV (Adarnase IV of Iberia) (888–923) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) *'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) *'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) *'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot II (914–928) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (918–929) **#Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Padla II (Padla II of Kakheti) (918–929) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - David II (David II of Iberia) (923–937) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Gagik I (Gagik I of Armenia) (989–1020) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Gagik I (Gagik I of Armenia) (989–1020) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Gagik I (Gagik I of Armenia) (989–1020) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Gagik I (Gagik I of Armenia) (989–1020) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **# Gagik I (989–1020) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - David (David of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **#Smbat II (977–989) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - David (David of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (976–1010) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Bagrat II (Bagrat II of Iberia) (958–994) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Ashot III (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **#Ashot III, King of Armenia (953–977) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) **'''Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia)''' - Abas I (Abas I of Armenia) (928–953) **'''Kingdom of Iberia''' - Sumbat I (Sumbat I of Iberia) (937–958) **'''Principality of Kakheti (Kakheti)''' - Kvirike II (Kvirike II of Kakheti), Prince of Kakheti (List of sovereigns of Kakheti) (929–976) Initially this territory was a province of Caucasian Albania :File:Aghuank.jpg "at that time part of the Caucasian Albanian state-lay in the northeastern part of the province of Hereti" http: upload.wikimedia.org wikipedia commons 6 64 Armenia%2C_Colchis%2C_Iberia%2C_Albania%2C_Etc.jpg :File:Caucasus 300 map alt de.png , until it ended its existence and united with Kolkheti and Svania to make up Kingdom of Iberia in around 4 BC. After that, the region was a separate kingdom within Georgian cultural and political influence. There are data that support the assertion that in the fourth to fifth centuries Hereti was already a political component of Georgia; this is corroborated by surviving Georgian cultural monuments dating to the sixth to eighth centuries. The territory took part in establishing united Georgian Kingdom after it was incorporated into Georgia (Georgia (country)) in the 8th century. For ages, the territory now called Saingilo has been a historic part of Georgia. During the medieval era what later became known as Saingilo was mostly controlled by the kingdom of Georgia. King of Armenia Valens was reluctant to bestow a royal title upon Pap in order not to violate an earlier treaty signed by Jovian (Jovian (Emperor)) in July 363. Valens dispatched his ''magister peditum praesentalis '' Arintheus to Armenia just as Shapur invaded the country in pursuit of Pap who was hiding near the Roman frontier in Lazica. Meanwhile Terentius restored Sauromaces (Sauromaces II of Iberia) to the throne of Iberia (Kingdom of Iberia), but the king appointed by the Persians, Aspacures (Mihrdat III of Iberia) retained control of the eastern part of that kingdom. Instead of going after Pap, Shapur concentrated his attack on the now long besieged fortress of Artogerassa which fell in the winter of 370, the royal treasure was captured by the Persians and Pap's mother Queen Parandzem raped and murdered. Shapur also began systematically persecuting the local Christians by forcing apostasy to Mazdaism, a form of Orthodox Zoroastrianism.


Classical Athens

by Euripides. Some critics since the 17th century have argued that one of the tragedies that the classical tradition gives as Euripides'—''Rhesus (Rhesus (play))''—is a 4th-century play by an unknown author; modern scholarship agrees with the classical authorities and ascribes the play to Euripides; see Walton (1997, viii, xix). (This uncertainty accounts for Brockett and Hildy's figure of 31 tragedies.) We have complete texts extant (Extant literature) by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15). The theory that ''Prometheus Bound'' was not written by Aeschylus adds a fourth, anonymous playwright to those whose work survives. right thumb Head of a kouros (File:NAMA Head of a Kouros.JPG) from Athens, dated to around Solon's time. '''Solon''' ( , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


Roman Kingdom

The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city. Roggen, Hesse, Haastrup, Omnibus I, H. Aschehoug & Co 1996 Romulus became the source of the city's name. Livy, 1998. pages 10-11. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women. Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens (The Rape of the Sabine Women), leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines. Myths and Legends- Rome, the Wolf, and Mars. Retrieved 2007-3-8. Initially, Rome was ruled by kings (Roman Kingdom), who were elected from each of Rome's major tribes in turn. Matyszak, 2003. pages 16-42. The exact nature of the king's power is uncertain. He may have held near-absolute power, or may also have merely been the chief executive (Chief executive officer) of the Senate and the people (SPQR). At least in military matters, the king's authority (''Imperium'') was likely absolute. He was also the head of the state religion (Religion in ancient Rome). In addition to the authority of the King, there were three administrative assemblies: the Senate (Roman Senate), which acted as an advisory body for the King; the Comitia Curiata (Curiate Assembly), which could endorse and ratify laws suggested by the King; and the Comitia Calata (Roman assemblies), which was an assembly of the priestly college that could assemble the people to bear witness to certain acts, hear proclamations, and declare the feast (Festival) and holiday schedule for the next month. The Roman Republic Roman authors would also use the word ''res publica'' in the sense of the era when Rome was governed as a republic, that is the era between the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Empire. So in this case ''res publica'' does distinctly ''not'' refer to the Roman ''Empire'', but to what is generally described as the Roman Republic. The specific reference to poppies occurs in Livy's account of the tyrannical Roman King (Roman Kingdom), Tarquin the Proud (Lucius Tarquinius Superbus). He is said to have received a messenger from his son Sextus Tarquinius asking what he should do


Anjou

(the Mezzogiorno), contemporaneously called Kingdom of Sicily but called Kingdom of Naples by modern scholarship, went to Charles II (Charles II of Naples) of the house of Anjou (Capetian House of Anjou), who had likewise been ruling it. Thus, the peace was formal recognition of an uneasy ''status quo''. Despite the king of Spain were able to seize both the two crowns starting from the XVI century, the administrations of the two halves of the Kingdom of Sicily remained separated until 1816, when they were reunited in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (for the history regarding the continental half of the kingdom, see: '''Kingdom of Naples'''). Occitan literature started in the 11th and 12th centuries in several centres. It gradually spread out thence, first over the greater portion, though not the whole of southern France, and then into Catalonia, Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), Castile (Castile (historical region)), Portugal and into what is now the north of Italy. At the time of its highest development (12th century) the art of composing in the vulgar tongue did not exist, or was only beginning to exist, to the south of the Alps and the Pyrenees. In the north, in the country of French speech, vernacular poetry was in full bloom; but between the districts in which it had developed, Champagne (Champagne (province)), Île-de-France (Île-de-France (province)), Picardy and Normandy and the region in which Occitan literature had sprung up, there seems to have been an intermediate zone formed by Burgundy (Burgundy (region)), Bourbonnais, Berry (Berry (province)), Touraine and Anjou which, far on in the Middle Ages, appears to have remained almost barren of vernacular literature. The '''House of Anjou''', usually referred to simply as the '''Angevins''' ( Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


Colchis

Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59 For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi


Kingdom of Naples

, called the "Kingdom of Sicily beyond the Lighthouse" or the Kingdom of Trinacria, went to Frederick III (Frederick III of Sicily) of the house of Aragon, who had been ruling it. The peninsular territories (the Mezzogiorno), contemporaneously called Kingdom of Sicily but called Kingdom of Naples by modern scholarship, went to Charles II (Charles II of Naples) of the house of Anjou (Capetian House of Anjou), who had likewise been ruling it. Thus, the peace was formal recognition of an uneasy ''status quo''. Despite the king of Spain were able to seize both the two crowns starting from the XVI century, the administrations of the two halves of the Kingdom of Sicily remained separated until 1816, when they were reunited in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (for the history regarding the continental half of the kingdom, see: '''Kingdom of Naples'''). Pinkney served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1788 to 1792 and then again in 1795, and served as a U.S. Congressman from the third district (United States House of Representatives, Maryland District 3) of Maryland in 1791 and from the fifth district (United States House of Representatives, Maryland District 5) from 1815 until 1816. He was mayor of Annapolis from 1795 to 1800, Attorney General of Maryland from 1805 to 1806, co-U.S. Minister to the Court of St. James (i.e. Great Britain) (with James Monroe) from 1806 to 1807; they negotiated the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty, which was rejected by President Thomas Jefferson and never went into effect. Pinkney was Minister Plenipotentiary (Diplomatic minister) from 1808 until 1811. He then returned to Maryland, serving in the Maryland State Senate in 1811. In 1811 he joined President James Madison's cabinet as Attorney General. He was a major in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812 and was wounded at the Battle of Bladensburg, Maryland in August 1814. After the War, he served as Congressman from the fifth district (United States House of Representatives, Maryland District 5) of Maryland from 1815 to 1816. After serving in Congress he became the U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary to Russia (History of Russia) from 1816 until 1818, along with a special mission to the Kingdom of Naples. He served as a U.S. Senator from Maryland from 1819 until his death in 1822. He is buried at the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, DC. footnotes * The duchy was a client state of, in order, the Latin Emperors (Latin Empire) at Constantinople, the Villehardouin dynasty of princes of Achaea (Principality of Achaea), the Angevins (Capetian House of Anjou) of the Kingdom of Naples and (after 1418) the Republic of Venice. From 1566–79, the duchy was administered as a part of the Ottoman Empire before total annexation. On 15 May 1702 the Powers of the Grand Alliance (Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)), led by England and the Dutch Republic, declared war on France and Spain. Emperor Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) also declared war on the Bourbon powers, but his forces under Prince Eugene (Prince Eugene of Savoy) had already begun hostilities in northern Italy along the Po Valley in an attempt to secure for Austria the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Eugene’s successful 1701 campaign had aroused enthusiasm in England for war against France, and helped Emperor Leopold’s efforts in persuading King William III (William III of England) to send an Allied fleet to the Mediterranean Sea. Count Wratislaw (John Wenceslau Wratislaw von Mitrowitz), the Emperor’s envoy in England, urged that the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would effect a revolution in the Spanish province of Naples (Kingdom of Naples); win south Italy from the precarious grip of Philip V (Philip V of Spain); overawe the Francophile Pope Clement XI; and encourage the Duke of Savoy (Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia) – and other Italian princes – to change sides. Trevelyan: ''England Under Queen Anne: Blenheim,'' p. 262 More modestly, Prince Eugene pleaded for a squadron to protect the passage of his supplies from Trieste across the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea). The Roman presence in Monte San Biagio's territory is testified by the presence of a mausoleum attributed to Emperor Galba, a native of the area, but which probably belonged to Sextus Iulius Frontinus, who had a great villa in the vicinity. The Romans defeated the Samnites here, at the Passo della Portella: in the place a fortified gate was built, which was later used as the border customs of the Kingdom of Naples. Nearby is a watchtower from the period of Pope Sixtus V. 244px thumb right See Naples and die (File:ViewofNaplesBay.jpg)! ~ Anonymous '''Naples (w:Naples)''' (Italian: '''Napoli''' ˈnaːpoli , Neapolitan: '''Nàpule''' ˈnɑːpələ ; Latin: '''Neapolis'''; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city"), is a historic city in the southern (w:southern Italy) part of the Italian peninsula (w:Italian peninsula). It is currently the capital of the Province of Naples (w:Province of Naples) and the Campania (w:Campania) region. It was previously the capital of its own kingdom, the Kingdom of Naples (w:Kingdom of Naples) and then Two Sicilies (w:Two Sicilies). It is one of the largest cities in Europe (w:Europe) in terms of population with a figure of around 1 million people, but much more in the metropolitan area.


Kingdom of Sicily

), was the first queen regnant to reign over both the Crown of Castile (1504–55) and the Crown of Aragon (1516–55), a union which evolved into modern Spain. ''Fueros, observancias y actos de corte del Reino de Aragón''; Santiago Penén y Debesa, Pascual Savall y Dronda, Miguel Clemente (1866), page 64 Besides the kingdoms of Spain, she also ruled the kingdoms of Sardinia (Kingdom of Sardinia), Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily), and Naples (Kingdom of Naples) in Italy; a vast colonial empire in the Americas (Spanish Empire); and was Countess of Burgundy and the consort of the Burgundian Netherlands, thus initiating Spanish interests there. She was the last monarch of the House of Trastámara and her marriage to Philip the Handsome (Philip I of Castile) initiated the rule of the Habsburgs (Spanish Habsburg) in Spain. Throughout most of her long reign she was under the regency (regent) of either her husband, father or son, and she was long confined to a nunnery under the pretense of mental illness. thumb upright William II offering the Monreale Cathedral (File:WilliamIIOfSicily.JPG) to the Virgin Mary. '''William II''' (1155 – 11 November 1189), called '''the Good''', was king of Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) from 1166 to 1189. William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard (Lombardy) cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa (Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor). In the ''Divine Comedy'', Dante (Dante Alighieri) places William II in Paradise. He is also referred to in Boccaccio's ''Decameron'' (tale V.7). '''Ferdinand I''' (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825) reigned variously over Naples (Kingdom of Naples), Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily), and the Two Sicilies (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) from 1759 until his death. He was the third son of King Charles III of Spain (also King of Naples and Sicily) by his wife Maria Amalia of Saxony. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his elder brother, Ferdinand VI (Ferdinand VI of Spain), as King Charles III of Spain. Treaty provisions made Charles unable to hold all three crowns. On 6 October 1759, he abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand (Charles's eldest son Philip (Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria) was mentally retarded and the second son, Charles (Charles IV of Spain), became the heir to the Spanish throne). Ferdinand was the founder of the Two Sicilies (House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies) branch of the House of Bourbon. ALTERNATIVE NAMES Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto, Ferdinando; Ferdinand III of Sicily; Ferdinand IV of Naples SHORT DESCRIPTION King variously


Northern England

Her mother, had started work as a tightrope walker and juggler in Bertram Mills Circus. There she had met her father, who was a welfare officer for the Grimsby Dock Labour Board (National Dock Labour Board). After leaving school she worked in a fish and chip shop in Cleethorpes before training at the Arts Educational School in Golden Lane, London. She left the school shortly before her course finished to take the title role in 'Cherryripe and the Lugworm Digger', which was the first in the series 'Seven Faces of Woman' for ITV. Julie Peasgood CV **As has been mentioned repeatedly, notability is not the issue here. --Kizor (User:Kizor) 12:31, 4 April 2006 (UTC) *'''Restore and improve'''. Yes better sources would be nice, but The Game is phenomenally popular. I first heard about it through b3ta a while ago. Then I remember when I started at university someone "lost the game". I wouldn't be exaggerating to say that almost half the people in the room (who before that week had never even met each other, and came from all over the country) knew what he was talking about. And of course the rest do now. The Cambridge facebook group for "The Game" has 973 members, making it one of the largest groups. Unfortunately non-members can't see


Goryeo

, with Hwaeom's accommodating attitude toward the latter. Gyunyeo's works are an important source for modern scholarship in identifying the distinctive nature of Korean Hwaeom. Another important advocate of Seon Gyo unity was ''Uicheon''. Like most other early Goryeo monks, he began his studies in Buddhism with the Hwaeom school. He later traveled to China, and upon his return, actively promulgated the ''Cheontae'' (天台宗, or ''Tiantai'' in Chinese) teachings, which became recognized as another


Ming dynasty

the Jiajing Emperor (r. 1521–67) persecuted Buddhism in favor of Daoism at court Wylie (2003), 470. Wang & Nyima (1997), 1–40. Others argue that the significant religious nature of the relationship with Tibetan lamas is underrepresented in modern scholarship. Norbu (2001), 52. Kolmaš, 32.<


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